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No. LXXin.-VOL. VII 
NEW SERIES.-NO 



."} AUGUST 1, 1866. 



PRICE Is. 
VOL. I. 



THE 



TECHNOLOGIST: 



|lec0rlr 0f ^aence, 



ITS 



PROGRESS, LITERATIIJaE, AND PRACTICAL 
APPLIAI^ 




To OoB Readers 

The 'Needle-Gcn (Zundnadelgewehr) 

Tbe Atla:stic CabJuE {With JUustratious) 

Petroleum as Fueu By Col. Jdlius W.' Adams. With Ilias 

trations) 

Tbe Laryngoscope 

On the Nature of Electricity. By K. Laming, M.K.C.S. 

The Lumber Trade of Toledo 

The Wine Crop of New South Wales 

O&ERVATIONS ON THE PRESENT StATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OP 

^the Genus Cinchona. By John Eliot Howard, F.L.S. 

Rl^IEWS 

Colonial Notes 

Obituary 

LONDOK : 
KENT & CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 



All Communications ani Book^ for Review to he oAdressed to the Editor, 
care of M-'Gowan and Banks, 16 Grmt Windmill mreei, W., Uaymi.rket. 



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THE TECHNOLOGIST : A EECORD OF SCIENCE. 



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THE 



TEOELNOLOaiST: 

A REGOI^D OF SCIENCE. 



August, 1866. 



TO OUR READERS. 

WITH this number we enter on the seventh year of 
our existence, and commence not only a new 
volume, but a NEW Series. 

At such a time it is but natural to pause a few moments 
to thank our old subscribers, and inform them of our plans. 
It will be seen at a glance that several changes have been 
effected. We now print the journal in new type on better 
paper. And in order to afford space for further improve- 
ments, we have ventured to increase the number of our 
pages by nearly a hundred in the volume. This will 
enable us to add to our periodical an account of the doings 
of our learned societies, as well as afford space for 
Reviews and Notices of Books, a department which 
we intend to conduct in the most careful and impartial 
manner. The Editorial staff has been considerably in- 
creased, and no effort will be spared to make the TECHNO- 
LOGIST what it now professes to be, a RECORD OF 
Science, its progress, literature, and practical applications. 

We beg the reader to observe that this is not a mere 
money-making periodical ; its conductors do not regard it 
in the light of a commercial speculation. Consequently 
they will be amply satisfied if their proposed improve- 
ments shall increase the circulation sufficiently to defray 
the extra expense incurred by the enlargement of this 
New Series. They can therefore confidently appeal to 

NEW series. — VOL. I. B 



2 The Needle Gun. 

their old friends to aid them. If each will obtain for us 
an additional subscriber, our future will be secured. Large 
promises are sometimes misconstrued. We need only add, 
therefore, that we wish not only to sustain, but increase 
the value of our Journal, and the greater our success the 
more constant will be our endeavours to deserve it. 



THE NEEDLE-GUN. 

{Ziindnadelgewehr) 

THE war v/hich has so recently deluged Europe with 
blood has brought one topic into strong relief. The 
terrible power of slaughter possessed by the Prussians in 
their boasted Ziindnadelgewehr, has made the needle-gun 
a subject of interest in every circle. What then, is the 
instrument of death which has enabled the Prussians to 
carry every thing before them } First of all, it is a breech- 
loader, and those who examined the question when it was 
so popular, sixteen years ago, will not be surprised to learn 
that it enables the soldier to fire much more rapidly than 
he could with any muzzle-loader. But the needle-gun is 
more than this — its charge is all in one, so that it avoids 
the loss of time caused by capping. Besides these two 
qualities, it possesses the important one of consuming its 
charge backwards. The advantage of this is that the 
whole of it is consumed in the barrel, and its force spent 
upon the ball. The name is derived from the means of 
ignition — a stout wire (the needle), which starts forward 
when the trigger is pulled, passes through the hinder part 
of the cartridge, and strikes a fulminating substance in the 
seat of the papier-mache base of the rifle ball. Much as 
dispensing with the percussion-cap accelerates the speed of 
firing, it is probably due to this fact that the needle-gun has 
been rejected by many competent judges ; for such a rifle 
must be considered more liable to accidents. Gunpowder 
by itself is safe enough, and we can scarcely be surprised 
that the idea of combining all the explosive elements in 
one charge was con.sidered a dangerous innovation by 
our Board of Ordnance, as well as by other authorities. 



The Needle Gun. 3 

Nor can we join in all the denunciations of our official 
slowness to adopt a new arm in face of the fact, that at 
present only one nation has armed itself with this weapon. 
At the same time, the superiority of breech-loaders has 
been so attested by experience, that we may approve the 
decision to supply our troops with guns of this kind as 
rapidly as possible. It is far from certain that the needle- 
gun is the best of its kind. Not a few judges condemn it 
as clumsy and insufficient — far surpassed by many other 
models that we may easily employ. It is freely stated 
that the composition of the fulminating substance has been 
kept a secret by the Prussian Government, and that to 
this cause is to be attributed the reluctance of others to 
use it. We believe it to consist of 52*5 of chlorate of 
potassa, 29-5 antimony, and 18 of sulphur. Such a com- 
position would, indeed, affiord a terribly explosive material, 
but a good deal of gas would result, and this is found to 
be the case in using the needle-gun, a fact that accounts 
for the Prussian soldiers resting it on the hip to fire, and 
further accounts for its having been rejected in England on 
account of the officer's coat who fired it having been 
injured from this cause. It is interesting to remember that 
the idea of a breech-loader is by no means new. At the 
beginning of the century, the Great Napoleon offered a 
premium for a useful gun of this description, and one was 
actually completed for him, and rejected by his officers as 
unsatisfactory. One of the workmen of the maker of this 
failure, who had studied chemistry under the great Ber- 
thollet, watched the experiments with great interest, and 
after the reverses of the Emperor's fortune, returned to 
Prussia, of which he was a native, and there occupied him- 
self with the subject, until, having obtained the assistance 
of competent men from the Government, he produced an 
arm satisfactory enough to have 60,000 ordered, and in 
1 841 given out to the army. His name was Dreyse, and 
it was only after several trials he was thus successful. The 
apparent extravagance of this order was defended in a 
Royal decree, the words of which will be noted with 
peculiar interest in the light of recent events. Here they 
are : — 

" The rifle.d Ziindnadelgewehr is, according to our present 
conviction, the perfection of military arms, and its practical 
introduction will, doubtless, lead to its adoption in all 
branches of the service. The result of numerous experi- 
ments made us appreciate this invention as a special dis- 

B 2 



4 The Needle Gun. 

pensation of Providence for strengthening our national 
resources ; and we cherish the hope that the system may 
be kept secret, until the great part which it is destined to 
play in history m^y couple it with the glory of the Prussian 
arms and the extension of the empire." 

This was as long ago as 1841. In 1865, Prussia possessed 
660,000 of these guns, and was able to turn out more than 
100,000 a year at the Royal arsenals. 

Perhaps the most surprising part of the story is the 
indifference of the Austrian officers who must, during the 
Danish campaign, have had abundant opportunity of 
acquainting themselves with its advantages. The value of 
the repeating rifles employed by the Americans in their 
civil war seems to have been equally neglected. True, the 
march of science in improving the instruments of death 
has been wonderfully rapid. But this is only a reason why 
England should be ever on the watch to avail herself of 
every improvement as the necessity of retaining her high 
place among the nations. 

Many are the stories that have been freely circulated 
about this weapon. We have given an outline of what is 
vouched for as its correct history. We can scarcely err in 
adding an extract from a recent publication, cautioning the 
reader to accept it cum grano salts : — 

" It is well known to be the produce of the long study and per- 
severance of an English officer who, while stationed at a solitary 
outpost in Canada, amused his leisure hours with experiments in 
the rough construction of a substitute for the rifle which he had 
damaged by letting it drop down a precipice while in pursuit of a 
bear. It was almost by accident that the discovery became pal 
pable to the solitary hunter in the woods. But no sooner did it 
become manifest to hi<^ senses than he resigned his commission 
in the army, returned to Europe, and, as a matter of course, 
hurried to the War-office with his invention, certain of its adop- 
tion in the English army, from its evident superiority over the 
old-fashioned weapons now in use. For more than a year was 
the inventor kept in suspense, as the Enfield rifle met him at 
every turn. He was bandied about from one official to another 
during all this time, merely to be told at last that the Government 
did not feel disposed to alter the principle of the arms employed. 
It was then that in disgust he brought his invention to Paris, and 
by even a more bitter mockery of fate than in London, he 
obtained an interview with the Emperor, who listened with the 
greatest interest to the description of the gun, examined the 
plans and sections brought by the officer, much questioned the 



The Needle Gun. 5 

superiority of the invention over others which had been laid 
before him, declared it seemed to him Hable to the objection of 
being too deHcate for field use, and abrupty sounded the little 
gong which stands upon his bureau, and slightly rising when the 
usher entered at the summons, dismissed the visitor to admit 
other importunates. It was then that, with the undaunted perse- 
verance of inventors in general, he betook himself, armed with 
his needle-gun, to Holland, whose Sovereign had always mani- 
fested great interest in the advancement of gunnery, and who 
had first become the purchaser of a steel caulker to repair instan- 
taneously the damage caused by the enemy's shot in ships' sides, 
which, being the invention of a poor carpenter's journeyman, had 
nevertheless found its way into the Royal presence, and been 
accepted without the smallest attempt at bargaining. But, when 
arrived at the Hague, he found that his resources had dwindled 
away to such an extent that he was compelled to delay his pre- 
sentation to the King for want of proper costume to appear in. 
Meanwhile, he became accidentally acquainted with one of the 
gentlemen attached to the Prussian Legation at the Hague, and 
to whom he recounted his bitter grievances. This time he was 
listened to with interest. The brother in-law of his new friend 
held some appointment at the Court of Berfin. War and revolu- 
tion were already floating through the air. He saw at once all 
the advantage which might accrue from being the first to present 
a new and valuable instrument of destruction to Bismarck, so 
determined to destroy, and he lost no time in repairing with the 
Englishman to Berlin. Here the way was open — the hour had 
come, the needle-gun was tried, examined, and accepted in the 
shortest possible space of time, the inventor handsomely rewarded, 
and encouraged to establish himself in Prussia. We have seen 
the result in this terrible encounter with the Austrians. The odds 
in favour of the needle-gun are easy enough to calculate. The 
Prussians can fire three rounds a minute ; if four minutes' march 
be the usual time allotted for a bayonet charge, the Austrian foot 
soldier must have stood four-and-twenty shots before he could 
have a chance of meeting the enemy hand to hand ; and, should 
he give way to take his full spring forward, he must of necessity 
have been struck down. With such certainty of destruction as 
that provided by the needle-gun, all question of right and justice 
becomes unnecessary." 

Having spoken of its awkwardness, and to some extent, 
considered the objections that have been urged against it, 
we have much pleasure in appending in its favour the 
opinion of Mr. Ernest Seyd, who thus writes : — 

" A great misunderstanding appears to exist in reference 
to the Prussian needle-gun, arising no doubt from the fact 
that specimens of the real gun are scarce in this country. 



6 The Needle Gun. 

" The principle of the ' needle ' is one entirely apart from 
either breach-loading or muzzle-loading. It may be used 
with advantage in either case. 

** Ever since we have abolished flint-locks, the system of 
discharging firearms by percussion has been in vogue ; and 
very few gun makers outside of Prussia have turned their 
attention successfully to other methods of ignition. All 
the other breech-loaders, even the newest American guns, 
use percussion, and ignite their charge either by a hammer, 
as in the Enfield and Mount-storm, or by bolts, as in the 
case of the modern ' central fire ' fowling pieces. Mark 
the importance of this defect ; for in order to render 
this system of discharge effective, the blow of the hammer 
or push of the bolt must meet with resistance, so that the 
detonating mass may be pressed between two hard sub- 
stances, hence the necessity of employing cartridges partly 
made of copper or brass. 

" One of the new American guns, deservedly admired for 
the rapidity of its action, actually requires a cartridge made 
entirely of copper, like a huge ' Ely's ' buUeted cap, and 
although it is supposed that the central fire-brass and card- 
board cartridge may be used instead, yet, even in that case, 
the objection of having a half burned remnant of paste- 
board and metal case and cap in the gun, after the discharge 
holds equally good. In the heat of successive firing these 
hard substances may become wedged in the gun, and 
thereby render its action useless. 

"The Prussians have gathered experiences in this subject. 
However well a breech-loading percussion gun may be con- 
structed, the discharged cartridge ejected by a spring, or by 
other means, in actual practice on a large scale, the objec- 
tion will be found a very serious one. 

" The discharge by a ' needle ' is quite a different princi- 
ple. No force is required beyond that of sending the 
abruptly sharpened point of a strong needle into the deto- 
nating substance. This detonating substance may be 
placed on a piece of paper, and when struck with a point of a 
knife will explode. No metal case or cap is required to 
afford resistance, as is the case of ' percussion ' guns. 

" Imagine the old flint-lock barrel, with the flint, steel, and 
pan discarded ; imagine a cartridge inserted through the 
muzzle, if you like, with a small detonating pill at the side 
corresponding with the small aperture in the barrel — a 
needle pushed in there with a sharp motion, would discharge 
the gun ,; or^imagine the detonating mass as being at the 



The-Needle Gun. 7 

end of the cartridge, an aperture being in the centre of 
the breech, a needle inserted quickly would have the same 
effect. (Needham's needle-guns are the nearest approach 
to this description). Now, it is obvious that there is con- 
siderable danger in this placing the detonator outside the 
cartridge. The Prussians, therefore, place it inside — namely, 
at the base of the bullet, or rather in a papier-mache sabot, 
between the bullet and the powder. The Prussian car- 
tridge consists of the bullet in front, the sabot, with the 
ziindspiegel (contained in a round cavity i-6th of an inch 
diameter) and the powder behind, the whole being confined 
in strong combustible paper. This compact cartridge is 
placed in the barrel, the needle enters through a fine open- 
ing behind, pierces the paper, passes through the powder, 
and striking its point, the ziindspiegel or detonating disk, 
ignites it and the powder. 

" Mark the advantages of this process. No great force is re- 
quired, the action of the needles is straight and easy, and after 
firing the whole of the cartridge is gone,thepapercovering(in 
ammunition made of the proper material) being consumed 
by the discharge, No pasteboard case or metal cap re- 
quires to be withdrawn or ejected ; and if (as it sometimes 
may occur in wet weather, or with paper not combustible 
enough) pieces of ashes remain, they may either be blown 
out with the mouth, or left in the breech without hindering 
the next discharge. 

'' The plan of igniting the powder in front (just behind the 
bullet), instead of from behind, as in all other guns, has a 
considerable advantage of its own. The powder burns 
backwards, and, resting against the breech, every grain is 
consumed before the bullet leaves the barrel. 

" Where the powder is ignited from behind, burning for- 
*ward, as in all other muzzle or breech-loaders hitherto in- 
vented, a considerable portion of it is ejected before it has 
time to ignite. Sportsmen and those who use the Enfield 
rifle must be aware of this. Notice the muzzle of an En- 
field when being fired, you will observe the numerous grains 
of powder exploding in tiny clouds outside the barrel. 

'' These are the general principles upon which ' percussion 
guns ' (muzzle or breech-loaders) and ' needle-guns ' differ 
from each other. 

" Now, as was said before, the * needle ' system is applic- 
able both to muzzle-loaders and to breech-loaders. The 
officers of the Prussian army use a six-shooting revolver, a 
muzzle-loader, inasmuch as the cartridges are inserted into 



8 The Needle Gun. 

the muzzle of the chamber, discharging by a needle ; the 
muskets or rifles of the ordinary soldiers are, however, 
breech-loaders. It so happens that the needle is very suit- 
able to breech-loaders. 

" There are numerous modifications of the mechanism of 
the breech of a needle rifle. The details of the newest 
adoption it would be difficult to describe without drawings. 
The arrangement is, however, exceedingly simple, strong, 
and efTective. 

" A cylinder of about four inches long closes the breech, 
being held tight by a projection leaning against a wedge- 
like hoop at the bottom of the barrel ; a lever attached to 
the cylinder assists in wedging or unloosening and with- 
drawing it. Inside this cylinder is a needle passing through 
a fine aperture at the top. The needle is projected by a 
spiral spring (much like those in toy guns) held or released 
by an elastic steel bar, upon which the trigger acts. The 
whole arrangement is much more simple than that of 
percussion locks, and much less liable to get out of order. 

" The notion that the needle is a delicate affair has gained 
ground. The needle in the first place, is not a ' sewing ' 
needle, but a stout piece of wire with an abruptly sharpened 
point ; it is entirely enclosed in the cylinder, and comes 
into contact with nothing but the soft cartridge. Certain- 
ly, if a piece of stone was put into the breech the needle 
might break against it, but a stone in a percussion breech- 
lock would have an equally damaging effect. 

*'The general advantages of breech-loaders rapidity of 
fire need not be described. 

"The writer is thoroughly familiar with the needle-gun, 
and he and his friends have had considerable practice with 
needle weapons of several kinds. The manifold notions, 
opinions, and descriptions which are expressed in this 
country in reference to the needle-gun are often very wrong 
and frequently ridiculous. The objections made by the 
authorities, by gunmakers, and the partisans of the Enfield 
(justly proud of so excellent a weapon of its kind) are 
based upon imperfect acquaintance with the principle of 
the gun. 

" It has been described by a West-end paper as rough, 
unfinished, unsightly, and uncouth, with indifferent ammu- 
nition, &c. The most elegantly finished guns, of any size 
or weight, fowling-pieces, revolvers, pistols, &c., are made 
in Prussia. The ammunition is compact and never failing. 
The writer has fired many shots, and never had a cartridge 



The Needle Gun. g 

missing fire ; last week he fired off sixty cartridges which . 
for two years had been lying in a damp place. 

" It is said the barrel heats after seven or eight shots. 
Every one acquainted with guns will know that barrels will 
become warm with successive discharges. The 'needle- 
gun ' is actually less liable to heating, because it uses less 
powder in its peculiar mode of firing. 

" It has been said that gas escapes from the breech. This 
can only take place in imperfectly constructed pieces. The 
double edge of the cylinder is wedged tightly into corres- 
ponding spaces in the barrel, and closes air-tight, the 
needle itself, thickening towards the centre, passes through 
a felt-packing, secured by perfected screws, and closes the 
aperture entirely. Moreover, the powder itself, igniting 
backwards, protects the opening until it is burned to the 
breech, so that the moment of pressure upon, the aperture 
is infinitesimally short. 

" The gun is said to become foul rapidly. As every 
succeeding shot cleans the barrel, it remains bright; the 
cylinder certainly becomes a little discoloured, but never 
fouls. The writer has fired hundreds of shots out of the 
same gun without cleaning it. 

" The accuracy of the gun at long ranges has been ques- 
tioned. An Enfield range at 690 or 1,000 yards, for rifles 
accurately sighted to a foot, does not afford a good field to 
a foreign rifle sighted on a different plan, in an at random 
and crowded sporting match. The Prussian riflemen, on 
their ranges, make as good a practice at long distances as 
the Enfield riflemen on an Enfield range. 

" Other theories have been advanced against the gun. It 
is said, for instance, that it can only be fired eight or nine 
times a minute, while certain American breech-loaders can 
be fired twenty times. You cannot fire any gun twenty 
times a minute without heating it excessively. The 
Spencer rifle is much lauded on account of its rapidity. 
Why have the United States rejected it ? Rapidity of 
fire, &c., is not the only qualification necessary to an effi- 
cient weapon of war, as campaigns only can prove. 

'' In conclusion, it may be observed that the Prussian 
Government, the most intelligent and active in such 
matters, has tested breech-loaders of all kinds, for the 
last twenty-five years. It actually discarded needle-guns 
after the first five years of trial, and took again to Minie 
rifles. Since 1858, however, the needle-gun has been so 
much improved, and has established its efficiency in cam- 



lo The Atlantic Cable. 

paigns so conclusively, that it may well claim to be the 
most perfect weapon in existence. This perfection is due 
to the ' needle ' system of ignition. The mechanical ar- 
rangement of the breech might possibly be improved upon 
although it is difficult to see where the improvement is to 
come from. 

" This is written pro honoris causa. The writer would be 
pleased to show his guns, &c., to gentlemen wishing to 
inspect them." 



THE ATLANTIC CABLE. 

THE progress of the Great Eastern is being watched 
with the utmost anxiety by the general public, as 
well as by those who have ventured their money in this 
new attempt to unite the old and new world. At the time 
we are writing the great ship with its precious freight is 
traversing the deepest part of its course, and we are quite 
sensible that could we defer our article a few days later, 
we might adopt an exultant strain or be compelled to 
lament some untoward accident which had again postponed 
our hopes. Joining, then, most cordially in the sincere 
wishes that accompany the Great Eastern^ and meet her 
half way from the other side, we take the opportunity of 
the interest excited to glance at some of the scientific 
problems involved in this undertaking. 

It was shown as long ago as 1858 that it is quite pos- 
sible not only to lay a cable in deep water, but to lift it 
from the bottom. Then we have the fact that one cable 
has already been completed, and several messages compris- 
ing upwards of 4,000 words have been transmitted across 
the Atlantic. Its failure afterwards was most likely due to 
electric faults before it was laid, and these with the new 
appliances can scarcely again escape detection. Then 
came the failure of last year caused by damage done to the 
insulation of the conductor as it left the ship. To guard 
against this every effort will no doubt be made ; besides 
which arrangements have been made to enable the ship at 
any moment to put back and haul the cable in again. Up to 
the present the cable continues to be paid out satisfactorily. 



1 he Atlantic Cable. ii 

and nothing can be more encouraging than the reports that 
the insulation improves daily. 

A cable in the process of being laid at a uniform speed 
forms an inclined straight line from the surface of the sea 
t-o the bottom, so that each part moves along one side of 
an isosceles triangle, the other equal side of the triangle 
being the line along the bottom which that part of the 
cable will occupy when laid. The angle between these 
e jual sides shows the inclination of the cable in the water 
in the process of laying, so the transverse component of the 
cable's weight in the water is equal to the transverse com- 
ponent of the resistance of the water to its motion. The 
tension where it enters the water is equal to the weight of the 
whole length of cable hanging vertically down to the bot- 
tom. Thus in laying last year's cable at the depth of two 
miles, the ship going at the rate of six miles an hour, and 
the rate being seven miles an hour, the resistance to the 
egress of the cable, which should have been 2Z cwt., was in 
reality only 14, owing to the frictional resistance of the 
water. Similar calculations have been made to show that 
at two miles depth the length of the cable forming the in- 
clined plane from the ship to the bottom was about seven- 
teen miles. While this fluid resistance thus greatly assists 
the laying by diminishing the strain, it offers scarcely any 
obstruction to the reverse process of hauling in should that 
become necessary, provided the speed of raising the cable 
do not exceed about one mile an hour. These consi.lera- 
tions are of importance on account of the plan of the pre- 
sent expedition to raise and complete last year's cable as 
well as lay the new one. 

There is no reason in science why this should not be 
done. Indeed, dynamics are quite as encouraging as the 
facts of last year's attempt to raise it. The experience then 
gained, with stronger tackle and the improved machinery, 
presided over by eminent and practical scientific men, will, 
we trust, ensure the success of the attempt of 1866. 

Once laid there is reason to anticipate brilliant results. 
The gutta percha generally improves under water as it is 
now doing. The faults that have occurred to deep sea 
cables result from the joints, or from some imperfection in 
the manufacture, but so great excellence has been attained, 
that we may confidently anticipate the line once laid will 
not soon wear out. The Calais and Dover line, laid in 185 1, is 
now in working order. 

The following account of the differences between the 



12 



The Atlantic Cable. 



three Atlantic cables is a fair illustration of the progress 
made in the manufacture of deep sea cables. 

1858. 

Conductor — A copper strand, consisting of seven wires 
(six laid round one), and weighing 107 lbs. per nautical 
mile. 

Insulator — Gutta percha laid on in three coverings, and 
weighing 261 lbs. per knot. 

External protection — Eighteen strands of charcoal iron 
wire, each strand composed of seven wires (six laid round 
one), laid spirally round the core, which latter was pre- 
viously padded with a serving of hemp saturated with a 
tar mixture. The separate wires were each 22J gauge, the 
strand complete was No. 14 gauge. 

Weight in air — 20 cwt. per nautical mile. 

Weight in water — 13*4 cwt. per nautical mile. 

Breaking strain — 3 tons 5 cwt, or equal to 4*85 times its 
weight in water per nautical mile ; that is to say, the cable 
would bear its own weight in a little less than five miles 
depth of water. 

Deepest water to be encountered, 2,400 fathoms, or less 
than 2j nautical miles. 

The contract strain was equal to 4*85 times its weight 
per nautical mile in water. 

Length of cable shipped — 2,174 nautical miles. 




1865. 

Conductor — Copper strand consisting of seven wires (six 
laid round one), and weighing 300 lbs. per nautical mile, 
embedded for solidity in Chatterton's compound. Gauge 
of single wire '048 == ordinary 18 gauge. Gauge of strand 
•144 = ordinary No. 10 gauge. 

Insulation — Gutta percha, four layers of which are laid 
on alternately with four thin layers of Chatterton's com- 
pound. The weight of the entire insulation 400 lbs per 
nautical mile. Diameter of core '464, circumference of 
core 1*392. 

JExternal protection-"— Ten solid wires of the gauge '095 



The A llaniic Cable. i 3 

(No. 13 gauge), drawn from Webster and Horsfall's homo- 
geneous iron, each wire surrounded separately with five 
strands of Manilla yarn, saturated with a preservative com- 
pound, and the whole laid spirally round the core, which 
latter is padded with jute yarn, saturated with preservative 
mixture. 

Weight in air — 35 cwt 3 qrs. per nautical mile. 

Weight in water — 14 cwt. per nautical mile. 

Breaking strain — 7 tons 1 5 cwt., or equal to eleven times 
its weight in water per nautical mile ; that is to say, the 
cable will bear its own weight in eleven miles depth of 
water. 

Deepest water to be encountered — 2,400 fathoms, or less 
than 2^ nautical miles. 

The contract strain is equal to eleven times its weight 
in water. 

Length of cable shipped — 2,300 nautical miles. 





1866. 

Conductor — Copper strand consisting of seven wires (six 
laid round one), and weighing 300 lbs. per nautical mile, 
embedded for solidity in Chatterton's compound. Gauge 
of single wire '048 = ordinary 18 gauge. Gauge of. strand 
•144 = ordinary No. 10 gauge. 

Insulation — Gutta percha, four layers of which are laid 
on alternately with four thin layers of Chatterton's com- 
pound. The weight of the entire insulation 400 lbs. per 
nautical mile. Diameter of core '464, circumference of 
core 1*392. 

External protection — Ten solid wires of the gauge -095 
(No. 13 gauge), drawn from Webster and Horsfall's homo- 
geneous iron, and galvanised, each wire surrounded sepa- 
rately with five strands of white Manilla yarn, and the 
whole laid spirally round the core, which latter is padded 
with jute yarn, saturated with preservative mixture. 

Weight in air — 3 1 cwt. per nautical mile. 



?4 



Petroleum as Fuel. 



Weight in water-— 14! cwt. per nautical mile. 

Breaking strain — 8 tons 2 cwt, or equal to eleven times 
its weight in water per nautical mile ; that is to say, the 
cable will bear its own weight in eleven times depth of 
water. 

Deepest water to be encountered — 2,400 fathoms, or less 
than 2\ nautical miles. 

The contract strain is equal to eleven times its weight 
per nautical mile in water. 

Length of cable shipped to complete both lines — 2,730 
miles. 
















PETROLEUM AS FUEL. 
BY COL. JULIUS W. ADAMS. 

THE difficulty hitherto has been in attempting to burn 
the crude petroleum, that the imperfect combustion 
alone attainable by the means in use, has resulted in great 
waste of the material, as shown by the dense smoke which 
invariably accompanied all attempts to burn it in a con- 
fined space. This, and the difficulty of regulating the feed, 
have hitherto prevented a successful application of this 
material as a fuel in the generation of steam in boilers. I 
am well aware that it has occasionally been accomplished 
on a small scale, but no experiments that I have knowledge 
of, have exhibited anything like the requisite command of 
the material in feeding the fire, or certainty in its use as a 
fuel. This remark is made in full knowledge of what has 
been accomplished in this direction by Messrs. Linton and 
Shaw, as well as by Mr. Richardson in England. This 
difficulty has, I think, been successfully overcome in the 
experiments conducted for the Petroleum Light Company, 



Petroleum as Fuel. \ 5 

New York, and the crude petroleum, without other fuel 
than the chips for kindling the fires, has been burnt under 
a marine boiler, in a course of experiments extending from 
the month of May last, and proves more manageable, more 
under the control of the fireman, and develops an amount 
of heat greater than any fuel with which we are acquainted. 

Mr. George W. Quintard, of the Morgan Iron Works, 
having offered us the use of a Marine boiler for our experi- 
ments, we applied our apparatus to it, without regard to 
any disproportion which might exist between the two ; 
further experiments being needed in order to determine 
their precise relative dimensions. The experiments thus 
far have not extended beyond the determination of the 
fact that Petroleum may be used with great facility as a 
fuel under steam boilers, by a single fireman of ordinary 
intelligence. No minute analysis has been made of its 
comparative economy — the results thus far being regarded 
as merely general ; but from the results herewith shown, 
you will be enabled to determine how far our experiments 
sustain the claim we have advanced or having successfully 
applied this material to steam boilers. 

The boiler used was an internal flue and return fire-tube 
boiler, the shell measuring thirteen feet and nine inches in 
length, by six feet in diameter, with a grate-surface of 
thirty-five square feet ; contents about fifteen hundred 
gallons of water to the level of six inches above the upper 
line of tubes. There were three flues in the boiler, the 
centre one, P, of 16 inches diameter, and the other two, R, 
of 12 inches diameter. The boiler was not set as repre- 
sented in figures i, 2 and 3, which is the method recom- 
mended ; but rested merely on three walls of the dimensions 
of the furnace walls. There were five rows of 2\ inch fire- 
tubes, as shown in figure 2, being 75 tubes in all ; the back 
connection being 15 inches by 3 feet 5 inches, and the 
smoke stack 30 inches in diameter. The boiler was un- 
clothed. Fig. I represents the plan of the furnace, show- 
ing the arrangements of the retort or mixer, and the oil 
and steam-tubes. Fig. 2 is a cross section of the boiler 
through the furnace, and figure 3 is a longitudinal section 
through the centre of the boiler and furnac The same 
letters refer to the same parts in the several figures. 

The fire bars were removed, and in their place a coil of 
three-quarter inch wrought iron pipe. A, was inserted, the 
total length of pipe in the coil being twenty-three feet ; at 
the back, directly across the furnace, a wrought iron tube, 



i6 



Petroleicm as Fuel. 



B, or retort, five inches in diameter, and closed at both 
ends, was placed, with a short tube, C, of two inches 
diameter immediately in front of it. Into this latter tube 
(which communicates with the retort)one end of the coil is 
inserted, and the other end, D, passing out of the furnace 
door, communicates with the reservoir of oil, being in 
this case the cask in which it was brought to market. The 
flow of oil is regulated by a stop-cock, M, placed near the 



RKIPKRElSrCKS. 



A. Coil of Pipe from the Oil 

Reservoir. 

B. Retort or Mixer. 

C. Short Connecting Pipe. 

D. Pipe leading to Oil Reservoir. 
F. Burners, 90 in number, l-16th 

inch each. 
O. Steam Pipe. 
& If. Steam Valves. 
M. Oil Valve. 
Jtf. Tubes into which are screwed 

the Burners. 
P. Large Flue of Boiler. 
B B. Smaller Flues of BolU r. 



Fig. 2 



•Figd. 





ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo^ 
ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo ' 
ooo ooo ooo ooo ooo 
ooooooooooooooo, 
ooo OOP ooo ooo oooj 




^ 



furnace door. Some eight inches under the coil of pipe lie 
ten one-inch wrought iron tubes, N, closed at one end, the 
other end inserted into the retort ; these tubes lie parallel 
to each other, and are two feet three inches in length, and 
into each of them is tapped nine cast iron burners, F, with 
one-sixteenth inch opening, making in all ninety burners. 
An inch above the plane of the coil, a wrought iron pipe, 
G, proceeds direct from the short tube in front of the retort 



Petroletim as Fuel, 



17 



into which the coil is* inserted, to the furnace door, and 
thence to the steam space of a small auxiliary boiler ; a 
branch, with proper valves, K, connects this pipe with the 
steam space of the main boiler — the flow of steam being 
also regulated by a stop-cork, H, placed in the vicinity of 
the furnace door, near the oil cock. 



Fig, 3. 




The water in the boiler being cold (sixty degrees), at 
fifteen minutes past two p.m., some billets of pine wood 
and shavings, weighing about twelve pounds, being placed 
pon 1 the coil, near the furnace door, were lighted and the 
door partially closed ; after an interval of fifteen minutes 
the oil cock, M, was gradually opened, which permitted a 
flow of oil from the reservoir through the coil ; simultaneous 
with which, or a little later, the steam cock, H, was opened, 
which conveyed steam of about twenty pounds pressure 
from the auxiliary boiler, through the heated steam pipe, 

NEW SERIES.— VOL. I. C 



i8 Petroletmi as Fuel 

G, above the coil, to the retort or mixer, B, where combining 
with the vapour of oil from the coil, it passes into the 
straight pipes, TV, under the coil, F. The flame was vivid 
and intense, regulated in its force by the relative flow of oil 
and steam, and was entirely under the control of the fireman 
who, at his pleasure, could reduce the flame to the flicker 
of an expiring lamp, or extend it by a single movement to 
a volume filling the large flues and furnace with its flame 
No smoke or unpleasant smell was perceptible, and the 
combustion was complete and entirely manageable. Steam, 
at atmospheric pressure, was raised in the boiler in twenty- 
nine minutes from the time of admission of oil into the 
coil. No measure was taken in this experiment of the 
amount of water evaporated ; the apparatus not being con- 
sidered as properly proportioned to exhibit the economical 
value of the fuel, and the experiment terminated in one 
hour by closing the oil cock, M — and the fire was out. 

The analysis of this experiment may be shown as follows. 
As this experiment only exhibited the weight of oil 
which consumed under the boiler, raised a given quantity 
of water from a temperature of 60*^ to the boiling point, it 
is requisite for a comparison with the known effects of an- 
thracite coal, to show the proportionate amount of oil 
which would be necessary to convert this same bulk of 
water into steam of the atmospheric pressure, or the weight 
of water which a pound of this fuel will convert into steam. 

According to Tredgold, the quantity of fuel which will 
convert a cubic foot of water, of a given temperature, into 
steam, at the pressure of the atmosphere, is obtained by 
multiplying the quantity of fuel which will heat a cubic 
foot of water one degree, by the sum of the latent heat of 
steam, and the difference between 210 deg. and the given 
temperature of the water. In this case, 212 deg. — 60 deg. 
3=152 deg. The latent heat of steam, according to Dr. 
Ure, is 967 deg., which added to 152 deg. = 1,119 deg., 
which multiplied by the quantity of fuel which will heat a 
cubic foot of water one degree, will give the weight of fuel 
requisite to convert a cubic foot of water from the tempera- 
ture of 60 deg. into steam. This product multiplied by the 
number of cubic feet of water to be converted into steam, 
will give the total amount of fuel required in this case. 

Making the proper allowance for the pine wood in light- 
ing fires, the weight of oil consumed in the experiment was 
sixty pounds ; the contents of the boiler was 200 cubit feet 
at a temperature of 60 deg., which was heated by this 



Petroleum as Fuel. 19 

weight of oil to the boiling point — 212 deg. ; thus the 
weight of oil which was requisite to heat one cubic foot of 
water one degree was \^^;„ =^"h9 pounds ; and the weight 
of oil which was requisite to heat one cubic foot of water 
07ie degree was l^='OOi9 pounds. This multiplied 
by 1,119 deg.= 2,i26, and this by the 200 cubic feet of 
water in the boiler gives 425 pounds, as the weight of oil 
which would convert tJie contents of the boiler into steam at 
the atmospheric pressure — or2oo + 6 2-3 4 = 29'33 pounds, as the 
weight of water at a temperature of 60 deg., which will be 
converted into steam by 07te pound of oil. From Isher- 
wood's valuable experiment on marine boilers, — we find 
this same type of boiler in use on board of the United 
States steamers — and from the mean of the experiments 
conducted on these boilers, we find the quantity of water 
evaporated from a temperature of 1 00 deg. with steam at 
the pressure of the atmosphere by one pound of anthra- 
cite coal, to be 8'5 pounds. To compare this with the 
evaporation made from a lower temperature of water by 
means of the oil, this weight must be reduced in the follow- 
ing ratio, established by Isherwood :|6| Jg+i|^,deg._jor|^ 

0*964, Hvhich multiplied by 8*5, gives 8'i6 as the weight 
of water at 60 deg., converted into steam of atmospheric 
pressure by one pound of anthracite coal. 

Comparing this result with that above shown for the pro- 
duct of the combustion of oil, we find the evaporating power 
of the two fuels to be in favour of the oil, in the ratio of 
29"33 to 816, or 3-6, weight for weight ; the coal and the 
oil occupying about the same space for a given weight. 
That is to say. a cubic foot of coal as stowed aboard ship, 
will weigh about the same, or a little less, than a cubit foot 
of oil, the first weighing from forty-three to fifty-two pounds, 
and the latter about fifty-four pounds to the cubic foot. 

Further experiments, with improved apparatus, will be 
necessary in order to determine the precise economic value 
of this fuel in comparison with coal, but the advantages of 
the oil as a fuel for marine engines may be briefly summed 
up as follows :— - 

Rapidity with which steam may be raised — reduced 
dimensions of boiler and furnace below that required for coal 
— the continuous firing effected by feeding the fuel through a 
pipe into the furnace, thereby preventing the great loss of 
heat in the furnace every time a fresh supply of coal is 
thrown on, and the rush of cold air upon the opening of the 
furnace doors — the freedom from smoke, cinder, ash, or re- 

C 2 



20 The Laryngoscope. 

fuse of any kind, wliich in coal reaches from seven to over 
sixteen per cent, of the whole amount. In the ability to 
command a forced fire almost instantly, without a forced 
draught, which, under some circumstances at sea, is of vital 
importance. In dispensing with the numerous class of coal 
heavers, stokers, &c., and all the inconvenience of raising 
clinkers and ash from the furnace rooms ; and finally the 
diminished space occupied in the storage of the fuel 



THE LARYNGOSCOPE. 



ALL really useful discoveries seem to have been long 
foreshadowed before they actually appeared in a perfect 
form. It is interesting to follow that gradual development of 
ideas, which ultimately results in a new means of prosecut- 
ing scientific inquiry, and the disputes to which this 
frequently gives rise form an amusing episode in our 
scientific progress. These remarks will be aptly illustrated 
by our sketch of the history of the laryngoscope — an 
instrument which, as its name implies, enables us to see the 
interior of the larynx or wind-pipe, as well as some other 
parts hitherto hidden from the sight. The instrument 
itself is very simple, and the principle on which it depends 
easily understood. It is in fact, neither more nor less than 
the employment of a small looking glass to reflect light 
into the dark cavity. Take a tube of any kind, an ordinary 
bottle covered w^ith paper, a wax vesta box, or a piece of 
paper rolled up and set upright on a table, will answer the 
purpose. This represents, for the time being, the human 
wind-pipe. Drop into it any small articles. • These cannot 
be seen so long as the eye remains on a level with them. 
Now take a small piece of looking-glass, fix this to a rod, 
a pen-holder will do well. By holding the mirror over the 
tube in such a way as to allow the light to fall directly 
upon the mirror, the small articles you have dropped into 
the tube, will be seen clearly. We have often seen much 
amusement produced by the offer to discover the nature of 
anything dropped into a tube of this kind by another 
person. At first it seems almost incredible — the readiness 
with which things are detected. 

Now, this simple contrivance is an exact representation 
of the laryngDscope, and shows us how we may employ 
reflected light to study the movements in the throat, by 



The Laryngoscope. 2 1 

which the modukitions of the human voice are effected. 
Any one curious on the matter has only to seat himself 
before a large looking-glass, and hold at the back of his 
own throat, a little mirror of this description ; arranging 
his position as to the Hgiit, he may then really see inside his 
own wind-pipe. Or he may get a friend to seat himself 
before him, and allow him to try to look down his throat, 
but this is more difficult : 1st. because the light cannot be 
so easily directed ; 2nd. because the experimenter is more 
likely to tickle his friead's throat too much. These diffi- 
culties are overcome by a little contrivance and a little 
practice. Thus, instead of daylight a lamp may be used, 
and with this, a condensing lens to throw the light into 
tae person's mouth; by this means more light is obtained 
for use — the throat is, in fact, brilliantly illuminated, and if 
this be done in a dark room, a little patience will enable 
any one, by means of the small laryngoscopal mirror — 
which, \:>Y the bye, must be warmed, otherwise the breath 
will instantly condense upon and obscure it — to see the 
interior of the throat. It is not at all surprising that 
medical men should be the foremost to avail themselves of 
this meth'od of investigatioii. It is to them, in fact, we 
owe the instrument, as we do so many other valuable dis- 
coveries, and they have already found it of great service 
in discovering and curing disease. 

About 1858 and 1859 the German medical journals con- 
tained numerous allusions to experiments going forward at 
the hospitals at Vienna, with a view of looking into the 
interior of the wind-pipe, and in i860, Professor Czermak, 
of Prague, published a small volume, entitled, " Der 
Kehlkopfspiegel," in which he describes this instrument as 
he had then perfected it and gave the results of his in- 
vestigations. Indeed, although fully acknowledging the 
merits of Garcia who had long preceded him,^ as well as 
others, Czermark put forth a claim to be considered the 
inventor, though not in the sense, of him who first conceives 
and partially carries out any practical application of the 
idea which may be originated elsewJtere. This claim in spite 
of the utmost opposition, he has, to a great extent, made 
good, for to him the medical faculty owes the practical use 
of the instrument in the discovery and treatment of dis- 
ease, and he has accumulated more important information 
on this branch, than any other experimenter. This aspect, 

* " Observations on the Human Voice," '* Philosophical Trans- 
actions. 



2 2 The Laryngoscope. 

however, cannot in a purely scientific periodical, absorb 
our attention. Czermak's book brought other claimants 
into the field, each endeavouring to establish their own 
priority. The principal of these was Dr. Turck, of Vienna, 
from whom Czermak had really borrowed the instruments 
at the beginning of his researches and this after Turck 
seems to have laid aside the idea as of no great value. 

A very pretty quarrel for some time raged among the 
German professors, and it is particularly amusing to note 
how in the end it turned out that others had been at work 
at the same subject, with varying success, and somewhat 
gratifying to note that our English scientific experimenters 
were by no means behindhand. 

As early as 1856, Dr. Prosser James seems to have dis- 
covered some disease in the throat by this method — " a 
warmed reflector was placed in the back of the throat, and 
light directed upon it."* This was at least two years before 
the observations of the German professors. But long 
before this, Liston, the leading London surgeon of the last 
generation, had advised " such a glass as is used by dentists 
on a long stalk, previously dipped in hot water, introduced 
with its reflecting surface downwards," as a 'means of 
inspecting the throat.t A more recent worker on this sub- 
ject, Dr. Mackenzie, has had the pleasure of demonstrating 
in the year 1864, that a fellow countryman, the late Dr. 
Babington constructed an instrument which he called a 
" glottoscope," and exhibited it at one of the learned 
societies in 1829. This instrument is a very perfect one of 
its kind, and shows that after all Dr. Babington invented 
the laryngoscope, although he, like others, allowed his dis- 
covery to slumber for years. We have now done justice to 
the curious history of this discovery, and leaving the medi- 
cal profession to work out its practical applications, confine 
ourselves to the scientific part of the subject. To trace this 
we go back to the already cited " observations " of Garcia. 

This industrious observer was deeply interested in the 
modulations of the human voice, and this prompted him to 
make the valuable experiments and discoveries described 
in his contributions to the " Philisophical Magazine." He 
thus describes his mode of proceeding : — 

** The method I have adopted is very simple ; it consists 
in placing a little mirror, fixed on a long handle suitably 

* " Sore Throat and the Laryngoscope," by M. Prosser James, 
M.D., Senior Physician to the City Dispensary, &c. p. 139. 
f Liston's " Practical Surgery," 1840, p. 417. 



The Lary7igoscope, 23 

bent, in the throat of the person experimented on, against 
the soft palate and uvula. The party ought to turn him- 
self towards the sun, so that the luminous rays falling on 
the little mirror may be reflected on the larynx. If the 
observer operate on himself, he ought, by means of a second 
mirror, to receive the rays of the sun and direct them on the 
mirror which is placed against the uvula." 

The description is simple and complete, and the method 
in Garcia's hands was abundantly fruitful. All the present 
instruments are merely improvements in detail to enable 
the observer to carry out easily these directions. 

By this means Garcia was able to show that in a state 
of rest, that is while breathing quietly, the opening between 
the vocal cords (called the glottis) remains quiet and 
widely open. That, during deep chest sounds and shrill 
vocal noises the epiglottis or bridge over the wind-pipe 
wliich closes in the act of swallowing is more upright. 
That the two upper bands (commonly called superior vocal 
cords) which cross the wind-pipe have no influence on the 
voice ; but that this is produced by the two inferior bands 
(true vocal cords) which may be distinctly seen vibrating 
w^ith degrees of rapidity varying with the tone. The 
higher the pitch the more rapid are the vibrations of these 
two vocal cords. Such results as these were surely suffi- 
cient to establish the reputation of the experimenter, and 
great must have been his gratification at being able not 
only to peep into the hidden parts of our curiously con- 
structed frame, but to actually see with his own eyes those 
parts engaged in the work for which they were expressly 
made. We may now watch with kindred feelings the mode 
in which the voice is actually produced, but perhaps our 
emotions can never be such as we may imagine those of him 
who first gazed on the hidden portions of the machinery of 
life in action. 

The reader who is anxious to see for himself the points 
here described should not be discouraged by the first 
failure. Neither let him blame his instruments for what 
they are probably not in fault. His greatest difficulty will 
be his own want of care. Let him first of all experiment 
on himself, he will be much more likely to avoid tickling 
his own throat by the mirror than he would that of a friend, 
besides, it is scarcely fair to expect a friend to subimt 
to the necessarily unpleasant sensation, until he has 
acquired sufficient dexterity to reduce it to a minimum.. 
The beginner will be able at his first sitting to make out 
the epiglottis, that draw-bridge which enables the food to 



24 The Laryngoscope. 

pass over the wind-pipe into the gullet. In a minute or 
two he will see the back surface of this, and, breathing 
quietly and gently, thoroughly examine its shape, not un- 
like that of a leaf. He may now turn the face of the 
reflector upwards and make himself acquainted with the 
hinder surface of the curtain which hides part of the throat 
from view. 

This may suffice for the first lesson. To see the inside 
of the wind-pipe needs a little more tact. Proceeding as 
before, he must place the mirror as far back as possible in 
his throat with the reflecting surface downwards. As soon 
as the posterior surface of the epiglottis is well defined, by 
very slightly moving the mirror so as to throw the light 
more dowrwards he will accomplish the next stage of his 
progress. Perhaps for a moment only a large dark hole 
appears, with brightish edges. That is the opening of th(. 
wind-pipe. A little more light, or a slight movement so as 
to reflect the light directly down into this hole and the vocal 
cords are instantly seen — especially if he should be making- 
some vocal sound — their vibration at such a time being- 
very distinct. The whole art of laryngoscopy is now 
acquired. It is easy enough to give utterance to a series 
of musical notes while holding the mirror in the throat, and 
intensely interesting to watch the rapid vibrations of the 
cords vary with the position, in the musical scale, of the 
notes uttered. This having been done, the study is not 
likely to be abandoned. Friends may now be fairly in- 
vited to join in the prosecution of the work, and it is very 
easy, by proper arrangements of looking-glasses to enable 
a whole party to witness the production of voice sounds in 
the living man. As to instruments, and many patterns are 
to be purchased at moderate prices, we advise the beginner 
to content himself with the most simple. Complexity 
seldom adds to efficiency, and the most elaborate apparatus 
wall never serve the purpose of a little tact and patience. 
There is plenty of opportunity for new observers to dis- 
tinguish themselves. Beyond the domain of medicine but 
slight progress has yet been made, though we predict for it 
a rapid growth. The works already cited will supply 
valuable hints, but no amount of instruction will be of 
service without a strict attention to the few simple points 
we have mentioned. It is the same with the microscope 
and other instruments, attention to preliminaries ensures 
success. But the laryngoscope is altogether simpler than 
the microscope, and, once the steps we have indicated 
taken, becomes altogether easy to use. 



25 



ON THE NATURE OF ELECTRICITY. 
By R. laming, M.R.C.S. 

WHAT is that marvellous agency which conveys our 
messages along a thousand miles of wire in fewer 
seconds than by the fleetest mail they could be carried in 
days ; which, if dispatched westward on a journey to the 
Antipodes to day would arrive there yesterday, beating in 
its speed the velocity of time ? That laughs to scorn the 
clumsiness of the best artisans in overlaying with the noble 
metals those of baser sort, furnishing our side-boards, at 
the cost of a few pounds with useful garniture, perfect in 
appearance as the silver it economises and more secure 
from misappropriation ? That performs at our bidding 
numerous other feats of importance which, but an age or 
two ago, would have been thought possible only to 
professors of the black art ? And of which — greatest 
mystery of all! — the public at large, professors and utilita- 
rians together, pretend to know not even the nature ? 
What is electricity ? Cannot something be done by way 
of answering the question ; for it is impossible to believe 
the universal ignorance is willingly submitted to, or that 
the world would long treat it with indifference if men could 
only be made aware of the possibility of dispelling it. 

If any one who has just made himself acquainted with 
chemistry, as it is taught now in the year of grace, 1866, 
will take the trouble to compare what he knows with the 
chemistry as propounded by Professor Thomas Thomson 
in the " Encylopaedia Brittanica " of 1803, he will probably 
be astounded at the transition of the science in so short a 
time from a state of unpromising obscurity into one per- 
fectly satisfactory in its perspicuity ; so vastly does it differ 
from what it was some half century ago — not only in its 
extent, but in the character of its information — in the 
minute detail with which its new facts are continually 
being added to its now abounding stores, and in the 
rigorous scrutiny of the facts on which their reciprocal 
relations are worked out by inductive reasoning. Now, 
what it is instructive for us to remark is, that all this 
change has been consequent on a single mental conception, 
sudden, of course, in its occurrence as all new ideas must be, 
given unexpectedly to the world by an amateur chemist, 
then a poor teacher of mathematics, though afterwards 
aggrandized by an university and made independent by 



26 On the Nature of Electricity. 

the Civil List ; who, by one act of sagacity, as by a fairy's 
wand, turned a scientific wilderness into a garden, and the 
disorder of its material things into a numerical system. 
When Dalton conceived the happy idea, imputing to all 
the particles of elementary matter definite combining pro- 
portions, denoted by weight, in which, or their multiples 
only, they could combine to form compounds ; he, in effect, 
did more for chemistry than any one had done before him; 
for, by that simple expedient study has been deprived of 
half its labour and students introduced to a view of corpus- 
cular action eminently suggestive of further inroads into 
the apparently complicated mazes of physical science. 

What the state of chemistry was before the days of 
Dalton, such is the state of electricity at the present time, 
in one respect, while in every other its condition is worse. 
It has an unbounded attraction with which electricians can 
do nothing ; with other forces in abundance all necessary 
for correcting it in one way or other, and in the real exist- 
ence of which no one believes. It is the universal convic- 
tion that something is fundamentally wrong in our 
electrical theories which must be set right before electricity 
as a science will advance a single step ; and the amend- 
ment, whatever it may be, must come in the shape of an 
accidental conception which we are tired of waiting to have 
suggested, and yet ho ve no means of hastening. Mathe- 
maticians have ascertained that an unlimited force of 
electrical attraction needs to be accompanied by a force of 
electrical repulsion ; and we have been taught accordingly 
to say that while electricity and matter attract one 
another, the particles of electricity separate by repelling 
each other. Facts had previously suggested the two 
antagonizing forces, for they were originally associated in 
the theory of the celebrated Benjamin Franklin, who had 
not used them long before they were perceived, by our 
neighbours on the Continent, to be incompetent to meet 
the requirements of observation, which demanded two 
forces of electrical attraction and as many of electrical 
repulsion. This addition, objectionable enough as a repre- 
sentation of nature, obviated one of the chief defects 
of the more simple theory ; and, therefore, philosophers, 
professing to be led by their reason, had no alternative but 
to acknowledge the four forces, and thus accepted the 
French theory of Dufay. But, in course of time, as the 
observation of electrical facts extended, even that compli- 
cated system of attractions and repulsions became impotent 



On the N attire of Electricity. 27 

to do what was required of it ; and electricians of repute 
now lay it aside in disgust as extremely deficient, though 
they have nothing to turn to that is any better. While 
they have been deploring the barrenness of electrical theory 
and, for its improvement, conceiving additions of new 
forces or of new properties of force, adding evil to evil ; an 
amateur has suspected that perhaps the electrical attrac- 
tion was too large, and required — like chemical affinity — 
to be made definite ; and who, working out the idea, has 
found it to dispense with the necessity of electrical repul- 
sion, and also with the duplicated system of Dufay, which, 
by departing further from truth, had made a- notable im- 
provement on the one electricity of Franklin ; in short, it 
has enabled him to conceive a competent theory of electri- 
city in which there is no force but attraction acting between 
electricity and matter in definite proportions, and between 
the particles of electricity themselves universally and at all 
distances ; thus, while making electrical doctrine infinitely 
more comprehensive tban it was before, approaching it 
very closely to the simplicity which we always expect to 
find at the basis of all nature's operations. This extreme 
amount of simplification may have been unexpected, but 
it should not create surprise as our whole experience 
abounds with minor examples of the necessity of adjuncts 
for patching up means originally deficient ; it is only when 
means are from the first adequate that they need neither 
addition nor curtailment ; and it is in efficiency, combined 
with such perfection, that we have the only indication of a 
correspondence with nature. Science may depict her in 
too broad an outline as well as in too narrow a one, and 
when such is the case the remedy for the defect is to paint 
the portrait out and begin anew. 

It ought to be much more extensively known than it is, 
that electricity — the imponderable element of obsolete 
chemistry, and, it may still be said, of our present schools 
— has been weighed in the balance and found heavy. It 
is easy to understand that if its particles attract one another 
at all distances as alleged, they, being, as we know, univer- 
sally distributed in matter, must be a cause of universal 
gravitation ; sufficing to be its only cause, provided their 
allotment to the varieties of matter, correspond in quan- 
tity with the respective weights, and which is quite within 
the bounds of probability. In the year 1838 an experi- 
ment was made in Paris to show the ponderability of 
electricity by suspending it, with proper precautions, from 



28 On the N attire of Electricity. 

the arm of a balance ; under the scrutiny of those well- 
known philosophers, Becquerel, Savary, and Pouillet, 
all members of the French Academy of Sciences ; 
of which learned body the first-named was at the time 
president, and the two latter deputies, appointed to act 
on its behalf The deputies, who alone were present 
at the first exhibition of that experiment, after causing it 
to be repeated some half dozen times, acknowledged its 
unquestionable success ; and evinced their surprise at the 
result by immediately reporting it to their president, who, 
within a few minutes, while the apparatus was still undis- 
turbed, arrived with M. Edmond Becquerel to request 
permission to observe it also. M. Becquerel testified to the 
correctness of the report he had received, and sponta- 
neously added, " It is a magnificent experiment." But, 
notwithstanding this official and equally important extra- 
official evidence, the result has been only privately circu- 
lated, and from that moment to the present, refused a 
public recognition, by those through whom the experimen- 
ter had calculated on its being made known to all the 
world ; he had not foreseen that an experiment which 
demonstrate the non-existence of a second electricity, or 
that puts it, if existing, in the same category as \\i^ phlogis- 
ton of the old French chemistry by making it a negation 
of weight, could never be agreeable to the national taste, 
however much it savoured of truth ; a motive for reticence 
which he might at the time have thought it uncharitable 
to impute, but which he was soon taught to regard as the 
true one by a Parisian professor, himself a member of the 
Academy, who had the courage to charge his colleagues 
with it in full assembly. By turning to the " Comptes 
Rendus " for 1839, vol. i' V^Z^ 830, we may find the text of 
the impeachment ; of which the following is a correct 
though abbreviated translation, the names being suppressed 
for very allowable reasons : — 

" This manuscript from the other side of the channel was 
returned to the Academy by a committee consisting of 
MM. Savart, Savary and Pouillet, with a note that no 
report would be made. The apparatus was constructed 
and put in action by the inventor, in the presence of MM. 
Savary and Pouillet, and also of M. Becquerel who came 
to witness the experiment in his private capacity. Its 
object was to weigh electricity which the experimenter re- 
garded not as composed of two different fluids, but as a 
simple material, ponderable by attracting its own particles. 



Oil the Nature of Electricity. 29 

The Academicians, witnesses of the experiment, appear to 
consider the proofs as unanswerable ; M. Becquerel declares 
the fact to be established in a manner not to be contested ; 
so writes the English electrician ; and I, desirous of having 
the statement confirmed, have consulted M. Becquerel 
whose declaration is positive. Notwithstanding that they 
adhered to the consequences of the experiment on the 
weight of electricity it was necessary for such high 
authorities as the Academicians named to arm themselves 
with doubt ; they could fall back upon their opinions, or 
upon antecedent inductions, or upon the character of the 
fact experimented upon ; they might rest upon such reflec- 
tions, and in the mean time continue to scrutinize particular 
branches of electricity. How could they be sure that the 
induction of electrical ponderability was true ? &c.," 

" It is true that the experiment which has been witnessed 
puts an end to the doctrine of Dufay, who first constructed 
the theory of two electricities ; but that savant will still be 
glorious in the estimation of futurity for having preceded 
and installed Buffon. A true experiment made with care 
ought to be allowed the credit of arresting science running 
on in a false way ; one cannot deny the legitimacy of its 
■despotic power to reopen all questions and to reform them ; 
but this experiment has passed through the two academies* 
the most celebrated in Europe entirely unacknowledged. 
And though I may not call upon the too great academic 
corporations to reconsider a decision, I may at least invoke 
persons who have taken no part in it to remain philo- 
sophically circumspect touching the experiment in question; 
particularly now that it is beginning to be held in estimation, 
and above all has the high recommendation of M. Becquerel." 

This one step in the right direction directly indicates 
another of far greater importance to doctrinal electricity, 
namely, the limited nature of the electrical attraction. The 
argument by which it may be arrived at is a short one, and 
simply this : as the elements of matter have specific weights, 
and electricity is the cause of those weights, it follows that 
the elements of matter have specific quantities of electricity. 
Now, if we admit the electrical attraction to be definite, and 
trace the definite action in accordance with the simple re- 
quirements of mechanical philosophy, we shall immediately 
make intelligible the causes and natures of a diversity of 

'^ The experiment had been proposed for submission to the 
Royal Society and declined. 



30 The L^imber Trade of Toledo. 

electrical phenomena that have waited until now for their 
explanation ; and also be able to reason out a very clear 
way through the difficulties of electrical science generally, 
which under the old theories were unapproachable ; but 
the subject is too extensive for us to go into it on the 
present occasion. 

There is another consideration respecting the nature of 
electricity that should now be noticed ; for it points to the 
conclusion that electricity is not merely a pliysical force, as 
some seem inclined to think, but a material thing having 
force as its attribute. Electricity possesses two different 
forces, one attraction for matter and another drawing 
together its own particles ; and the two attractions need to 
have a bond of union, for though they are antagonistic in 
action they are never found separated, and it would be 
absurd to make one force the property of another. Now, 
it is impossible to imagine any cause for their association, 
other than a material substance of which they are both 
properties. Another reason confirming the existence of such 
a material is to be derived from the fact, that while both the 
electrical forces can be transmitted through all bodies with- 
out exception, some of those bodies arrest electricity on 
their surface and will not allow it to penetrate their sub- 
stance 

Enough has been said to enable us to commence an 
opinion as to what electricity is, and of the powers it is 
qualified to put into operation. 



THE LUMBER TRADE OF TOLEDO. 

TOLEDO is now one of the largest lumber markets in 
the world. Being at the head of water navigation 
from the pineries of Michigan, and having direct communi- 
cation with Cincinnati and the Ohio river by railroad and 
canal, it is an attractive point to dealers and builders at 
many of the river towns. So great has been the southern 
traffic in lumber during the past year, that enterprising 
capitalists at Cincinnati have purchased sites for yards, and 
the ensuing season we shall have three or four additional 
yards, employing a capital, probably, of 300,000 dols. to 
400,000 dols. Included among these, is that of a firm who 



The Lumber Trade of Toledo. 31 



are known as the largest manufacturers of lumber in the 
Saginaw region, and who will establish and conduct a yard 
in connection with their mills ; another firm, having an 
agent now here, is said to be one of the most extenstve 
dealer in pine lumber, lath and shingles, at Cincinnati. 

This latter received at this port last year, about 20,000,000 
feet of lumber, in rafts, from whence it was taken south ; 
the freight on which amounted to over 22,000 dols. 

The receipts of pine lumber during the year 1865 show 
an excess over the previous year of quite 20,000,000 feet. 
The monthly receipts of lumber are shown in another part 
of this report and a repetition is unnecessary. The receipts 
for a series of year are shown below : 



1865 74,893,000 

1864 55,799,200 

1863 38,883,8^4 

1862 35,562,113 



1861 25,426,877 

i860 37,368,536 

1869 22,816,963 

1858 19,614,780 



There are manufactured in this city into sash, blinds and 
mouldings, about 5,000,000 feet annually, and the total 
value of the manufactured articles is probably 275,000 dols. 
to 300,000. There is a^so a large amount of pine lumber 
used in the manufacture of boxes. 

The shipments by canal were 30,963,985 feet, and those 
by the Dayton and Michigan railroad were about 1 5,000,000 
feet. 

The receipts of lumber, of which much the greater part 
is black walnut, by railroad and canal during the year 
were : 

1865. 1864. 1863. 

By Michigan Southern Railroad. 

— feet 10,030,000 1,3639,125 7,085,000 

By Toledo, Wabash and West- 
ern Railway — feet 449,940 2,356,901 989,970 

By Dayton and Michigan Rail- 
road — feet 2,090,980 2,526,200 3,068,000 

By Canal — feet 2,864,925 63,063,60 2,648,101 



Total— feet 15,425,845 24,828,586 137,910,76 

These figures shov a falling off of over 9,000,000 feet. 
All the lumber received here byrailroad is shipped directly 
east, the greater portion purchased in the interior by agents 
of eastern dealers. The demand in this city is mainly sup- 
plied by teams. The quantity on hand in this market at 
the close of navigation was less than for several years 
previous. 



32 The Wine Crop of New South Wales. 

The receipts of staves by railroad and canal were 



By Michigan Southern Railroad 

Toledo, Wabash, and Western Railway 

Dayton and Michigan Railroad 

Canal 



1865. 


1864. 


1,773,000 


2,567,246 


150,000 


191,772 


20,080 


37,800 


206,348 


963,821 



2,149,428 3^756,639 

The receipts of lath, for a series of years, are shown as 
follows : — 



1865 1 6, 12 8,000 

1864 15,235,000 

1893 10,765,000 

1862 9.564,750 

The shipments by canal were 6,716,653. The receipt of 
shingles, each year, since 1858, are exhibited in the follow- 
ing table : 



1861 7,150,700 

i860 9-393,750 

1859 86,59,700 

1858 1,558,359 



1865 31,745,000 

1 864 = 1 8, 1 49,000 

1863 23,173,000 

1862 16,658,000 



1861 13,891,925 

1860^. 15,861,788 

1859 12,998,000 

1858 99,50,127 



The shipments of shingles, by canal, during the season 
amounted to 8,417,900 



THE WINE CROP OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

'' T T is an ill wind that blows nobody any good," and 
JL the drought that was so disastrous to the farmers 
and squatters has been of benefit to the vignerons. The 
consolation is small, because the wine-producing interest of 
the colony is so slight when compared with the squatting 
and the farming interests. It would have been different 
if the colony produced as much wine as it ought to do — 
that is, enough to replace the imported beer and wine, and 
enough to ship to all the markets within reach. 

TJae statistics show that the vine cultivation has advanced, 
but not so much as was to have been anticipated, con- 
sidering the length of time the industry has been established, 
and the success it has achieved. In the adjacent colonies 



The Wine Crop of New South Wales. 33 

of Victoria and South Australia, the rate of progress has 
been much greater. 

In this colony the principal increase has been to the 
westward of the main range, and it is in that quarter that, 
in the opinion of some competent judges, we are to look 
in future for our chief supplies of the best wine. Our coast 
country is said to labour under two disadvantages ; first, 
there is too little lime in the soil — a defect, however, which 
can be remedied by the application of bone-dust or phospho- 
guano ; and, secondly, there is too frequently rainy weather 
at the vintage. This latter is an objection that cannot be 
conquered, and it places the vignerons completely at the 
mercy of the seasons. For making good wine it is desirable 
that the grapes should not be gathered till they are dead 
ripe, but if the vigneron is in daily dread of heavy rain, he 
is tempted to pluck the fruit before it has attained a thorough 
maturity. This year there was no such temptation. So 
far from there being any apprehension of rain at vintage 
time, the country was only too earnestly longing for it, and 
looking vainly for the faintest indication of its approach. 
The fruit, therefore, has ripened well. The quantity of 
wine is a little short, from the want of sufficient rain to 
swell the grapes, but the quality is excellent. So good a 
vintage season has not been known for several years, and as 
we may trust the vignerons now to do justice to their special 
commodity, it is fair to anticipate that the produce of 1866, 
when it is fit to come to market, will have a special ex- 
cellence. 

But, in spite of all drawbacks, the wine of New South 
Wales has already attained a great reputation, quite enough 
to establish it as a wine-producing country, and calculated 
to encourage the greatest hopes for the future, when the 
best situations for vineyards have been more thoroughly 
explored, and when the proper treatment, both of the vine 
and the wine, is more thoroughly understood, and when 
the theories of other countries have been reinforced or 
corrected by local experience. 

There has been a great extension of vine-growing in the 
Albury district, very largely brought about by the enter- 
prise of some immigrants from Victoria, who, not finding 
the climate of the Geelong district altogether satisfactory 
for their purpose, crossed the Border, and found what they 
wanted in the environs of Albury. The soil, the situation 
and the climate in that locality seem all highly favourable 
to the production of wine, and though the industry there is 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. D 



34 The Wine Crop of New South Wales. 

comparatively new, an excellent and highly promising wine 
has already been produced. The prospects of the trade 
have been somewhat overclouded of late by the unhappy 
dissensions between this colony and Victoria, with reference 
to the Border customs. The two countries treat each other 
now as foreign countries, and tax each other's produce. 
The great market for Albury wine used to be found south 
of the Murray, on the Ovens diggings and in the townships 
thereabouts. The duty imposed has practically arrested 
the transmission of the wine to that market, and, as there 
is no adequate market north of the river, the cellars are 
filled with unsaleable stock. The Government has been 
frequently memorialised on the subject, but the general in- 
terest of the colony in the collection of its Border duties 
has overborne the local interest of the Albury winegrower. 
The colonial secretary is at present on a cruise in the district, 
and as a personal visit is often more potent than a petition 
or a deputation, he has been moved to promise that all 
that can be done shall be done to afford relief. But the 
matter does not rest altogether in his hands. The consent 
of the Victorian Executive must be obtained, and hitherto 
that has been hard to get to any arrangement proposed 
from this side. There is a limit, however to all obstinacy, 
and Mr Parkes may be fortunate in finding Mr. M'Culloch 
and Mr. Verdon in an accessible and yielding frame of 
mind. IT so, he may negotiate more favourably than some 
of his predecessors have been able to do. 

It is highly desirable that the wines of the colony should 
be adequately represented at the forthcoming Exhibition 
at Paris. As Mr. Keene said, at the recent meeting of the 
Hunter River Vineyard Association, there is no better 
tribunal to which light wines could be submitted than the 
judges that will be assembled at Paris. ' To get a good 
verdict from such a tribunal will help to fix the reputation 
of our wines not only abroad, but at home. There is a 
little disposition sometimes to depreciate colonial produc- 
tions until they have received the imprimatur of European 
approval. But we can believe our own commodities to be 
good when outside judges have declared them to be so. 

In the mother country there has been a great disposition 
of late years to revert to the use of lighter wines. The 
enormous demand for port and sherry — so much greater 
than it is possible for Portugal or Spain to comply with — 
has led to a manufacture of wine in lieu of its growth. 
The imitation is not always very palatable or very healthy. 



Present State of the Genus Cine he na. 35 

It is difficult to obtain the wines pure except at prices 
which place them beyond the reach of ordinary consumers ; 
and seeing that perhaps five times the quantity of port 
and sherry is drunk that is grown, it is pretty clear that 
the process of adulteration is extensively carried on. The 
Hamburg merchants are the most clever concocters of 
artificial wine, and they have found it a growing and pro- 
fitable trade to provide the middle classes of England with 
these imaginary substitutes for the vintages of Xeres and 
Alto Douro. But it is rather absurd for Austraiians to 
import such articles at a great expense, and to pay a high 
duty on them, when wine more palatable, more wholesome, 
and more suited to the climate, can be produced from its 
own soil at a cheaper rate. It will be time enough to 
manufacture wines when the world cannot grow any more; 
but at present, with unlimited capacity for growing, at 
least in Australia, we need not condemn ourselves to drink 
artificial compounds. 

As our local wines become more plentiful they will 
become cheaper, and as they get cheaper they will come 
more into use, and supersede the imported malt liquors. 
This is already the case in South Australia, where more 
wine is produced in proportion to the population than in 
any of the other colonies, and where the import of beer has 
been sensibly affected. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRESENT STATE 
OF OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE GENUS CIN- 
CHONA* 

BY JOHN ELIOT HOWARD, RL.S. 

THE writer approaches the consideration of the Cin- 
chonaceous plants rather more from a practical than 
from a technically botanical point of view, and thinks that 
much remains yet to be done by careful study of the plants 
themselves, to reduce Botanical terms to harmony with 

* Abstract of a paper read at a meeting of the International 
Botanical Congress, and prepared by the author for the " Pharma- 
ceutical Journal." 

D 2 



36 Present State of the Genus Cinchona. 

Pharmaceutic requisitions, and thus to discriminate between 
forms which, in a therapeutic point of view, produce wholly 
different products, and which have been thrown together 
by systematic arrangement founded on insufficient data. 
The C. mia^antha of Huanuco, for instance, produces a 
"grey bark," characterised by its abundant yield of pure 
cinchonine ; whilst the C. micrarttha of Bolivia differs 
widely in its chemical contents, and presents apparently 
a somewhat differing form. Again, the C. ovata of Pavon 
and of Peru, gives an entirely worthless bark producing 
aricine (or paracin), whilst the C. ovata, van rufijzervis, 
Wedd., of Bolivia, is a plant allied to the Calisaya in its 
products, and the 6. ovata, van erythroderma, approaches 
to, and is nor improbably found amongst the red-bark-pro- 
ducing plants. 

Mn Howard does not propose to found a diagnosis of 
species, either on the chemical constituents of the barks, or 
on their microscopical constitution, but to follow out more 
fully, and to a greater extent, the consideration of the barks 
as assisting in the discrimination of species and varieties, 
according to the precedent so ably established by Dr. 
Weddell in his admirable *•' Histoire des Quinquinas." 

Mr. Howard is nearly in accordance with Dr. Weddell 
and with M. Gustave Planchon (whose recently published 
work* he regards as the most valuable manuatihdX has yet 
appeared on the subject), in regarding " cinchona as form- 
ing a very natural genus, the different forms of which often 
pass from one into another by insensible transitions," but 
leaving it open for further investigation whether there may 
not, as stated by Dn Karsten, be a subgenus, forming a 
point of transition between Cinchona and Ladenbergia. 
However this point may be decided by botanists, the 
writer thinks that a considerable section of the Cinchonce 
are allied in their chemical and also in their microscopical 
characteristics to the Ladenbergice, whilst, on the other 
hand, some of the latter seem to reciprocate this alliance. 

The writer does not, however, regard the " transitions " 
as insensible, but rather as by well-marked and perm,anent 
intermediate forms : he looks upon the Cinchonce not as he 
would upon the Salices, for instance, in which latter family 
it seems immaterial how many or how few are the number 
of species or varieties recognised, since a willow is still the 

* "Des Quinquinas," par Gustave Planchon; Savy, Paris, 
1864. 



Present State of the Genus Cinchona, 3 7 

same plant under whatever form, and it was supposed that 
this was the case with the cinchonse when the genus was 
first estabhshed. The Qidim primitiva was supposed to 
have a kind of recognised typical character, and a superi- 
ority which was claimed as distinguishing the bark of Peru, 
or of New Granada, as viewed by the advocates of the 
products of these different regions. It was thought suf- 
ficient to distinguish a few varying kinds of cinchonaceous 
plants that were at first recognised by the prevalent form 
of the leaf as cordifolia, lancifolia, oblongifolia, ovali- 
folia, &c., thus confounding together even different genera 
through a premature classification. 

This systematising tendency has since, in the opinion of 
the writer, led to the grouping together of cinchonas 
essentially different, since the reality much m.ore resembles 
what might be the case, if there existed amongst the 
varieties of salix some which closely approximated, in the 
time and the bark, to the oak and others which in these 
respects counterfeited the hazel, or as if a variety were to 
surprise us by producing quinine instead of salicine. 

Thus the ovate or cordate or lanceolate form of leaf 
may appear to link together species of cinchona, which, on 
more profound study, may be seen to be entirely diverse 
in their character. 

The writer may be permitted to illustrate his meaning 
as to premature attempts at systematic nomenclature by 
reference to another department of science, taking as an 
instance the names of the alkaloids produced by these 
same plants, which, according to the first impressions, 
ranged thus : — 

Quinine. Cinchonine. 

Quinidine. Cinchonidine. 

Quinicine. Cinchonicine. 

Further and more careful examinations shows* a different 
arrangement, as indicated by their properties in reference 
to the ray of plane polarized light : — 

Quinine. Cinchonine. Cinchonicine. 

Cinchonidine. Quinidine. Quinicine. 

Powerfully laevogyrate. Pre-eminently dextrogyrate. Feebly dextrogyrate. 

This latter being the true relation, as shown by Dr. 
Herepath in his communications to the Royal Society, on 
chemical grounds, and by Mr. Howard in Reports to the 
Under-Secretary of State for India, on specimens of bark 
grown in that country, from which it appears that it is the 



38 Present State of the Genus Cinchona. 

order in which in the plants themselves these alkaloids are 
produced, normally in concert, and under circumstances of 
changed locality are supplemented, or even superseded by 
each other. Thus the quinine-producing calisaya forms 
always some, and abnormally much cinchonidine, and cin- 
chonine-producing C. micrantJia of Peru forms in India a 
large product of quinidine. 

Mr. Howard thinks the species of calisaya can be best 
studied in connection with the different geographical 
centres, the products of which he proposes briefly to review, 
so far at least as concerns their most prominent species, 
beginning with Bolivia. 

The Barks of Bolivia. 

Cinchona calisaya, Weddell. — This species certainly merits 
the first mention. It is beyond all question the first in im- 
portance in commerce, as furnishing the bark most largely 
used in the production of the precious medicine quinine. 
It contains this product in remarkable purity, with very 
little admixture of any other alkaloid — a fractional quantity 
of cinchonidine and cinchonine being (in the best speci- 
mens) the only exception. 

It is not to be supposed that the products of wild forests 
should be kept carefully select in commerce, and conse- 
quently the rate of produce in alkaloid, from such mixed 
parcels of bark, falls below that of the genuine tree ; but 
Mr. Howard has satisfied himself, by the examination of 
carefully-chosen specimens of calisaya, of the existence of 
alkaloid equal to 5 per cent., and in one or two specimens 
even seven or eight parts in a hundred of sulphate of 
quinine. This is more than double the product assigned 
by the late M. Delondre, whose " Quinologie " he regards 
as a very valuable repository of knowledge, although (as 
is always the case) subject to some little correction. 

The average produce of calisaya bark in quinine,* though 
falling very far short of the exceptionally fine specimens 
before mentioned, is still considerably above that obtained 
by M. Delondre, and the product in cinchonine less by two- 
thirds than he states, only it may be that he includes the 
cinchonidine in the same category. These observations 
seem of importance in reference to the cultivation of the 
species in India. It must not be supposed that the large 

* Not contained in the bark as sulphate^ as Delondre and Bou- 
chardat's work might lead the reader to suppose. 



Present State of the Genus Cinchona. 39 

products obtained by Dr. De Vrij and Mr. Howard from 
the cmchojia siLcciriibra grown by M'lvor, are the measure 
of the superiority of this species over the cahsaya. In the 
writer's opinion, the reverse is the truth, and though, from 
some cause, equal success has not been attained with the 
latter in the East Indies, he does not at all despair of seeing 
the calisaya reassume there its rightful supremacy as the 
queen of all quinine-growing species. 

He is the more confirmed in this hope, because the 
calisaya, though found so delicate in India, is growing 
luxuriantly under double glass in Mr. Howard's stoves — 
one raised from seed sent by Sir R. Murchison to Kew in 
May, 1864,* two or three inches in height when first planted 
out in October, 1864, — having, in little more than two 
years, attained an elevation of more than seven feet, and 
spreading in every direction. 

Mr. Markham saysf " The C. calisaya, the most famous 
of all the South American bark trees, and which, in its 
native forests, is alike the most beautiful and the richest in 
quinine, has not been a success in India. I was grieved 
to see the plants of this species only five feet ten inches 
high, and six and a half inches in girth, at an age of three 
years, while their stunted and shrubby appearance, with 
dim coloured leaves, is as different as possible from the 
glorious calisaya of the Caravayan forests." 

Mr. Howard is endeavouring, in correspondence with 
Mr. M'lvor, to ascertain the occasion of this contrast. It 
is not impossible that something may be due to the differ- 
ent effect of light passing twice through glass, by which 
means, a large portion of the actinic power (about half, as 
ascertained by photographic effects) is arrested. Mr. Mark- 
ham says, J that in a position which he examined " exposed 
to the full glare of the sun, there was a profusion of 
Melastoinacece and no CinchoncBl' for " the latter evidently 
dislike very exposed situations ;" and agam he says, '' the 

* Dr. Hooker obligingly traced out the history of this plant by 
application to Sir R. Murchison, who says, " The cinchona seeds 
I sent you in 1864 were brought home by Mr. David Forbes, a 
great explorer of the Peruvian and Chilian Andes. I know that 
he attached some value to these seeds, which he told me 
were from trees of the very first quality in their bark and fructifi- 
cation." 

+ In letter to the Under-Secretary, &c., i6th January, 1866. 

X Letter to the Under-Secretary of India, June 9th, i860. 



40 Present State of t lie Genus Cinchona. 

Calisaya avoids the banks of a river, never being found 
within several hundred feet of it ; it prefers the steepest 
declivities of the mountain sides, and a great deal, though 
not too much shade.* Mr. Markham speaks of " a locality well 
adapted for the growth of the calisaya," where young plants 
receive shade from taller trees, while they also enjoy plenty 
of sunshine through the spreading branches." Perhaps 
this has not been sufficiently attended to in India. 

It is further evident that there are very distinct varieties 
of the Calisaya, and that it is by no means certain that the 
kind hitherto cultivated by Mr. M'lvor is the best, although 
" descended from those procured by Dr. Weddell himself, 
in the forests of Caravaya and Bolivia." 

Dr. Weddell gave to one of these varieties (the Calisaya 
moradd) the name of C Boliviaiia, and described it as a 
separate species, but in an article communicated to the 
Botanical Society of France, in March, 1855, after having 
seen in his second journey in Bolivia, new forms inter- 
mediate between the D. Calisaya, and the C Boliviana, 
this able botanist is disposed to regard the morada as a 
simple variety of the Calisaya. This agrees with what we 
know of the dijferent barks, which are r 11, including the 
Boliviana, equally collected and imported as Calisaya. 
The bark of the Calisaya morada is never classed separately 
in commerce, and, indeed it appears in Delondre and Bou- 
chardat's well-executed plate i. as typical Calisaya ; while, 
on the other hand, we find another well marked variety, the 
Calisaya blanca, equally well figured by Goebal in his 
" Pharm. Waarenkunde," plate vii., as also China Calisaya. 
Best executed and most characteristic of all, are Weddell's 
own figures of the bark, both of his a. vera and /S. Joseph- 
iana. As far as the writer can judge, it is yet another 
variety whfch is now growing with him, the Galisayaverde, 
of which, as well as of the 7iaranjada fida, zambita, empeder- 
nida, and one or two others, Dr. Weddell gave him speci- 
mens resulting from his second tyicwrsion to Bolivia. 

For further information respecting this variety, the Cali- 
saya verde, we must (for the present) turn to the Report by 
Mr. Markham of his visit to collect plants of the Cinchonce 
in i860. He says,* ''The bark collectors and other natives 
assurred me that there are three kinds of Calisayas, namely 
the Calisaya amarilla or fina (a vera of Weddell) the 

* Letter to the Under-Secretary for State, June 9th, i860. 
Sec. 44. 



Pj^esent State oj the Genus Cinchona. 41 

Calisaya morada (0. Bolivani of Weddell) and the 
ijalisaya verde or alta, — not mentioned, as far as I am 
aware, by any author. They say that the latter is a very 
large tree, generally grozvmg very far down the valleys, and 
in jniich lozver sittiations than the other varieties. The 
veins of the leaves are never purple, but always a pale green, 
hence the name. The guide Martinez had cut a tree of 
this variety, yielding six or seven cwt. of bark, including 
canuto or bark from the branches ; and Gironda had seen 
a tree in the province of Munecas, in Bolivia, which yielded 
ten cwt. of tabla, or trunk bark alone. The true Calisaya 
of Weddell only yields three or four cwt." 

Such a tree as Gironda describes might probably be five 
feet in diameter, for Karsten, speaking of the C. lancifolia 
and C. corymbosa, says,* " trees are met with sixty feet in 
heighth, whose stems measures five feet in diameter. A 
single gigantic tree, which truly is not often ^^^Xi, yields ten 
cwt., dried, or thirty cwt. fresh bark." 

It is highly probable that this is the sort which ought to 
be introduced into India, where its larger size, and probably 
more rapid growth, might render it a more valuable acqui- 
sition than the a. vera itself. Mr. Howard is the more dis- 
posed to think this, since from the size and appearance of 
the bark recently brought into this market from Bolivia, he 
is led to suppose that the collectors may have opened up 
fresh districts in which this kind abounds. 

It is an important feature that the verde variety grows 
lower down the valley, and consequently in warmer regions 
than the other sorts. This may, at times, cause it to be 
less productive in quinine, but nevertheless, the richest 
specimens examined by Mr. Howard presented the charac- 
teristics of this variety. 

The Calisayas of Bolivia thus seem to be most satisfac- 
torily determined, and it remains only that Dr. Weddell 
should add to those labours, for which we are so much in- 
debted to him, by publishing the materials which he has in 
hand to illustrate the remaining varieties of this species. 

The Barks of Loja, or " Crown Barks!' 

Cinchona officinalis, Linnaeus, a. Uritusinga. — The term 

officinalis has been (Mr. Howard thinks most correctly) 

restored by Dr. Hooker to the species which grew under 

his care from seeds sent by Don T. Riofrio, from the 

* Med. Chinarinden, p. 28 



42 Present State of the G ernes Cinchona. 

mountains of Uritusinga, near Loja. This is the CmcJiona 
Uriiiisinga of Pavon, also the Quina-qui7ia described by 
M. La Condamine, in 1738, and consequently the C. acade- 
mica of Guibourt's " Hist, des Drogues," and the C. offici- 
nalis of Woodville's '' Botany," vol. iii. p. 546. The plant 
flowered in the writer's possession in 1862, and a charac- 
teristic drawing, by Fitch, of the flowering branch, may be 
found in tab. 5,364 of Curtis's '* Bot. Mag.," which may 
be compared with that of the same species in the " Neuva 
Quinologia." 

A plant of the above, about six feet in height, was 
presented by Mr. Howard to the Indian Government, and 
although it suffered from a sunstroke in the transit from 
Madras to Ootacamund, and lost all its leaves, it was 
restored, and, by the skill of Mr. M'lvor, increased by 
cuttings to the extent of now between 6,000 and 7,000 
plants. It has since flowered, and a characteristic specimen 
has been brought home by Mr. Markham, together with a 
portion of the bark. 

A sister plant of the above, together with another, its 
direct descendant, sufl"ered from an irruption of smoke into 
the stoves in the past winter, and Mr. Howard was com- 
pelled to cut them down. This gave the opportunity for 
examining the bark, which yielded on percentage of the 
dried bark : — 

Quinine (crystallizing both as sulphate and oxalate) 1*36 
Cinchonine (part crystallized from sp. w., the rest 

cinchonicine) ... ... ... ... ... 0*57 



Total ... 1-93 

A produce very much the same that bark of the same kind 
and age might have yielded in its native climate, and pro- 
bably the first extracted from bark grown in Europe. 

Although this kind has nearly become extinct in its 
native region, it may regain its place in pharmacy, as it 
seems well adapted to India, and flourishes on the 
Neilgherries at an elevation of about 6,000 feet. 

Several other forms range themselves around this which 
we now constitute the central plant of the group, by 
restoring its original name. Mr. Howard ventures to pro- 
pose the following arrangement of these, as one rendered 
necessary for the distinction of the barks in commerce, as 
these will soon come from India, and as the only way that 
he can see to extricate the subject from the confusion 



Present State of the G ernes Cinchona. 43 

into which it has been thrown by premature attempts at 
generahzation. 

Cinchona officinalis, /3. condaminea. — Mr. Howard would 
drop the' barbarous name, chaJmaj^gnera, given by Pavon 
to this plant, which is really the Qtcina priinitiva, as 
having been traditionally the one which cured the Countess 
of Chinchon. It is, therefore, worthy to bear the name 
condaminea, bestowed upon it, and also on the other forms 
of the plant by Humboldt and Bonpland, in whose "Plantes 
Equinoctiales " it is well shown in the unshaded brAnch, 
wdiich is recognised by De Condolle as a very distinct form 
from the shaded flowering branch produced a different sort 
of bark, to be afterwards described. 

The bark of /3. condcmiinea is the rusty crown bark of 
Pereira,* and of English commerce. M. Planchon agrees 
with Mr. Howard that the larger portions of the bark 
represent the Qidnquina noueux of Joseph de Jussieu. 

Cinchona officinalis 7. bonplandiana-colorata. — This form 
of Loja bark was called, in the time of the Spanish 
dominion, Colorada del Rey.\ It is well represented not 
only in the widely-dispersed herbarium of Pavon, but also 
by specimens sent home by Cross, both of a flowering 
branch and of the bark, from the ravines of Cajamuna, 
near Loja, in 1861. The seeds sent home by this collector 
have vegetated well in India, and so successful has been 
the cultivation, that M'lvor has already sent home bark fit 
for the English market, according to the estimation of the 
most competent judges. The plant is figured and described 
in Howard's " Illustrations of the Nueva Quinologia" as a 
variety of chahitargitcra, which name might very well be 
exchanged for the above. 

7. Bonplandiana-lntea. — These two sorts are probably 
merely the macho and hembra varieties (those in which the 
male or female element preponderates in the flower, &c.) 
of the same plant, but the barks produced are markedly 
different, and these differences have remained unchanged 
from Pavon's day to this. They both deserve well their 
old reputation, and, though scarce, are still found in 

* Confounded by Pereira with the Humalies mince et rougeatre 
of M. Guibourt, which seems to belong to C. purpurea. 

\ " The Spanish Creoles still have the custom of giving the 
name real or del Rey to the best, most beautiful, and most valued 
articles ; thus every place has its Palma real^ Quina del Rey &c." 
(Karsten). 



44 Present State of the Genus Cinchona, 

commerce ; growing together, Pavon says, and often 
coming together (sometimes intermingled) to the Engh"sh 
market ; but, though so nearly allied, not confused by 
insensible transition.* 

Cinchona officinalis, 5. crispa. — This form of Loja bark 
was described and named by Tafalla as CincJwna crispa, 
and is described by Mr. Howard under that head in his 
" Quinologia." Nevertheless it is his opinion that it is so 
manifestly one of the forms of the Loja bark as to be 
best looked upon as above. It is the Quina crespilla, or 
carrasquena of the older botanists, and the Quina fina de 
Loja of modern trade. 

The plant was found growing by Cross in a deposit of 
peat on the summit of the highest mountains (the Sierra 
Grande) around Loja. These Loja barks are adapted to 
grow on the roughest and most elevated portions of the 
Neilgherries, and also to flourish in Ceylon, and, beyond 
other sorts, to bear well the climate of the sub-Himalayan 
ranges, and there can be little doubt of their successful and 
profitable cultivation. 

Dr. Seemann found the plant at a lower elevation, and 
excellent specimens were brought back by both these 
travellers, including the bark, concerning the source of 
which, therefore, no doubt can remain. 

It is to be regretted that from the present confusion of 
nomenclature in India, it is difficult to ascertain what is 
meant by the descriptive terms there applied to the barks. 
If the above arrangement could be admitted, it would 
greatly simplify the matter, and be practically useful in its 
results. 

Mr. Howard proceeds to a review of the grey barks of 
Huanuco, the red barks of Ecuador, the Pitayo barks of 
Popayan, and the lancifolia barks of New Granada, which 
will be published in the Proceedings of the Congress, and 
directs attention to the spelling of the name Cinchona, or 
Chinchona, and to the allied genus Cascarilla, or, as 
called by the Germans, Ladenbergia. Nothing would 
tend so well to settle these questions as the expression of 
opinion at a botanical congress. 

In conclusion, the writer expresses his opinion, that every 

* Darwin has shown, in an able paper communicated to the 
Linnean Society on another family of plants, that the form of the 
flower is either entirely macho, or entirely hemhra, not passing 
from one into the other. 



Reviews, 45 

well-defined region of the Andes has it own prevalent and 
characteristic Cinchonce, which are incapable of being 
reduced to any one typical form ; he believes that no 
species has been clearly proved to prevail unchanged from 
end to end of the cinchonaceous region, and thinks that 
forms which resemble each other in distant parts will be 
found analogous rather than identical. 



REVIEWS. 



Toledo Blade s Eighth A nnual Statement of the Trade and 
Commerce of Toledo for the Year tiidiitg December^ 31-J"^, 
1865. London : Stevens, Brothers, Henrietta street, 
Covent Garden, 

The growth and development of the second grain re- 
ceiving and shipping port on the chain of lakes which 
divides the Canadas from the States, has occupied less than 
fifteen years, and the report now before us gives, in as con- 
cise a manner as possible, the trade statistics of this rising 
Western town. AH in this little book proves the energetic 
character of the founders of the same, who may aptly be 
called " pioneers of civilization." 

The prosperity of this place is mainly owing to the ad- 
vances made, more especially during the year 1865, by the 
railway. But, while experiencing some of the effects of 
the late war as regards its trade, Toledo has suffered very 
little, as we find that the receipts of flour and grain at this 
lake port have steadily, though gradually, increased since 
1 861, in which year the receipts of wheat were 2,450,320 
bushels, and which have risen to 2,680,188 in 1865, not a 
very rapid increase, true, but one which says much for the 
future stability of the town of Toledo. In conclusion, we 
advise all who are interested in statistical information to at 
once procure a copy of this Report, wherein they will find 
a rich fund of statistics drawn up in a manner which reflects 
credit upon the compiler. Toledo bids fair to become, and 
shortly too, one of those emporiums which are only to be 
found in the Eastern portion of the United States. At 
page 30 we have given an extract from this report upon 
the lumber trade of the town. 



46 



COLONIAL NOTES. 



About Wool. — The farmers of Canada are now busy clipping 
their sheep, and the wool season will be at its height by the 
middle of next week. In some localities new wool has already 
been brought into market, and the shearing is pretty generally 
over. But the farmers in these districts seem in no hurry to rush 
their wool into market. The prices offered by dealers up to the 
present period have not been very high ; and there is a very 
general belief among farmers that present rates will be improved 
upon as the season advances. Whether these hopes will be rea- 
lized or not, depends very much upon circumstances. At present, 
the season is not sufficiently forward to speak with much cer- 
tainty, and mere predictions are unsafe. Previous experience, 
however, has been such as would indicate some advance on the 
opening prices, and we dare say the present year will not prove 
an exception, although we think no great rise may be looked for. 
The prospect is that the wool crop this year will be unusually 
large. In consequence of the good prices obtained of late years, 
farmers have been increasing the number of their sheep, and the 
clip of 1866, therefore, promises to be the largest we have ever 
sheared, Had it not been for the American duties, it is quite 
likely we would have got higher prices from the Americans this 
season than ever before for our long wools. As matters are, we 
liave no reason to alter the opinion we expressed in an article 
some time ago, that the United States demand for our long wools 
is such that good prices will still be realized by our wool-growers. 
— " Trade Review." 

The Fur Trade. — The prices of fur have this spring ranged 
higher than ever we knew them before, on account of the biisk 
competition which arose from the presence of large St. Paul 
buyers. There has been a very fair yield of all kinds of fur, with 
an excessive catch of one kind — the lynx. Of prairie fur 
especially there have been good returns, owing to the fact the 
Sioux traded principally with us, and not with the forts on the 
Missouri as formerly. — " Nor-Wester," 

Voyaging Commenced. — All is now bustle and excitement in 
the neighbourhood of the town of Winnipeg, training horses, 
choosing oxen, mending carts, repairing canoes, everything and 
everybody getting ready for a trip somewhere — some for the 
Saskatchewan mines — some for the Rainy Lake mines, other for 
St. Paul. Boats, too, are being launched for their far-off trips to 
York, to the Long Portage, and to various places on Lake 
Winnipeg. Horses, oxen, and boats are in good demand, 
showing that transportation will be as great, if not greater, this 
year than ever. — " Nor-Wester." 



Colonial Notes. 47 

Scarcity of Seed Grain. — We regret to learn that in several 
parts of the Island oats are not to be had, and that unless 
Government comes to the aid of the poorer people much land 
will be left unsown. This is a very important matter, and we 
would suggest to the Executive, which will meet in a few days, 
the propriety of at once instituting inquiries, and, if necessary, 
procuring a few thousand bushels of oats and supplying them to 
poor persons destitute of seed. If this be not done, we fear 
that the applications to the Executive for means to prevent 
destitute persons from starvation will be very many. — '' Islander," 
P. E. I. 

Kerosene Oil in New South Wales. — A Sydney paper 
says that energetic steps are being taken to develop this branch 
of commercial enterprise in this colony, and every step in advance 
only tends to confirm the great value of its oil-bearing minerals. 
It could scarcely be expected that in a colony like this, where 
few could have been acquainted with what is comparatively a new 
manufacture — the process of kerosene oil production not being 
many years old — the necessary works could be completed without 
the delay which prudent inquiry would necessitate. Whatever 
inducements there, might be for prompt action in putting these 
mineral treasures into a marketable shape, no very large amount 
of the shales of Hartley, WoUongong, and Stoney Creek have 
yet been submitted for distillation, but the Australasian Mineral 
Oil Company has operated upon a considerable quantity of 
cannel from the Hunter district. The shales "are well known to 
yield an oil of an excellent quality, though small in quantity, but 
this inferiority is to some extent qualified by the valuable coke 
that is left from the cannel, the shale leaving only a pale coloured 
ash. This company has constructed near Sydney extensive works 
replete with the appliances for an immense production. They 
have had the services of an engineer, who, added to his qualifica- 
tions for superintendence in construction where so much 
machinery is required, has the not less important acquaintance 
with the modus operandi adopted in the largest and most successful 
oil-producing establishments in the United States. — " Journal of 
the Society of Arts." 

The Sugar Refinery. — The community will be gratified to 
learn that Mr. Dustan has commenced operations for the erection 
of the sugar refinery at Woodside. Workmen are now engaged 
in preparing the granite, large quantities of which are being 
brought over daily. Next week, the work of levelling the hill 
where the buildings are to be situated will be proceeded with. 
The establishment is to be on a very grand scale, and when 
completed will not be surpassed by any other refinery on this 
continent, and certainly not equalled in British North America. 
The work will be carried on under the superintendence of a 
Scotch engineer of large experience ; all the machinery will be 



43 Colonial Notes, 

brought from Glasgow, and will be of the most improved cha- 
racter. The manufactory, when finished, will be able to operate 
with half the number of men employed by Mr. Redpath, at 
Montreal, and yet be capable of turning out a far greater quantity 
of sugar, on account of the superior character of the machinery. 
The manufactory will be able to turn out from thirty-five to forty 
hogsheads a day of sugar. The buildings, when erected, will 
present an exceedingly fine appearance from the harbour, in con- 
sequence of their large, and actually elegant proportions. The 
total cost of the estabHshment is expected to be upwards of a 
quarter of a million of dollars at least. It will take some months 
yet before it can be definitely stated when the estabfishment will 
be in actual working order, but we have no doubt now that ope- 
rations have commenced, the enterprizing men at the head of 
the undertaking will not allow the grass to grow under their feet. 
The benefits that Halifax must derive from the establishment of 
such manufactories cannot be exaggerated. The expenditure 
connected with their construction alone brings a large amount of 
money into the country, whilst they create trade and stimulate 
industry. And we may add that this sugar refinery is an evidence 
of the advantages that a union with the Provinces will bring with 
it. No one can fail to see that men of capital would hesitate to 
invest their money in such an enterprise unless they expected to 
have a market of four miUions of people. It is with a view of 
supplying not simply Nova Scotia, but all British North America, 
that the manufactory in question is projected on so large a scale. 
—" Halifax Reporter." 

The Sponge Fishery of Rhodes. — The total number of 
boats employed in this fishery last year was 6i8, of which 35 
fished at Bengazi, 156 at Mandruha, three at Syria, 157 at Cara- 
mania, 25 at Cyprus, 71 at Crete, the same number in the Otto- 
man Archipelago, and 100 off Greece. The total value of the 
take was 13,890,000 piastres. The boats were visited with 
unusual casualties, eleven were wrecked on the coast of Barbary 
during a gale of wind on the 28th August. About one-third more 
boats than usual went to Mandruha, where the fishing was 
plentiful. With the exception of three Symi boats, no other 
sponge fishing craft belonging to those islands remained on the 
coast of Syria, in consequence of a new tax of 18 per cent, 
custom dues and tithe, lately established on sponges fished in that 
locality. The boats which had sailed there proceeded to Cara- 
mania, which circumstance increased about one-third the number 
of those which originally intended to fish on that coast. Common 
and coarse sponges being principally imported to France, several 
sponge merchants of that country send annually agents to make 
their purchases direct from the divers, while not a single British 
merchant has as yet followed the same course for the purchase of 
fine sponges, which are chiefly forwarded to Great Britain. The 



Colonial Notes. 49 

higher prices paid by French merchants, in consequence of com- 
petition, are not only amply compensated by the difference 
between these prices and those of second-hand purchases, but, 
being themselves on the spot, they can make a choice of the 
quahties best suited for their markets, thus deriving more profits 
thereby. The average prices per oke (2I lb.) ranged for fine 
sponges from 28s. 4d. to £,2 15s., for common from los. to 
26s. 8d., and for coarse from 4s. 2d. to iis. 8d. 

Lucifer Matches. — It appears that M. Gaillard has lately 
presented to the Academy of Sciences what he calls a new pro- 
cess of manufacturing common phosphorus matches. The 
method consists in reversing the ordinary mode of preparation. 
Instead of steeping the wooden slips first into sulphur, and then 
into phosphorus, he plunges the matches into the phosphorus in 
the first place, and afterwards into the sulpiiur. This process is 
attended with several advantages. One of these is that sulphur 
is insoluble in water, and that, not being fusible under a tempera- 
ture of about T28 Fahrenheit, there is no risk of accidental or 
intentional poisonings of food by these matches, since the sulphur 
forms an insoluble covering for the phosphorus. Another advan- 
tage depends on the hardness of the sulphur coating, which 
requires more friction than is ordinarily appHed for its removal, 
and the laying bare of a portion of the phosphorus. This is cal- 
culated to decrease the risk of fires occurring accidentally from 
the too-ready inflammability of phosphorus as an outer covering 
for the lucifer match. How far this process is really new will be 
seen from the following extract from the " Transactions " of the 
Society of Arts, referring to a meeting held on May 21, 1846 : — 
" The thanks of the Sociely were voted to Mr. C. M. Barker, for 
his improved congreve-match. Mr. Barker's improvement con- 
sists in putting a layer of sulphur over the combustible composi- 
tion, instead of (as formerly) putting th:^ composition on over the 
sulphur; so that it requires a temperature of nearly 300^ to ignite 
the match by heat, and a greater quantity of friction than with 
those formerlyused. Moreover, the match is not affected by damp." 
Insect Wax. — The trade in this article in China is large. In 
1864, from the single port of Hankow alone, 5,100 cwt. were 
exported. It is ^taken by the Chinese as medicine, but is prin- 
cipally used as st'earine in the manufacture of candles. It is one 
of the most valuable of the many products of Sze-Chuen, being 
worth 60 and 70 taels per picul (133 lbs.). The wax is deposited, 
for the protection of its eggs, by an insect which inhabits the 
trees on which the wax is secreted. The formation of the wax 
was a subject which occupied the especial attention of M. Simon, 
a French savant, who, a year or two ago, passed a considerable 
time in the interior, during which he is said to have traversed the 
greater portion of Sze-Chuen, and to have reached the eastern 
confines of Thibet. It is hoped the result )f his researches into 
NEW SERIES. — VOL. L E 



50 Obituary. 

the products of the former fertile province will, ere long, be made 
public. — " Journal S. Arts." 

Refuse Tea. — According to the last consular reports, it would 
seem that the tea dust and stalks, which formed the principal in- 
gredient in brick tea, which was formerly shipped largely to Russia, 
are now being directed to this country. This tea dust is the refuse 
remaining after the packing of the tea, and is worth from five to 
seven taelsper picul. A portion is disposed of forlocal consumption 
in Shanghae, but it is principally shipped to England, where it is 
said to meet with a ready sale. In 1864, 5,288 piculs of 133 lbs., 
were shipped from the port of Hankow alone. — "Journal S. 
Arts." 



OBITUARY. 



PROFESSOR HARVEY. 
From boyhood, the late William Henry Harvey had 
cultivated a love of natural history, and more especially of 
botany. When about twenty-one years of age, he accom- 
panied his brother, who had received an appointment in 
that colony, to the Cape of Good Hope, and published, in 
the "Journal of Botany" for 1837-8, descriptions of the 
new genera and species which he collected. These ripened 
into an octavo volume, " Contributions towards a Flora 
Capensis." Returning to England in 1839, he was offered 
the appointment his brother had held, and went back to the 
Cape the following year. In 1844, he returned to take the 
post of Keeper of the Herbarium of the University of 
Dublin. He added his own collection to that of the 
College, in consideration of which the salary was increased 
by £^0 per annum, but with that was so inadequate, that 
only a love of science could have been his motive in 
holding the position. The University conferred upon him 
the honorary Doctorship, and his life henceforth was one 
of pure devotion to science. In 1846 he commenced his 
" Phycologia Britanica," the 360 plates of which were drawn 
upon stone by the author's own hands. Then came his 
" British Seaweeds," a great success in every sense. In 
1848 he was elected Professor of Botany to the Royal 
Society, Dublin. In 1849. the " Seaside Book,' now in its 
third edition, made its appearance. At the invitation of 



Obituary. 5 1 

the Lowell Institute of Boston, U.S., he crossed the 
Atlantic to lecture on the Algae, returning the following 
year, after having availed himself of the opportunity of 
this visit to make collections on the North American coast, 
as well as a trip to the Pacific. A beautiful quarto volume 
of the Smithsonian Institution contains the results of his 
explorations. Then followed the " Nereis Australis," and 
after that again travelling. In August, 1853, he set out 
for Ceylon, Australia, and New Zealand. He collected 
more than 20,000 specimens and 600 species, and on his 
return commenced his " Phycologia Australica," which 
came out in five volumes, each having sixty plates, of 
\vhich the majority were drawn on stone by the professor. 
In 1856 he succeeded to another professorship in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, and became a Government lecturer at 
the Museum of Irish Industry. In 1 86 1 his health gave 
way under his vast amount of work, and at one time his 
life was despaired of He recovered from this illness, but 
his health was never completely restored. At last he was 
obliged to seek a more genial winter climate. He passed 
the winter of 1864-5 in Southern France, and derived great 
benefit ; but a renewal of his hard work brought back 
illness, and at length death. He was again obliged to 
leave his Herbarium, where he had toiled last sum.mer and 
winter, and in the spring sought rest in Torquay. But his 
strength was too far gone, and at that Devonshire resort 
for invalids, the learned and amiable professor finished his 
course. 

Unfortunately, his great " Flora Capensis " is not yet 
completed. Three large volumes are already published. 
The same remark applies to the " Thesaurus Capensis," a 
series of illustrations to the " Flora." Of this, two volumes, 
containing 200 plates, are already published. It will be 
a difficult task for anyone to take up the work which 
Professor Harvey laboured, in spite of failing health, to 
complete. 



JOSEPH TOYNBEE, F.R.S. 

This distinguished man has fallen a victim to his love of 
experimental science. At the early age of fifty years he 
passes from amongst us, leaving as the record of his too 
brief life upwards of one hundred contributions of a scien- 
tific nature. 

He had been educated for the medical profession and 
has for some years occupied the first position in London 



52 Obituary, 

in the special department to which he devoted himself — 
that of aural surgery. Indeed, it is but bare justice to say- 
that Joseph Toynbee rescued this branch of the healing 
art from the domain of quackery, and out of the chaos in 
which its facts were involved laid a broad foundation of 
scientific knowledge. 

Very shortly after he began his labours he was enrolled 
an F.R.S., a distinction to which few have attained at so 
early an age. But apart from the one branch of know- 
ledge to which he devoted his life, he was a diligent student 
in many others, and he has erected a lasting claim on our 
gratitude by an exhibition of a life which endeared him 
to those with whom he came in contact in his scientific 
pursuits. Quite recently he started the idea of local 
museums, and succeeded completely in establishing one at 
Wimbledon. To aid in extending them in every parish, 
he issued a small periodical — " Local Museum Notes " — 
and it is to be hoped, that in a short time, few places will 
be without these desirable institutions. Wherever they 
are started the sad story of Toynbee's death will be re- 
peated. It is well known that he had been for some time 
engaged in experiments to determine the effects that would 
be produced by the introduction of powerful vapours into 
the internal ear, no doubt in the hope of combating disease. 
Some papers found on his table contained the results of 
his trials with chloroform and other agents, and one paper 
with a blank left to be filled up with the result. He was 
found, lying on his sofa, by his own servant not many 
minutes after he had seen a patient. At first, the servant 
thought his master asleep, but on looking more closely he 
was alarmed and sought assistance. Alas ! Toynbee was 
quite dead, his last experiment had been fatal to this 
diligent explorer. It is probable the vapour had found 
access to the lungs and so proved fatal. We join our 
tribute of regret to that of the general public, and venture 
to ask whether so untoward an accident should not be 
regarded as a warning by others engaged in similar pursuits. 
If such risks are willingly run, at least each might adopt the 
precaution of having some skilled friend present while the 
experiment is being made. 



THE 

teohl:n^oijOOIst 

A RECORD OF science:. 
September, 1866. 



RUTHVEN'S HYDRAULIC PROPELLER. 

IN carrying out the intention expressed by us in our last 
number, of making the TECHNOLOGIST a Record of 
Science in its practical aspect, we beg to draw the atten- 
tion of our readers to the above invention, which must 
effect quite a revolution in the propelling power of vessels. 

The idea of propelling vessels by water is not by any 
means a new one, many attempts having been made, but 
all unsuccessfully, until, in 1839, Mr. Ruthven, an engineer 
of Edinburgh, invented the apparatus now under notice. 

Under the patent which was then obtained, two small 
vessels were constructed, one of nine feet long, with steam 
power, and, in 1844, another of forty feet. These vessels 
were exhibited, and attracted a great deal of attention at 
the time, and were very highly spoken of Being brought 
under the notice of the Admiralty, by officers of the Navy, 
the Admiralty requested permission to inspect and experi- 
ment on the last-named vessel, and a report, which was 
highly favourable, was made on her performances by Mr. 
Murray, the present chief engineer of Portsmouth Dock- 
yard. But, notwithstanding this, the exertions made by 
the inventor to get his invention taken up were entirely 
unsuccessful. The facts of the case being that few ap- 
peared to know anything of the principles upon which the 
vessel was propelled, scientific and practical people being 
alike opposed to it. 

But, nothing daunted, our inventor, after effecting some 
improvements upon certain parts of the apparatus, had 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. F 



54 



Ruthvens Hydraulic Propeller, 



another small vessel, thirty feet long, built, to illustrate his 
invention. This was placed on the Thames, and a smaller 
one, of twelve feet, sent to the Great Exhibition of 185 1. 
The one on the Thames attracted a great deal of notice, and 
was spoken most favourably of, one steamboat company 
proposing. to take up the invention, but ultimately aban- 
doning the idea, stating as a reason that it would, if suc- 
cessful, throw out of use the many boats they had already 
on the river. 

The Exhibition model fared worse (though it was in 
reality one of the most valuable inventions to commerce in 
the World's Fair) it not being so much as even noticed in 
the Juror's Report. 

As in the case of the needle-gun, so with this, the Prus- 
sian Government undertook part of the expense of building 
a boat, which was done by a Mr. Sydel, the engines and 
other machinery being furnished by Mr. Ruthven. The 
building of this vessel, which was in 1853, proved the 
acumen of the Prussian Government, it having been run- 
ning regularly ever since on the Oder, and has proved the 
complete success of this invention. 

Having thus entered into the history of the up-hill work 
which the inventor has had in urging this mode of propul- 
sion upon practical men, we now come to the descriptive 
portion of our task, and in order to render these remarks 
as plain as possible, we shall here introduce two engravings, 
one a transverse section, and the other a plan of engine and 
propeller : — 




Fig. I.— Transverse Section— showing arrangements on deck for 
turning valves. 



Ruthvens Hydratdic Propeller. 



55 




Fig. 2. — Plan of engine and propeller. 

a. Steam cylinders. 

h. Air pump. 

c. Water-tight case containing fan-wheel. 

d. Nozzles. 

e. Holes in bottom for supplying the wheel in c with water, 
/. Wheel for turning valves. 

The principle of this invention is as follows : — 
The hydraulic propeller has a water-wheel inside the 
vessel. This wheel is enclosed in a metal case, placed 
under the water-line of the vessel. The wheel is supplied 
with water from a series of small holes in the bottom of 
the vessel. The wheel-case has two bent tubes, or nozzles, 
one at each side of the vessel. The wheel revolves by the 
power of the steam-engines (which are of the ordinary 
description of marine-engines), and the water is expelled 
at each side through these nozzles. The nozzles are bent 
in such a manner that the issuing water is parallel with the 
sides of the vessel. There is a contrivance whereby the 
water from the nozzles may be directed either towards the 
stern or towards the stem. When flowing towards the 
stern the vessel will go a-head, and when directed to the 
stem the vessel will go a-stern. With the water from one 
nozzle directed towards the stem, and from the other 
towards the stern, the vessel will go round on its own 
centre, within its own length. The nozzles, it should be 
borne in mind, are not placed under, but above, or rather 
on the water-line. Most people suppose that the pro- 
pelling force is obtained by the water being forced out of 

F 2 



56 RtithverC's Hydraulic Propellor. 

the nozzles against the outside water. But this is not the 
case ; the propelling force is similar to the recoil produced 
by firing a gun. 

The advantages which are claimed for this propeller will 
be seen on reading the following : — 

1. No loss of power from slip, as in the paddle-wheel or 
screw, heijce greater power is obtained from the same 
quantity of fuel. 

2. The power of the engines is uniform and continuous, 
producing smooth motion ; the vessel is, therefore, free 
from vibration, and the great wear and tear caused by it. 

3. No reaction on the engines from pitching or rolling in 
a heavy sea, the propelling power remains efficient as in a 
calm ; thus obviating the risk of breaking shafts, paddles, 
or other parts of the machinery, of so frequent occurrence 
in other steam ships ; and, on a long voyage, this absence 
of reaction would practically give an increase of speed, or 
economy of fuel. 

4. The vessel is independent of her rudder, and can be 
turned on her own centre by the propeller alone, without 
the helm and without steerage way. 

5. Can be backed astern or turned instantaneously under 
the complete control of the commander, officer of the watch, 
or look-out man on deck, no communication being neces- 
sary with the engines, as for this purpose these never 
require to be slowed, reversed or stopped. 

6. The propelling power being situated within the vessel, 
the risks to paddles or screws from shot, fouling, or other 
accidents are avoided. 

7. This propeller will work effectually whatever the draught 
of water may be. If the vessel float, she must be pro- 
pelled and would ascend rivers against any current of less 
than the usual speed of the vessel, and under circumstances 
when either paddle or screw would be useless. There not 
being any wash or swell created, all injury to the banks is 
avoided ; a great consideration on canals and streams with 
artificially formed banks. 

8. In the construction of the hull the lines of a perfect 
sailing ship can be maintained, these propellers in no way 
interfering with the efficiency of the vessel as such ; and 
from the facility with which the propelling power can be 
at once shut off and resumed in any weather without heav- 
ing-to, shortening sail, or lessening the speed of the ship, 
every advantage can be taken of favourable wind of how- 



Ruthvens Hydraulic P7^opeller. 5-7 

ever short continuance ; this alane creating a great saving 
of fuel on long sea voyages. 

9. Should the vessel be pierced with shot, or spring a 
leak, the regular supply of water from the canals may be 
shut off, and the water from the leak taken up instead to 
supply the centrifugal pump — thus discharging the leak 
and propelling the vessel at the same time. With a 500 
horse-power engine, 1,000 tons of water per minute might 
be discharged through the nozzles. 

10. In construction this propeller differs, from the paddle 
or screw in the following respects : — On the one hand, the 
paddle-wheels and boxes, sponson beams, and paddle-shaft 
are dipensed with ; on the other, the screw shaft, screw- 
tunnel^ and add to these the solid wrought iron double 
stern-post, so costly in Large screw vessels. In lieu of 
these, the hydraulic propeller requires the turbine-wheel, 
w^ater-chamber, and nozzles, the cost of constructing which 
need not exceed that of those parts dispensed with in the 
paddle or screw. 

11. From the foregoing it will be readily perceived that 
the important element of safety is almost completely 
attained by this invention. It is not too much to say that 
had the unfortunate London been fitted with this propeller, 
she could have discharged with a few strokes of her engine 
all the water which flooded her engine-room. 

In order to bring this invention before the public, a vessel 
called the Natitiliis has been built, at Blackwall, by the 
patentee, at the expense of private gentlemen, for the pur- 
pose of practically proving the advantages of this mode of 
propulsion. A trial-trip was made on Saturday, March 24, 
1866, when the superiority of this invention was fully 
proved. This vessel, fitted with engines of 20-horse power, 
was able, with a less expenditure of steam, to distance a 
paddle-boat of 24-horse power. This vessel has made 
many trips on the river, and very many persons, scientific, 
practical builders, and others, have witnessed her perform- 
ance. One and all, however, expressed their approbation, and 
many their astonishment at the results. On the 8th of 
April a trial trip of a more formal character was made, on 
which occasion one of the best of the up-river paddle- 
boats was hired for the purpose of racing with, and fairly 
testing the merits of, the hydraulic, as compared with the 
paddle-wheel propeller. The Volunteer, the vessel referred 
to, was a smaller vessel, of much finer lines for sailing, and 
of greater horse-power. The Nautilus had, moreover, over 



58 Salmon Culture in Australia. 

a hundred people on board, while the Volunteer had merely 
her own officer and one or two gentlemen, to see that she 
did her very best in the race. Yet the Nautilus, though 
using less steam, had no difficulty in beating her, of which 
fact every person on board was satisfied, and the proof 
seemed complete that the hydraulic, with same power, will 
beat the paddle, leaving the many other advantages pecu- 
liar to the former to the good. 

With this practical proof of the utility of this invention, 
we may fairly prognosticate a great and glorious future for 
the hydraulic propeller, and a few scientific gentlemen can 
obtain permission to inspect the vessel by applying to the 
inventor. Additional trials will be sufficient to place this 
project among the great successes of the age we live in. 

The Waterwitch, launched in June, will not be completed 
and ready for trial until the beginning of October. 

F. J. D. 



SALMON CULTURE IN AUSTRALIA. 

ACCOUNTS recently received from Hobart town and 
other places in the colonies of Australia, where the 
propagation of salmon is being carried on, assure us of the 
very great success which has attended the efforts of Messrs. 
Youl, Wilson, Ramsbottom and other Australian gentlemen, 
now in England to naturalize salmon into Australia. The 
following letter from Mr. W. Ramsbottom, superintendent 
of the salmon breeding establishment at New Norfolk, 
says : — 

" On my opening some of the first ova boxes at Melbourne, 
I had very grave thoughts about our chances of success, as 
I was sure upwards of 70 per cent, were dead, and I had 
then before me our voyage to Hobart town, with the dangers 
connected with reshipping — a work to be repeated three 
times — and then the boxes had to be carried for four miles 
on men's shoulders to the ponds. However, when I opened 
one or two boxes of ova which were taken from the bottom 
of the ice-house, I assure you words cannot express my 
feeling on seeing certainly upwards of 70 percent of healthy 
ova. The difference was really astonishing between the 
two lots of ova, those packed on top of the ice and those 
at the bottom. 



Salmon Culture in Australia. 59 

"After we arrived at the ponds and the deposition of the 
ova completed, I could with great confidence say we had 
at least from 40 to 50 per cent of healthy ova ; we then 
cleared away the moss, &c.,. after which we began our most 
tiresome work of picking out all the dead ova, which took 
us something over six days ; since then I have been able to 
count out all that have died during each 24 hours. The 
deaths have been numerous, but not so many as might have 
been expected when we take into consideration the age of 
the ova, or how long ago it is since the ova were taken from 
the parent fish — now 122 days. But with all I have every 
confidence that we shall hatch out a great number of young 
salmon this time. 

" The hatching, of course, has commenced and this morn- 
ing I can count 98 infants and looking well, and before the 
English mail leaves Australia, I have no doubt but that 
there will be upwards of 1,000." 

This fully proves that the measures which were taken 
as regards the packing of the salmon ova were dictated 
only after many experiments and great anxiety, and the 
successful issue of them can only be a source of congratula- 
tion to all initiators of a fresh inhabitant into a new country, 
more especially to those who are engaged as Messrs. F. 
Buckland, Youl, Wilson in England and Australia, and in 
America by Mr. Stephen H. Ainsworth, whose remarks as 
to feeding we herewith append from a back number of this 
journal : — 

*' The most difficult period in growing trout artificially is 
about the time they commence feeding. This period is from 
forty to sixty days after hatching, according to the tem- 
perature of the water, At this time a large proportion of 
them are very weak, and are entirely unable to stand the 
least current, and consequently are carried with the current 
through the whole length of the hatching-box against the 
screen (if one) at the lower end of the box, and are soon 
suffocated and die. To obviate this put a tank 12 ft. square 
at the lower end of the hatching-box, so that the water will ran 
into it, with a gentle current, carrying the weak trout with 
it into the tank, where they can rest in still water from 2 
to 3 inches deep. In this way they will soon recover and 
come into the very slight current to look for food, and, as 
they grow stronger, run up the hatching-box again. By 
this arrangement I have decreased the mortality so that I 
lose but a very small per centage compared to what I did 
before." 



6o Notes of Animal Life in California. 

It is interesting to mention that enclosed in the ice-house 
witH the salmon ova were two bundles of heather and 
a few shrubs, as an experiment, to try this plan of sending 
trees. They have been reported upon as follows : — " The 
six apple trees and the two species of heath {vulgaris and 
ciliaris), three plants of each, are in a most perfect condi- 
tion. There is not even a decayed leaf on the heaths, and 
all the plants are in as perfect health as if they had only 
been lifted out of the nursery on the day they were un- 
shipped." We heartily congratulate all parties concerned on 
the great success which will eventually crown their efforts to 
stock the streams and ponds of Australia with this, the 
most delicious and costly of the finny tribe. 

F. J. D. 



NOTES OF ANIMAL LIFE IN CALIFORNIA. 

AS the capricious and extraordinary season advances, 
the zoological life of the "valleys and mountains, 
pestilent to the cultivator but diverting to him who wanders 
by flood and field, increases and multiplies. The ground 
squirrels, the kangaroo or jumping rat, and gopher mole, 
furnished with pouches and baskets to store spare morsels 
— all three of which burrowing animals are represented in 
California by distinct species of each family — abound and 
multiply as they never seemed to abound heretofore, and 
almost defy efforts of extermination. They all breed below 
the earth in colonies, and not only devour the crops of 
vegetables and grass on the surface, but attack with greedi- 
ness the roots of all fruit trees under ground and com- 
mit an immense amount of injury. The squirrel is said to 
bring forth six at a birth, four or five times a year, and the 
other two congeners four every three months, which is 
about as bad as rats and rabbits. 

The kangaroo rat, however, is confined to a few localities 
on the coast and in the mountain valleys, but is specially 
abundant in many parts of the Tulare country. There are 
not less than twenty kinds of these small rodentia not bigger 
than a squirrel, which are met with inside the confines of 
California, several of which live above ground, and seldom 
trouble the farmer ; but all the underground ones are his 



Notes of A^iimal Life in California, 6i 

unrelenting and pertinacious enemies. One of the sylvan 
rats, twice the size of a mouse, constructs a nest of sticks 
in the unmolested oak groves, as big as an Indian hut and 
as high as a two-cord pile of wood. 

The fore-mentioned rodentia increase in a tremendous 
ratio in the settled parts of the State where the cultivators 
and herdsmen have thinned off their natural destroyers — 
the bears, lions, coyotes, cats, skunks, ferrets, hawks, owls 
and snakes. Every green crop is attacked by the squirrel, 
and they are terrible on all eggs and young chickens, and 
very wasteful where grain and hay are stored. 

A traveller wandering in the country a few days ago, 
came across a mustard field in blossom, where he sat down 
for hours admiring the hundreds — the swarms of humming 
birds, hunting up musquitoes and aphids, flashing in and 
out and filling their crops to depletion among the fragrant 
flowers of the beef-eater's condiment, which by the way, 
makes the best of honey pasture for the busy bee in Cali- 
fornia. 

Bears and lions have made great havoc among the cattle 
and horses, as their food of oats and wild fruits is every- 
where scarce this season. As the former are thick in the 
mountain pastures where the stock animals have been re- 
cently taken, which have to be accustomed and acclimated 
to their new ranges, great numbers have been lost ; and it 
is feared that the sheep in thousands will soon fall a prey 
to these enemies, if not to regular nostalagia, before they 
can be thinned off by December. 

Ants, flies, musquitoes and tarantulas, with all sorts of 
weasels and bugs, infest the air and the water in vicinities 
where they were very seldom known before, and are be- 
coming excessively troublesome. 

Geese and ducks have been multitudinously abundant 
and familiar, and have effected much damage in localities 
where the young grass is first seen and longest preserved, 
doing great injury to young grain. Crows, ravens, and 
rooks, are as thick as musquitoes near willow swamps, and 
a bigger set of thieving rascals never waylaid the good 
things of the farmer or orchardist, and the black villains 
now turn up their noses at worms and caterpillars. 

Hundreds of hives of bees in lazy, neglectful or ignorant 
hands, have deserted to the forests or been starved out, as 
their flowery pastures dry up early in February ; and even 
among experienced apiarists they will do very bad, and 
occasion unusual expense and labour. 



62 Notes of Animal Life in California. 

The orioles, finches, linnets and canaries, of rainbow- 
colours, and indigenous to the country, of which there are 
over twenty-five species, the most of which carol delightful 
notes, and well worthy the arts of the bird fancier, are ex- 
tremely familiar and plentiful near houses, and in the 
neighbourhood of springs and water pools. The social 
blackbird, or chenate of California, in clattering, surging, 
fife-noising flocks, is seen in sections of cultivated lands, or 
the neighbourhood of swamps, often in such clouds and 
swarms as to seem myriads. The house martin was cur- 
tailed of the usual rations of mud for his adobe nests, and 
is very scarce generally ; but the blue-coated swallow has 
made up for his absence, and fills the air near sunset, 
cramming his crops with musquitoes and such vermin as 
most infest the heavy atmosphere of the declining day. 

We forgot to mention the velvet, mouse-coloured mole, 
without eyes and with very small teeth ; he is " death " on 
"garden sarce," Hoot owls or takalotees make awful music 
and bar-room too-loo-koos in the groves near by, looking 
after toads, frogs and birds and the little ground owl, a 
fellow-citizen in the burrows with squirrels and snakes. 
The ground owl is very spiteful. He is seen skimming 
and scouring near to earth, over the plains and hills, hunt- 
ing up his little bugs, beetles, mice and small frogs. He is 
a quick, choleric, nervous, excitable little fellow this Cali- 
fornia ground owl, the dimensions of a pigeon and gray as 
a badger. And badgers and possums are unwontedly 
familiar in places where they had not been seen before in 
years, and with skunks unusually plentiful, smelling not 
sweet but loud, they make havoc on eggs and chickens, and 
thank heaven, squirrels and gophers they scatter some. 
And we are remmded here that Don Coyette, a mighty sly 
and greedy fellow, has made his teeth tell on many a fat 
young wether and calveling not out of the months, and 
which the herdsmen had taken his best care of, as most 
likely to live and make up some of his losses. As to tame 
animals, it is now undoubtedly well known throughout 
California, that no calving, foaling or lambing is worth a 
pound of salt. The mothers have no milk, and the young 
must die. 

It is a pity the natural history of California is not better 
known. It merely exists in long, dry, scientific lists and 
catalogues scattered in hundreds of volumes in every 
language and country of Europe and America, and no 
Goldsmith or Audubon has worked their gambols and tricks 



The End of Odd Fishes. 63 

and sly ways, or habits and uses of vantage and dis- 
advantage into model lessons yet. The arcana of the 
mountains, valleys and uplands is even yet very imper- 
fectly listed, particularly the insect life ; but it is high time 
they were, for all this kind of thing has gone on since the 
year One, during the howlings of war and the pipings of 
peace, and science never stands still no more than human 
passions, by the benehcent law of Providence. 



THE END OF ODD FISHES.* 

BY I. K. LORD, F.Z.S. 

SEVERAL observers have noticed certain remarkable 
appendages, as of frequent occurrence on individuals 
of most of the species belonging to the genus Aspredo. In 
the " Regne Animal," we find Cuvier alludes to them " as 
globules which appear to be their eggs, adhering to the 
thorax by pedicles." Bloch also observed them, and not 
clearly understanding what such an unusual accumulation 
of strange-looking pores meant, described a species of the 
six-barbled Aspredo {A. sex-cirrhis) as being new to science, 
naming it PlatystacJms cotylephorus. In the " Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons," we read, " I have never seen them 
in the males, and the females do not possess them at all 
seasons." Here the author clearly imagines these appen- 
dages mark some peculiar condition of the female, an 
assumption more recent investigations prove to be quite 
correct. 

The Aspredo batrachus, or toad-like aspredo, is not by 
any means attractive as an object of beauty; the upper 
jaw, broad and flat, projects far beyond the lower, the eyes 
are small, and the ugly, unkissable-looking mouth is further 
— I cannot say adorned, supplied will do — with eight long 
fleshy pendants, barbies or beards in other words, which 
dangle, like living fishing-lines, from different parts of this 
odd and ugly fish's face. Two barbels spring from the 
maxillary; these are dilated at their bases into broad 
ribbon-like membranes, from each of which sprouts a single 

* From -^ Science Gossip" for August;^ 



64 The End of Odd Fishes, 

baby-barbel ; a third pair grow from each corner of the 
mouth ; and the fourth pair originate a short distance be- 
hind the third. 

The ladies aspredo are alone concerned in nursing their 
progeny, and on females only are the curious *' fish-cradles " 
found, so specially contrived for the conveyance of the 
eggs. Dr. Gunther (to whom belongs the honour of first 
clearly pointing out the use of this obscure structure) 
says,"^ " The ovaria of the fish examined are two nearly 
empty sacs, with thick walls, as if the ova had just been 
excluded ; some of them which had not been developed 
still remained between the folds of the interior. The 
whole lower surface of the belly, thorax, throat, and even 
a portion of the pectoral fins, showed numerous shallow 
round impressions, to which a part of the ova still adhered." 
Perhaps the reader has borne in mind what I said in a 
previous number in reference to the strange similitude 
there is betwixt the cellular-like cavities found on the back 
of the Surinam toad when compared with those on the 
under surface of the female aspredo. Towards the time 
of spawning, the skin covering the lower parts of the female 
aspredo becomes thickened, and assumes a spongy cha- 
racter. The spawn or ova are in all probability deposited, 
in the manner usual with most fishes, on a mud bank or in 
some other suitable locality. Then the mamma presses 
herself on the extended mass of roe, and in that way 
squeezes the eggs into the soft sponge-like skin of the 
abdomen ; the throat and fins are also made available for 
the conveyance of the eggs. The spongy substance be- 
tween the eggs is subsequently gradually absorbed by the 
pressure of the latter, excepting in the interspaces, where 
it remains in the form of the appendages previously de- 
scribed. What becomes of the infant fishes when they 
escape from this novel hatching-machine is not known. 
The only described species — as far as I am aware — of this 
genus have all been brought from the river Gambia. 

Many other species of Siluroid fishes take care of their 
progeny in different ways. The male {Arius fissus), it 
seems, carries a small cargo of eggs in its mouth. Dr. 
Gunther describes his finding two males whose stomachs 
were empty (hence it is fair to assume they were not in the 
act of devouring a breakfast of new-laid eggs). In the 
mouth of each fish, however, were about twenty eggs, 

"* "Brit. Mus. Cat." — Fishes, vol. v., p. 173. 



Tfie E?id of Odd Fishes. 65 

larger than a pea, perfectly uninjured, and in a forward 
state of development." 

Europe possesses but one species of the Silurids, the 
Sihiriis glanis — " glajiis, a crafty fish, which bites away the 
bait without meddling with the hook," writes Pliny. Sly 
soever as it may be, nevertheless it shows some remarkable 
traits of parental instincts ; papa and mamma sly Silurus 
both taking an active part in protecting their numerous 
children after they emerge from the eggs. The Sudus 
gigiis, a Siluroid found in the large rivers Amazon and 
Negro, and that, according to Schomburgk, attains to a 
weight of two hundred pounds, regularly bolts its entire 
family if apprehensive of danger. The roe is never de- 
posited, but the young escape from the eggs whilst con- 
tained in the ovarium, and make their way into the cavity 
of the abdomen, where the hatching is completed. When 
sufficiently matured to risk an independent life, the 
numerous offspring issue forth, and, like a pack of aquatic 
hounds, swim in close companionship immediately above 
the mother's head. Should an enemy suddenly attack the 
little assembly, or other danger menace their safety, then, 
like an immense gateway, the mother's mouth spreads open, 
and/r^j"/^, pass, in go the infant fishes, slam goes the gate, 
and safe as in a castle with drawbridge up and portcullis 
down, the fry lie ensconed in the chest of their mother. 

The Gillbakra, a marine Siluroid, and the Zamlau, from 
the rivers of Guiana, in a like manner swallow their 
families and vomit them up again on the disappearance of 
danger. The latter fish is esteemed a great delicacy by 
the natives inhabiting the districts wherein it is found ; 
but, nevertheless, catching it is a service of extreme danger. 
When hooked, the monster quietly swims off with the 
canoe and its freight of fishermen quite as easily as a 
Thames tug-boat paddles away with a long fleet of coal- 
barges ; and as these rivers appear to be broken into 
numerous waterfalls, over which the " Zamlau " does not 
in the least mind taking a header — rather likes it than 
otherwise — the sport, to my fancy, must be far too exciting 
to be pleasant. 

The " Hard-back," a fish belonging to the genus Cal- 
lichthys, which is found along the coast of Guiana, builds a 
regular nest of leaves and grass-stalks, in holes in mud- 
banks not very far below the surface of the water ; into 
these fish-nests the roe is placed. The eggs once safely 
deposited in the nest, let all fishes or egg-loving enemies 



66 The End of Odd Fishes. 

stand clear of the watchful mother ; she never goes far 
from the nest, and is ready at any moment to do battle 
with friend or foe, if either dares approach her sacred 
charge. 

Sir R. Schomburgk tells us that these fish ascend the 
trenches intersecting the sugar estates in spawning season, 
where they are easily taken in baskets placed near the 
nests. The male fish also aids in protecting the young. 
The nests are easily discoverable, as above each, a little 
patch of froth invariable accumulates on the water. The 
parent fishes, however, often fall victims to darkey cunning, 
from the fearless fury they display if their nests are inter- 
fered with. The negro places both his hands under water, 
and gradually brings them towards the nests ; the enraged 
fish dashes at the hands, but only to find itself deftly 
clutched in a living trap, from which it seldom escapes. 

Another singular instance of a nest-building fish is found 
in one of the Zalyrinthici, known as the Gourami (OspJiro- 
f^enus olfax) of ichthyologists. In the " Zoological Journal " 
(iv. p. 309), we find a very interesting account of this fish 
from the pen of General Hardwicke, who paid particular 
attention to their habits during his residence in the Isle de 
France. Where water-grass grows thickly and spreads its 
green flag-like leaves over the still water of either pool or 
tank, there the Gourami, at its breeding season, is sure to 
be met with. These grass culms the fish manage to en- 
tangle and twist together, to form a kind of verandah, 
under which their all-important domestic duties may be 
carried on safe from prying eyes. The roe deposited, both 
male and female hover round their treasure, and fight 
furiously with any prowler that from design or chance 
ventures near. After some time, usually about a month, 
the young fish emerge from the eggs, and as a hen guards 
her chickens, in like manner the Gourami keeps untiring 
watch and ward over her baby-brood until they are old 
enough, and able to shift for themselves. 

I could adduce numerous instances of other nest-building 
fishes. The little sticklebacks, known to every schoolboy, 
are familiar examples ; but as the habits and systems of 
stickleback nest-building were able recorded and illustrated 
in a previous number of "Science Gossip," anything I 
could say would be but useless repetition. 

To the angler, who is only an angler as a sportsman, and 
all honour to him too, but who does not care to be a 
naturalist as well, a fish is only a fish, against the cunning 



Tike End of Odd Fishes, 67 

of .which he pits his skill in arts of deception, whether with 
artificial fly, worm, spoon-bait, or what not, and regards the 
object of his pursuit only in reference to its value in the 
matter of size, or as to the sport it may afford. Should the 
successful angler, or anyone else, have the results of his 
day's fishing set before him in quite another phase — one 
which appeals to his mind, via his palate, he probably then 
thinks little more of a fish than as something to be eaten, 
very delicious, and beyond all praise. To the ichthy- 
ologist, a fish, whether it leaps at the gandy fly, or swallows 
the tempting bait offered to lure it, as a sporting fish ought, 
or whether it be as toothsome and appetizing as the 
" venison of the sea," or glorious red mullet, which made 
Quain desire a throat as long as Lombard street, and every 
inch a palate : in a word, be the fish's qualities what they 
may, good, bad, or indifferent, to him, ichthyologically, it 
is only a cold-blooded animal, possessing a vertebra, gills 
instead of lungs ; fins and scales in lieu of feet, fur, or 
feathers ; spending its life in the water, and developing its 
young from eggs. 

Under all three aspects, by all and every means, think 
of a fish, if your tastes and inclinations lead you, my 
young friends, so to do ; but what I have sought to do in 
writing about '' odd fishes," is to bring before you certain 
members of the scaly tribes, in which there are other 
qualities entitling them to every consideration, beyond 
those embodied in a strictly ichthyological, gastronomical, 
or piscatorial point of view ; hoping thereby that you may 
be induced to dive deeper into the countless mysteries to 
be found in all God's creatures, from the Diatom to the 
Elephant, if you will but look for them ; to discover for 
yourselves the uses, as well as the structure of, unfamiliar 
appendages and anatomical pecuHarities. Everything, 
depend upon it, has a use, and we may sit in the studio and 
think over it for an indefinite time, and after all be none 
the wiser; but ramble into the haunts and home of the 
beast, or whatsoever form of life it may be that so puzzles 
you, play the spy upon its action, learn its habits, and it 
will aid you more, even though only a few days be devoted 
to such observations, than will whole years of indoor study. 
Who, I ask, would ever have given a fish credit for being 
the embodiment of a home-loving, nest-building, egg- 
carrying creature, discharging every parental duty in a 
highly exemplary and praiseworthy manner, unless our 
finny friends had been visited when at home, or, better, 



68 On Scientific Physical Training 

transferred to places wherein their habits could bewatchdd, 
and what they did recorded from day to day ? 

There are hosts besides quite as " odd fishes " as those 
I have referred to, and if I have succeeded in inducing 
any of my younger readers, by thus administering a 
wholesome stimulus to curiosity, to trace out the oddities 
of odd fishes for themselves, my aim is attained. 



ON SCIENTIFIC PHYSICAL TRAINING AND 
RATIONAL GYMNASTICS. 

BY M. ROTH, ESQ., M.D. 

AFTER many years extensive practice in treating de- 
formities, curvatures of the spine and limbs, I have 
come to the conclusion that it is only a sense of duty that 
has induced me to draw the attention of the authorities of 
all public schools to the necessity of teaching physical 
training as well as the ordinary rudiments of learning. 

I say a sense of duty induced me because I wish to act 
according to a quotation from a French writer — a quotation 
which I have made use of frequently, namely : — 

It is the duty, the bounden duty, of whoever has an idea 
which he believes useful, to publish it for the common good. 

Whatever you know to be useful, and good to be known 
by every one, that you cannot conscientiously keep to your- 
self. 

My Motto is — Prevention is better, easier, and cheaper 
than cure, and as scientific physical training includes the 
means for preserving health, I believe such training to be 
useful, and good to be known by every one ; I will, there- 
fore, not further apologize for bringing before your notice 
a subject which is of some interest to everybody ; because 
I am sure you will agree with me that there are many more 
agreeable ways of spending your money than for medical 
fees and for poor-rates, which last are always higher in pro- 
portion to the greater neglect of scientific physical training 
of the masses. 

The highest aim of medical science is prevention of disease, 
and my attention has been especially directed to this branch 
in consequence of the ailments of long standing, and of 



and Rational Gymnastics. 69 

bodily deformities of every kind, which for more than 
twenty years I have had an opportunity of observing ; the 
majority of these cases have been traced to the neglect of 
the science of physical training, and of the elementary laws 
of health, or in other words, to ignorance, indifference and 
neglect. 

Without stating the results of my personal experience, I 
will read a few facts extracted from official reports, you will 
then be able to judge whether it is worth while to think of 
physical training, whether our public and private school- 
masters and schoolmistresses are to continue to restrict 
their instructions to reading, writing, and arithmetic, with- 
out paying the slightest attention to bodily training; or 
whether it is time to introduce some reforms in our train- 
ing-schools, and thus prepare a staff of intelligent teachers 
whose task will be to educate mind and body sinmltaneously 
and who will not train the one without the other, but 
will guide and lead them like a pair of horses harnessed to 
one pole, as Montaigne proposed. 

The following are the few facts to which I beg to call 
your attention : — 

"In i860, 27,853 recruits were examined at the head- 
quarters of the recruiting districts for the army, and 7,128 
of them, or 256 per 1,000 were found unfit for military 
service. This number does not include all rejections, for 
1 1,054 were secondary inspections ; that is, inspections after 
the men had been examined and accepted at out-stations, 
where, of course there must have been rejections. 

" Of the 16,799 primary inspections, 318 per 1,000 were 
rejected; while in France, in 1859, ^^^ rejections were only 
317 per 1,000. I say only, because in France every man is 
liable to be drawn for service ; and the proportion would 
be probably smaller if the enlistment would be voluntary 
as in 5^ngland. 

" In the various recruiting districts the rejections per 
1,000 amounted in Glasgow to 43 per cent., Belfast to 42 
per cent, London to 33 per cent, Bristol to 20 per cent. 
The rejections amongst the Scotch are 31 per cent; Irish, 
25 per cent ; English, 24 per cent ; Welsh, 23 per cent 

" Two-fifths of all rejections were for causes indicating 
general bad health, an item = 01 26 per 1,000. One-fifth 
for causes which would affect the soldier's powers of march- 
ing = 63 per 1,000." 

On comparing the causes of rejection, I find that England 
has the highest proportion of small and malformed chests, 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I, G 



70 On Scientific Physical Training 

and curvatures of the spine. Scotland excels in loss and 
decay of many teeth, which is deemed a symptom of bad 
health, defects of both upper and lower extremities, and 
varicose veins. Ireland has the largest number of diseases 
of the eyes. Having mentioned varicose veins, I wish 
to point out that while the French have lo per cent, the 
English count 28 per cent. 

Half our recruits examined in i860 were described as 
labourers, husbandmen, or servants. One-fourth came 
from mechanical occupations, which are in general favour- 
able to physical development, as carpenters, smiths, masons, 
&c. 

The proportion of rejections with regard to occupations 
is also instructive ; amongst mechanics the amount of rejec- 
tions was 27 per cent. ; manufacturing artizans, 26 per 
cent. ; labourers, husbandmen, and servants, 25 per cent. ; 
shopmen and clerks, 23 per cent. ; professional occupation 
and students, 16 per cent. 

Of 530 candidates for railway employment, 201 were re- 
jected. The chief causes of rejection were small and mal- 
formed chest in 92 cases. This is from the report of the 
medical officers of the Great Western and its Associated 
Railways Provident Society for 1862. 

It is a blessing that our female population is not enticed 
by the recruiting sergeant to accept the shilling, and if I 
were obliged to state the amount of rejections amongst 
females, the number of those who are unfit for hard work 
would exceed fifty per cent. ; because we must add to the 
complaints of the rejected recruits all the bad effects 
of tight dresses, of corsets, stays, bodices, waistbands, busks, 
and of other injurious influence, by which our female popu- 
lation only is affected. How numerous the complaints 
arising from these causes are, every medical man who has 
paid some attention to this subject is able to state. 

People unfortunately believe that illness under every 
form is a dispensation of a higher power, and that they can 
but submit to it, and thus they try, only when ill, to re- 
cover health. 

Many are not aware that a kind Providence has given 
us the means of preventing a large amount of diseases, the 
majority of which are but a certain and necessary effect of 
causes, which could be removed if we would not neglect 
the elementary laws of health revealed to us for our own 
well-being, as well as for that of our less educated fellow- 
creatures. 



and Rational Gymnastics. 7 1 

These laws form a most important, — I may even say the 
most important part of all scientific physical education, the 
object of which is the simultaneous and harmonious de- 
velopment of the bodily and mental faculties f such develop- 
ment is the basis of a sound constitution, and enables the 
will to control the body, and the body to obey the demands 
of the will ; sound physical education enables us in any 
condition of life to move and to act with caution and firm- 
ness. The beneficial action of mind and body when sound 
being mutual, a certain amount of energy is produced, 
which has the most beneficial effect on our moral, intellectual, 
physical, and bodily faculties. 

If the will has, within reasonable limits, perfect control 
over the well-developed body, we can not only resist with 
more ease many injurious influences, but also preserve our 
individuality while in contact with the external world; 
being exposed not only to external influences, but also to 
the attacks of others, it is important that we should be 
able to defend ourselves against these attacks, and therefore 
rational physical education serves as a step to prepare us 
for the defence of our homes and our country. 

These few remarks show the connection which exists 
between physical education and military gymnastics ; that 
all those who are entrusted with the mental education of 
the young and adolescent should also be able to conduct 
their bodily education ; at present, with very few excep- 
tions, only uneducated persons have the care of the bodily 
development of the growing generation, "and they are 
expected, by a merely mechanical drill, or by falsely called 
calisthenic exercises, to produce that harmony of the 
various bodily and mental faculties which it is impossible 
to do without previous training, and without the knowledge 
of the structure and functions of the organs of the human 
body, and without the knowledge of the laws which govern 
the right development of the human frame. 

The drill-sergeant and the dancing-mistress are the 
persons who in the majority of educational institutions 
are resorted to for the physical education of the young. 

The drill-sergeant is engaged to drill the boys and girls 
once or twice per week. He does this most conscientiously, 
and exactly as he is accustomed to drill the adult recruits, 
according to the directions of the manual of drill as pub- 
lished under the sanction of the authorities. 

The dancing-mistress tries her best to give the young 
gentlemen and ladies by calisthenic, or at present by what 

G 2 



72 On Scientific Physical Training 

she calls the fashionable Spanish exercises, or by exercises 
with the chest expander or any other exercises, the appear- 
ance of what is usually called a good figure. 

The few persons who think about physical education at 
all, believe that climbing on poles, ropes, and ladders, 
leaping, and athletic exertions of any kind, as used in the 
majority of gymnasia, are all that is necessary for the 
development of the body ; the consequence is that gym- 
nastic apparatus are provided on which the pupils may 
hang, swing, or make any tour de force at their own option ; 
the principal aim is to produce brute muscular strength : 
all rational instruction is necessarily neglected, because the 
teachers themselves have not even an elementary know- 
ledge of the manner in which the body is formed, and for 
what purpose its various parts are wanted, they do not 
know the injurious influences to be avoided in order not to 
interfere with the free action of the lungs and other organs, 
as well as with the natural growth, development, and 
movements of the body and limbs. 

The non-interference with the natural development of 
the body is one indispensable part of a scientific physical 
training, which can be completed only by rational gym- 
nastics, that is, gymnastics based on anatomical and 
physiological principles. 

There are many systems of gymnastics, but there is and 
can be only one rational system of gymnastics ; we owe 
the development of this science to the genius of a country- 
man of Linnaeus, the Swedish patriot and poet, Ling. 

The fact that people are much more impressed by what 
they see than what they hear, and that they learn easier 
by what strikes the eye, induced me to form a collection of 
models for the instruction of those who have the care of 
the young — mothers, nurses, governesses, schoolmasters, 
and especially schoolmistresses. I say especially school- 
mistresses, because these most important persons ought to 
be well informed in all matters concerning the health and 
the physical training of the young, of whom at present 40 
per cent, die before the completion of the fifth year, while 
of the remaining sixty, if boys at the age of twenty, at 
least twenty-two are unfit for military service, or railway 
employment ; and if girls, at least thirty are unfit for hard 

* The collection of models, diagrams, books, &c., to which 
reference is made in this paper, belongs to the South Kensington 
Museum. 



and Rational Gymnastics. 73 

work. If every schoolmistress were well instructed in 
these subjects, she being a centre acting on an average 
number of fifty to sixty girls, who in their turn will be 
wives and mothers, there would be some hope that in the 
next, or third generation, the fruits of scientific physical 
training would be visible, and that every English woman 
would be the officer of health in her own house, and that 
the rejections of our recruits would be under 10 per cent. 
There is no intention on my part to exclude other persons 
from being trained in the subjects I have named ; my 
object is only to point out one of the many practical 
modes by which, according to my humble opinion, the 
physical state of the masses would be improved. 

There are ladies' and other colleges, training schools^ 
where instruction can be obtained in all branches of 
science, except in that of physical training ; " certificates 
are given to the future governesses and tutors, to the 
masters and mistresses, that they are capable of instructing 
and taking care of the pupils, although they have not the 
slightest idea how to preserve their own health or that of 
their pupils. The consequence is that many of these, in 
other respects, excellent persons believe it to be beneath 
their dignity to attend to the physical development and 
training of those placed under their care. 

The society for the employment of women has a large 
field of female occupation open to those who wish and 
seek for employment which is healthy, useful, and will be 
remunerative, because educated teachers of physical train- 
ing are wanted ; many families who do not wish to send 
their children to the dancing academy, would be glad to 
avail themselves of the services of such female teachers. 

If we wish to have strong soldiers, sailors, and working 
men, we must first think of their mothers, who have the 
difficult and responsible task of rearing them in infancy 
and childhood. This opinion is shared by many of my 
professional brethren. Other emJnent men begin also to 
pay some attention to the subject, as for instance the Very 
Rev. the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Millman, from whose 
address as chairman of the educational section at the 
International Social Science Congress, the following lines 
are extracted : — 

" There was. however, an education anterior to that of 
school — the education at the mother's breast ; and as to 
that they might depend upon it that the best educated 
female would in general be the best mother, and do her 



74 On Scientific Physical Training 

duty best to her infant children. But this, above all, should 
be recollected, that the first duty of national education 
was the health of the children. A sickly child might be 
very intelligent, but in general, quickness of intelligence 
would be much affected by animal spirits, and animal 
spirits rested on healthfulness." 

Although the physical, moral, and economical advan- 
tages arising from a system of physical training have been 
clearly shown in evidence before the Royal Educational 
Commission, there is still at present but very little hope 
for the general introduction of scientific physical training, 
because its bearing upon diminution of infant mortality, 
upon prevention of diseases, and consequently upon dimi- 
nution of poor-rates, as well as upon the general increase 
of the population, and their working efficiency, their greater 
power of defending the country, and of colonising the 
various parts of the globe belonging to this empire, are 
not yet sufficiently understood ; the greatest impediment 
is, that we are accustomed to pay for the diminution and 
removal of an evil when developed, but we do not like the 
cheaper course of prevention ; there is a want of encourage- 
ment on the part of the legislature, and no inducement is 
held out to the teachers of schools under Government in- 
spection to give up a part of their time to the introduction 
of a branch of education, which is not yet considered 
necessary, and for which, as it is not obligatory, no remu- 
n.eration is awarded. I am sorry to be obliged to repeat 
a passage written twelve years ago, in a letter addressed to 
Lord Granville, at that time President of the Council on 
Education. I was then advocating physical training, and 
the introduction of rational gymnastics as a very important 
branch of national education. The passage is — 

" We have cattle-shows, exhibitions of poultry, distri- 
bution of prizes, and medals to the trainers of beasts for 
improving them. There are humane societies, philanthropic 
enough to reward a man who has saved another from 
dro\vning or fire ; but what is there to reward those whose 
life is devoted to the mental and bodily improvement of 
our fellow-men t Would it not be desirable to encourage 
the zeal of educators by offering prizes to the man, who, 
by his moral and physical training, has brought up the 
greatest number of healthy and well-educated pupils "i 
How is it that blind, deaf, and dumb children, idiots, and 
other unfortunates, are taken care of, while we allow so 
many, originally healthy and able-bodied children, to 



and Rational Gymnastics. 75 

become crippled in body and mind by the ignorance of 
their parents respecting the most necessary and simple 
means of preserving health ? How many more lives might 
be saved, and human bei-ngs preserved from disease^ 
poverty, and crime ? " 

These introductory observations will be sufficient to give 
you some idea of the general views I entertain on the 
subject of physical training. I beg you to understand 
that one main feature of the system is the n on -interfering 
with the development of the human body. 

At present people think of training soldiers when they 
are twenty years old. That is very hard work. They can 
be drilled to do certain things ; but if you wish to train 
them to be more than mechanical instruments, it is de- 
sirable they should be able to place the body under the 
control of the will, and in order to produce this general in- 
fluence of the will upon the body, it is necessary that the 
education of the body should go hand in hand with that 
of the mind from the earliest school period — I mean from 
the time they begin to go to school ; and this training must 
be continued through the different stages of their growth, 
and then we shall be able to have soldiers in a much 
shorter time ; because if I give a man a general power and 
influence through his will to act upon his body, what he 
has to do becomes very easy to him ; but if you take a 
man whose mind has never been accustomed to act upon 
the body, the task is very difficult. Therefore, physical 
training is, at the same time, a mental training, and the 
means which we use to develope the body are, at the same 
time, means to develope certain of the faculties of the 
mind, because a certain amount of order, exactitude, energy, 
quickness, and a certain degree of mutual assistance, will 
be produced if we train body and mind mutually. 

Before I begin to speak of the second or active part of 
physical training, by which I mean rational gymnastics, I 
wish to point out that there are certain agents, without 
which we are not able to live, agents of which people in 
general do not think so much as they ought — viz.,, air, food, 
drink ; to each of these special attention is to be paid. 

Another indispensable agent is to have a certain amount 
of warmth. We produce, through our own natural func- 
tions, warmth in ourselves, besides which we have artificial 
means of retaining this warmth by the aid of clothing. 
Inasmuch as military men sufl"er very much, when on the 
march, from being improperly shod, I have thought it 



76 On Scientific Physical Training 

desirable to show how a foot is to be developed, and what 
are the general bad influences acting upon its development. 
In the skeleton of the foot w.e find the big toe is very- 
straight, quite in a straight line with the other toes. 
Adults and children whose parents have taken care of 
this point since they were born, have the big toe as 
straight as it should be. In models I have by me, there is 
one where the big toe has begun to move on one side and 
to approach the next toe, instead of remaining in a straight 
line. Another example; will show how one of the toes is 
already pushed out. The result will be that as the foot 
continues to grow, a badly-formed foot will be produced. 
Here is again a specimen of what is wrongly called a 
beautiful foot We see ladies dress in tiny boots, and this 
model shows the deformity of the foot when taken out of 
that tiny boot. Here are two boots made for the same 
foot. One has the high heel, the narrow sole, the pointed 
toe, and high instep ; the other, which is made to accom- 
modate the natural form of the foot, has a very large basis 
and no heel. I am sure, if we were destined to have a 
•high heel, nature would have given it to us. The shoe 
which I propose for a man, as it should be worn, is made 
with a bend in the sole, which is not required to be elastic. 
All that is necessary is to have the bend thinner, wide 
soles, and the inner side of the boot in a straight line. 
This is the most comfortable boot, and it will enable a 
man to march much better and much longer than any 
other kind of boot. We find that a great obstacle to the 
adoption of the proper form of boot lies partly with the 
public, whose ideas of a beautiful foot are wrong, and partly 
with the shoemakers, because, everything now being made 
for the trade, and on a large scale, they do not like to 
make an article which is not yet generally used, and which 
wants any particular care in making. So that, should any 
shoemakers wish to do the right thing, they would meet 
with some impediments. I point this out because one 
great object towards the adoption of a proper physical 
training is to change our ideas about certain matters. I 
am told that amongst soldiers, boots are not worn with 
comfort until they have been torn and mended again in the 
barracks. How far that is true I do not know, but it was 
mentioned to me as a fact when I made inquiries on this 
subject. Many of the rejections of recruits, in consequence 
of complaints of the foot, which affect the powers of march- 
ing, are partly the result of this cause — the improper form 



^ . and Rational Gymnastics, 77 

of the boot. I have been told by another gentleman, that 
in some parts of the country they wear boots of the weight 
of 14 lbs. It will explain how difficult it is for them to 
march if that is the case ; and if, in addition to this, they 
have not the right form of boot, you can easily understand 
how the development of the foot is prevented, and that the 
men are unable to perform their duties. Short and thick 
stockings aid in producing deformed toes ; these models 
show divisions for each single toe, and may be called foot- 
gloves. In the other model is only one division for the 
big toe ; such stockings have proved very useful in some 
cases of deformed and compressed toes, and I may say 
that they prevent the pushing out or down of single toes, 
which is frequently caused by narrow shoes and boots. 

I trust this will fall into the hands of ladies, because 
what I have mentioned in regard to the foot applies equally 
to the chest. If you look at the figure, which shows the 
natural development of the chest, you will see that the 
external lines of the space in which the lungs are enclosed, 
are almost round or oval. But the form into which the 
chest is usually compressed is different — the external lines 
are angular. I sent to a shop for a stay such as would be 
worn by people of the working class, as I wished to say 
something on this subject. I did not like to send to a 
fashionable staymaker's, where the compression is carried 
to a still greater extent. Now, stays such as these inter- 
fere very much with the action of the lungs. But so long 
as gentlemen admire this form of waist, there is no hope 
that ladies will give it up. In short, the object of my 
bringing this subject forward, is not to blame the ladies, 
but to tell the gentlemen that so long as they admire this 
deformed figure of a lady, and say, " Oh, I can span her 
waist ! oh, how beautiful ! " so long will it be perfectly 
useless to induce the ladies to relinquish the bad habit of 
wearing tight stays. It does much mischief, for though it 
may not matter with fashionable ladies, who have their 
doctors and can remain at home, it is imitated by the 
middle class and the working class, and it produces a very 
bad effect. Therefore, gentlemen, do not blame the ladies, 
but blame yourselves. So long as you do not change your 
ideas of beauty, so long as you think a curved line is ugly, 
and an angular line is pretty, we have no reason to expect 
that any change will take place. 

Then, again, there is another injurious influence which 
acts against our natural physical development, and that is, 



78 Introductioji of Imphee a7id Sorghum, 

the injurious positions in which our bodies are kept. To 
give an insight into this I have prepared a table of some 
injurious positions. The first are some of the injurious 
positions as they are going on in the working classes, and 
some others as they are going on in the better classes 
during the time of education. So the table is called " Inju- 
rious positions to be avoided during growth and education." 
It will give some notion of these bad positions. For in- 
stance, how little girls having to nurse children, begin to get 
crooked before they are grown up ; besides this, they have 
to encounter the injurious action of a hard wooden busk 
in their stays. You can fancy what a bad effect would be 
produced by such an instrument upon the body in con- 
junction with the stooping posture necessary in nursing. 
Then, again, needlewomen have to work in low rooms, in 
a bent position, where there is no ventilation, and plenty 
of gas and people. 

(To be continued.) 



THE WAY IMPHEE AND SORGHUM WERE 
INTRODUCED. 

THE following interesting account of the introduction 
of Sorghum and Imphee into Europe is from the 
pen of J. H. Smith, Esq., of Quincy, Illinois : — 

Of the cane plants hitherto cultivated in the north there 
are two distinct kinds, though similar in their habits, cha- 
racteristics, and wants, — viz., the Chinese cane and the 
Imphee or African varieties. The former is from the north 
of China, the latter from the south eastern coast of Africa. 
Only one kind of the Chinese cane is known to us. Its 
first introduction was made in France, and was briefly as 
follows: — Count d'Montigny^ in the year 185 1, and while 
he was the French consul at Shanghai, in China, in com- 
pliance with an official request, sent to the Geographical 
Society of Paris, a collection of plants and seeds which he 
found in China, and which he thought would succeed in 
his own country, and among these this celebrated plant 
which we have in America. It strikes us at once as a 
curious instance of the manner in which momentous results 
often depend upon the slightest thread, when we consider 
that of the package sent by the Count to Paris only one 



Introduction of Imphee and Sorghum, 79 

single seed germinated in a garden at Toulon, and that if 
by any attack of insects, by injudicious planting, cultivating 
or manuring, or any one of a thousand possible mischances, 
the plant springing from this one seed had been destroyed, 
France and America might for years have been without 
knowledge of the Chinese sugar-cane. The capitalist might 
never have hesitated whether to invest his means in build- 
ings and machinery for purifying its juice, and the farmer 
never counted the cost of its cultivation. Fortunately the 
plant grew and escaped all dangers, and in due time 
furnished the seeds sufficiently matured for subsequent pro- 
pagation. 

The Chinese cane has a very lofty and well-propor- 
tioned stalk, with a graceful, bushy, bowing top. Its seeds 
are of a very dark purple colour and almost black. Among 
the principle difficulties which it has to encounter during its 
growth are our heavy prairie winds. These winds break 
and bend the plants to the earth, and when broken or bent 
they seldom make good syrup. The Chinese are more 
slender and more liable to be thrown dov/n than the Imphee 
canes. We have never succeeded in making much sugar 
from the Chinese plant, but it makes a more pleasant syrup 
than the Imphee tribe and is far more free from acid, When- 
ever the cane is injured in any way it changes the colour 
of the syrup and gives it an acid taste. 

The Imphee canes are from the south-eastern coast of 
Africa, as already stated. Mr. Wray, tells us that there 
are sixteen different kinds of these African canes. The 
Imphee tribe, which have been introduced by this gentle- 
man, are certainly far superior to all others for sugar-making. 
Their crystallization is much coarser than that of the Chi- 
ese, which is of a quite floury texture ; and there is evidently 
a marked distinction found in our experiments between 
the Imphee cane and that which is called the Chinese 
Sorghum in respect to their real value for producing sugar, 
the former giving about seven-tenths, while the latter gives 
only about two-tenths sugar. The juice of the Imphee is 
far more hmpid, and contains much less of that mucila- 
ginous substance, known among farmers as white glue 
scum, than that of the sorghum ; subsequently it crystallizes 
much more easily, and we believe that there is as much 
real sugar in the Imphee canes as there is in any of the 
canes raised in the tropics. We have taken from one 
gallon of mush syrup, weighing thirteen pounds, eight 
pounds of sugar, as course-grained as any of southern pro- 



8o On Recent Progress in the History of 

duction, showing that it has sufficient body and capacity 
for being- refined into the best kind ofsugar that the market 
could afford. We are convinced that this work of refine- 
ment is merely a matter of time." 



ON RECENT PROGRESS IN THE HISTORY OF 
PROPOSED SUBSTITUTES FOR GUNPOWDER. 

BY PROFESSOR F. A. ABEL, F.R.S., V.C.P.S., CHEMIST TO THE 
WAR DEPARTMENT. 

{Delivered at the Royal Institution^ May 4th, 1866.) 

THE changes which have been affected in the compo- 
sition of gunpowder since its first application as a pro- 
pelling agent have been limited to small variations in the 
proportions of its constituents. But the modifications 
wihch have from time to time been introduced into the 
details of its manufacture, e.g., the preparation of the in- 
gredients, their incorporation, and the conversion of the 
mixture into compact masses (grains, &c.), of different size 
and density, have been sufficiently important and success- 
ful to secure the fulfilment of gunpowder, in a more or less 
efficient manner, of the various requirements of military 
science, and of different branches of industry. 

The characteristics of gunpowder, as an explosive 
material of permanent character, the action of which is sus- 
ceptible of great modification, are mainly subscribable to 
the peculiar properties of the oxidising agent, saltpetre. 

Frequent attempts have been made to replace this con- 
stituent of gunpowder by other nitrates (such as those of 
sodium, lead, and barium) ; but, although materials suitable 
for blasting operations have been thus prepared (such as 
soda-gunpowder, and barytic gunpowder, or poudre saxi- 
fragine), all mixtures of this class, hitherto produced, have 
exhibited important defects, when compared with gun- 
powder manufactured for propelling purposes. 

The well-known oxidizing agent, chlorate of potash, 
which differs from saltpetre only in containing chlorine in 
the place of nitrogen, is far more energetic in its action 
upon oxidizable bodies than any of the nitrates. Thus, a 



Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder, 8i 

mixture of chlorate of potash with charcoal alone, defla- 
grates as violently as gunpowder, and is far more readily- 
inflamed by percussion than the latter ; while a mixture 
analogous to gunpowder, containing chlorate of potash in 
place of saltpetre, detonates violently when struck with 
moderate force, and acts far too destructively, on account 
of the rapidity of its explosion, to admit of its safe employ- 
ment in firearms. 

Many years ago a mixture known as German or white 
gunpowder, and consisting of chlorate of potash, ferro- 
cyanide of potassium, and sugar, was proposed and tried 
without success as a substitute for gunpowder ; and since 
then many preparations of similar character have been sug- 
gested for employment either as blasting and mining agents 
or for use in shells, or even for all the purposes to which 
gunpowder is applied. The most promising of these, 
claimed as discoveries by Mr. Horsley and Dr. Ehrhardt, 
are mixtures of chlorate of potash with substances of per- 
manent character and readily obtained, containing both 
carbon and hydrogen ; such as tannic and gallic acids, and 
some kinds of resins. These mixtures are much less 
violently detonating than most of the explosive mixtures 
containing chlorate of potash, while, if well prepared, they 
are decidedly more powerful, as explosives, than gunpowder. 
For blasting purposes, some of these mixtures probably 
possess decided advantages over ordinary blasting powder, 
and possibly they may also be susceptible of employment 
for sporting purposes ; but they are not applicable to fire- 
arms used for war purposes, because, in order to ensure the 
requisite uniformity of action, the ingredients must be sub- 
mitted to proper processes of incorporation, &c., such as 
are applied to the manufacture of gunpowder ; and this 
treatment would render the mixtures far more violent, and 
consequently destructive in their action upon firearms, than 
if used in the form of crude mixtures. 

A comparatively very safe application of chlorate of 
potash to the production of a substitute for gunpowder was 
made about six years ago by a German chemical manufac- 
turer, M. Hochstadter. Unsized (blotting) paper was 
thoroughly soaked in, and coated with, a thin paste con- 
sisting of chlorate of potash, finely divided charcoal, a small 
quantity of sulphide of antimony, and a little starch, gum, 
or some similar binding material, water being used as the 
solvent and mixing agent. The paper was rolled up very 
compactly and dried in that form. In this manner, very 



82 On Recent Progress in the History of 

firm- rolls of an explosive material are obtained, which 
burns with considerable violence in open air, and the pro- 
pelling effect of which, in small arms, has occasionally been 
found greater than that of a corresponding charge of rifle 
powder. Moreover, the material, if submitted in small por- 
tions to violent percussion, exhibits but little tendency to 
detonation. But as no reliance can be placed on a sufficient 
uniformity of action in a firearm, of these explosive rolls, 
this alone sufficed to prevent their competing with powder. 
The same description of explosive preparation, differingfrom 
that of M. Hochstadter in a trifling modification of its com- 
position, which is certainly not likely to lead to its greater 
success, has recently been brought forward in this country 
by M. Reichen and Mr. Melland. 

One or two other much cruder explosive preparations, 
containing chlorate of potash, alone or in conjunction with 
saltpetre, have met with some application to blasting pur- 
poses. One of these consisted of spent tan, in small frag- 
ments, which was saturated with the oxidizing agent, and 
afterwards dusted over with sulphur. When flame or a 
red-hot iron is applied to this preparation, it deflagrates 
very slowly and imperfectly ; but when employed in blast 
holes, where it is confined within a small space, it develops 
sufficient explosive force to do good work. In addition to 
comparative cheapness, the great advantage of safety was 
claimed for this material by its inventor, a claim which was 
substantiated by the partial destruction by fire, on two 
occasions, of a manufactory of the substance near Plymouth, 
without the occurrence of an explosion. 

The accidental explosions of gunpowder which are occa- 
sionally heard of, occur, in most instances, at the manufac- 
tories, and in the course of some operations (especially that 
of incorporation) to which the explosive mixture is com- 
mitted. The only means of guarding against, or reducing 
as much as possible, the liability to the occurrence of these 
accidents, consist in the strictest attention to the precau- 
tionary measures and regulations which experience has 
proved to be essential to safety, and which, in spite of the 
strictest supervision, are unquestionably sometimes over- 
looked or imperfectly carried out by workmen. Explosions 
of gunpowder, generally of a serious character, do occur, 
however, though very rarely, during the transport of the 
material, or in the magazines where it is stored. The great 
explosion of a gunpowder magazine at Erith, in September, 
1864, specially directed the attention of Government and 



Proposed Sttbstitutes for Gunpowder. 83 

the public generally to the necessity of adopting measures 
for reducing as much as possible, the risk of occurrence of 
such disastrous accidents. Hence, much interest has recently 
been excited by a well-known method of rendering gun- 
powder less dangerous in its character, which has been 
brought prominently before the public by Mr. Gale, and 
which consists of diluting powder, or separating its grains 
from each other, by means of a finely powdered non-explo- 
sive substance. Attempts have several times been made in 
past years to apply to practical purposes the obvious fact, 
of which nobody acquainted with the nature of gunpowder, 
could be ignorant, that, by interposing between the grains 
ot powder, a sufficient quantity of a finely divided material, 
which offers great resistance to the transmission of heat, the 
ignition of several grains of the entire mass may be accom- 
plished without risk of inflaming contiguous grains. In 
1835, Piobert made a series of experiments Avith the view 
to apply this fact practically, to reduce the explosiveness 
of gunpowder, and similar experiments of an extensive 
character were carried on by a Russian chemist, Faddiff, 
between 1841 and 1844. These experimenters found that 
the object in view might be attained by diluting gunpowder 
with any one of its components ; they also employed very 
fine sand (a substance closely allied in its physical charac- 
ters to the powdered glass, which Mr. Gale now proposes 
to use) ; but the preference appears to have been given to 
a particular form of carbon. It was not attempted alto- 
gether to prevent the burning of a mass of gunpowder, 
when a spark or flame reached any portion, but to reduce 
the rapidity of combustion so greatly as to prevent the oc- 
currence of a violent explosion. No more than this is 
accomplished by the employment of powdered glass in the 
proportions directed by Mr. Gale. Indeed, as the quantity 
of diluent required to give to different kinds of gunpowder 
the character of equally slow burning materials increases 
with the explosiveness of the particular powder and with 
the size of its grain, the proportion of powdered glass with 
which the gunpowder employed in rifled cannon would 
have to be mixed to render it only slow burning, would be 
about double the quantity required for almost altogether 
preventing the ignition of fine grain powder, or of the com- 
paratively weak blasting powderwith which Mr. Gale'spubHc 
experiments appear generally to have been instituted. 
Although a sufficient dilution of gunpowder may secure 
such comparative safety in the neighbourhoods of large 



84 On Recent Progress in the History of 

magazines, or to the crews of merchant vessels in which 
gunpowder (for blasting purposes, &c.), is transported, as 
to compensate fully for the inconvenience attending the 
great increase of volume of the powder, there is no doubt 
that such a treatment of gunpowder actually issued for 
military and naval service would be attended by more than 
one serious obstacle ; such as, the tendency of the powder, 
unless very largely diluted, to separate from the glass, 
during transport by land or sea, to so considerable an ex- 
tent as very greatly to diminish the degree of security 
originally aimed at ; the very great addition which would 
have to be made to the arrangements for carrying the 
necessary ammunition, in active service ; the necessity for 
introducing, in the field, or on board ship, the operations of 
separating the powder from the glass, and transferring it to 
cartridges and shells (which, whatever siftings and other 
arrangements were adopted, would be time-taking and very 
dangerous), instead of preserving the ammunition ready for 
immediate use ; and, above all, the incalculable mischeif 
which would inevitably result from the establishment, in 
the minds of the soldier and sailor, of an erroneous feeling 
of security in dealing with gunpowder, which, however 
harmless it may for a time be rendered, must finally be 
handled by the men in its explosive form. The extremely 
rare occurrence of accidents with gunpowder, on board ship 
or in active land service, is mainly due to the strictest en- 
forcement of precautionary regulations, some of which may 
appear at first sight exaggerated, or almost absurd, but 
which combine to maintain a consciousness of danger and 
a consequent vigilance indispensable to safety. 

One of the most remarkable materials recently employed 
to replace gunpowder as a destructive agent, is nitro-gly- 
cerine. This substance was discovered by Sobrero, in 
1847, 3.nd is produced by adding glycerine in successive 
small quantities to a mixture of one volume of nitric acid 
ofsp. gr. 143, and two volumes of sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 
1*83. The acid is cooled artificially during the addition of 
glycerine, and the mixture is afterwards poured into water, 
when an amber colour oily fluid separates, which is insolu- 
ble in water, and possesses no odour, but has a sweet 
pungent flavour, and is very poisonous, a minute quantity 
placed upon the tongue producing violent headache, which 
lasts for several hours. 

The liquid has a specific gravity of i*6, and solidifies at 
about 4° C. (50° F.) ; if flame is applied, nitro-glycerine 



Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder, 85 

simply burns ; and if placed upon paper or metal, and held 
over a source of heat, it explodes feebly after a short time, 
burning with a smoky flame. If paper moistened with it 
be simply struck, a somewhat violent detonation is pro- 
duced. Alfred Nobel, a Swedish engineer, was the first to 
attempt the application of nitro-glycerine as an explosive 
agent, in 1864. 

Some experiments were, in the first instance, made with 
gunpowder, the grains of which had been saturated with nitro- 
glycerine. This powder burnt much as usual, but with a 
brighter flame in open air. When confined in shells or 
blast holes, greater effects were, however, produced with it 
than with ordinary gunpowder ; its destructive action is 
described as having been from three to six times greater 
than that of powder. The liquid could not be employed as 
a blasting agent, in the ordinary manner, as the application 
of flame to it from a common fuze would not cause it to 
explode. But Mr. Nobel has succeeded, by employing a 
special description of fuze, in applying the liquid alone as 
a very powerful destructive agent. The charge of nitro- 
glycerine having been introduced, in a suitable case, into 
the blast hole, a fuze, to the extremity of which is attached 
a small charge of gunpowder, is affixed immediately over 
the liquid. The concussion produced by the exploding 
powder, upon ignition of the fuze, effects the explosion of 
the nitro-glycerine. 

The destructive action of this material is estimated, by 
those who have made experiments in Sweden and 
Germany, as about that of an equal weight of gunpowder. 
Therefore, although its cost is about seven times that of 
blasting powder, its use is stated to be attended with great 
economy, more especially in hard rocks, a considerable 
saving being effected by its means in the labour of the 
miners, and in the time occupied in performing a given 
amount of work, as much fewer and smaller blast holes are 
required than when gunpowder is employed. The material 
appears to have recently received considerable application 
in some parts of Germany, and in Sweden ; but, in Eng- 
land, its employment has been confined to one set of ex- 
periments instituted in Cornwall last summer, upon which 
occasion a wrought iron block, weighing about three 
hundred weight, was rent into fragments, by the explosion 
of a charge of less than one ounce of nitro-glycerine placed 
in a central cavity. 

Nitro-glycerine appears, therefore, to possess very im- 

NEW SERIES.— VOL. I. H 



86 On Recent Progress in the History of 

portant advantages over gunpowder as a blasting and 
destructive agent, but the attempts to introduce it as a 
substitute for gunpowder have already been attended by 
most disastrous results, ascribable in part to some of its 
properties and the evident instability of the commercial 
product, but principally to the thoughtlessness of those in- 
terested in its application, who appear to have been induced 
either by undue confidence in its permanence and com- 
parative safety, or from less excusable motives, to leave 
the masters of ships, or others who had to deal with the 
transport of the material, in ignorance of its dangerous 
character. 

The precise causes of the fearful explosions of nitro-gly- 
cerine, which occurred at Aspinwall and San Francisco 
will, in all probability, never be ascertained ; but they are 
likely to have been due, at any rate indirectly, to the spon- 
taneous decomposition of the substance, induced or acce- 
lerated by the elevated temperature of the atmosphere in 
those parts of the ships where it was stored. Instances are 
on record in which the violent rupture of closed vessels con- 
taining commercial nitro-glycerine has been occasioned by 
the accumulation of gases generated by its gradual de- 
composition ; and it is at anyrate not improbable that a 
similar result, favoured by the warmth of the atmosphere, 
and eventually determined by some accidental agitation of 
the contents of the package of nitro-glycerine, was the 
cause of those lamentable accidents. The great difficulties 
attending the purification of nitro-glycerine, upon a prac- 
tical scale, and the uncertainty, as regards stability, of the 
material, even when purified (leaving out of consideration 
its very poisonous character and its extreme sensitiveness 
to explosion by percussion when in the solid form), appear 
to present insurmountable obsatcles to its safe application 
as a substitute tor gunpowder. 

The conversion of purified lignin or wood fibre into an 
explosive substance of the same nature as gun-cotton, was 
accomplished by chemists soon after Schonbein's discovery 
of gun-cotton was made known. Finely-divided wood, or 
sawdust, may, by treatment with suitable agents, be, to a 
very considerable extent, purified of substances foreign to 
cellulose ; and, if then submitted to careful digestion in a 
mixture of the strongest nitric and sulphuric acids, and 
properly purified, it furnishes a highly explosive material, 
similar to the most explosive gun-cotton, and possessed 
apparently of considerable stability. Captain Schultze, a 



Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder. ^^j 

Prussian artillery officer, who was entrusted by his govern- 
ment a few years ago with the investigation of gun-cotton, 
appears to have come to the conclusion that finely-divided 
wood offered greater prospect of conversion into a con- 
trollable explosive agent than cotton wood. The ultimate 
result of his investigations has been the production of a 
" gun-sawdust," the explosive properties of which depend 
in great measure on its impregnation with a considerable 
proportion of an oxidizing agent, either saltpetre or a mix- 
ture of that salt and nitrate of barium. The wood, having 
been reduced to a tolerably uniform state of division, is 
submitted by Captain Schultze to purifying processes for 
the separation of resinous and other substances from the 
lignin, and the product is converted by digestion in a 
mixture cf sulphuric and nitric acids into a very feebly ex- 
plosive material, which leaves a considerable carbonaceous 
residue when burnt. The product after purification is im- 
pregnated with a sufficient proportion of nitrates to give it 
rapidly explosive power, the oxidation of the carbon being 
now almost complete. The objects which appear to be 
aimed at by Captain Schultze in following this method of 
manufacturing a wood-gunpowder, are, the production of a 
more gradually explosive material than is obtained by the 
most perfect action of nitric acid upon wood-fibre, and the 
possibility of preserving the material in a slightly explosive 
and therefore comparatively harmless form, until it is re- 
quired for use, when it may be soon rendered powerfully 
explosive by impregnation with the nitrates. It is asserted 
that this powder is considerably more powerful than gun- 
powder as a mining agent ; and that, by its employment 
in mines, the operators are enabled to return to work 
sooner than when gunpowder is used, because there is little 
or no smoke produced by its explosion. The latter is an 
undoubted advantage which Schultze's powder shares with 
gun-cotton. Advantages are also claimed for this material 
when employed in firearms, and it is possible that when 
applied to sporting purposes, it may compete successfully 
with gunpowder in this direction also ; but its behaviour as 
an explosive, and the peculiarities of its structure, afford 
little promise of its advantageous employment in arms for 
military and naval purposes. 

Important progress has been made in the history and 
the application of gun-cotton since its study was resumed 
in this country about three years ago. Very considerable 
quantities of the material have been manufactured at the 

H 2 



88 0)1 Recent Progress in the History of 

works of Messrs. Prentice, at Stowmarket, and at the 
Government Gunpowder Works at Waltham Abbey ; its 
application to mining and artillery purposes, and to small 
arms, has been, and is still the subject of systematic ex- 
periment, conducted by the Government Committee on 
Gun-cotton ; its employment as a blasting agent is 
steadily increasing in several important English mining 
districts ; and considerable, though not uniform, success 
has already attended the employment of gun-cotton car- 
tridges for sporting purposes. 

The system of manufacture of gun-cotton, as perfected 
by Baron Von Lenk, has undergone but trifling modifica- 
tions in its employment in this country. It has been 
made the subject of careful investigations by Mr. Abel, and 
the results furnished by many experimental manufacturing 
operations, and an examination of the products, have 
shown that the process of converting cotton into the most 
explosive form of pyroxylin or gun-cotton, and ot purify- 
ing the material, have been so greatly perfected by Von 
Lenk as to render a strict adherence to his simple and 
precise instructions alone necessary to ensure the prepara- 
tion of very uniform products, which exhibit in their com- 
position a very much closer approximation to purity than 
those obtained in the earlier days of the history of gun- 
cotton. 

Although the conclusions arrived at by the many 
chemists who investigated the composition of gun-cotton, 
soon after Schonbeln's discovery, varied very considerably, 
the constitution has been very generally regarded as 
definitely estabhshed by the researches of Hadow, pub- 
lished in 1854. According to that chemist, the most 
explosive gun-cotton has the composition expressed by the 
formula CgH^N^O^j (which was first assigned to the sub- 
stance by W. Crum, in 1847), and may be regarded as 
cellulose, in which three atoms of hydrogen are replaced 
by three molecules of peroxide of nitrogen. The name 
trinitro-cellulose has therefore been assigned to gun- 
cotton, its constitution being expressed by the formula 
r ioS/^olO^. Hadow's conclusions have been confirmed by 
other chemists, more especially by Redtenbacher, 
Schrotter, and Schneider, who have analysed specimens of 
gun-cotton prepared under Von Lenk's directions. But a 
Report upon the Austrian Gun-cotton was published in 
1864 by Pelouze and Maury, in which the formula 
Ca^HjeOia, 5 N^O is assIgHcd to the product of Von 



Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder. 89 

Lenk's process ; the conclusions of those chemists being 
founded partly upon some analytical results, and partly 
upon the increase of weight which they found cotton to 
sustain when submitted to treatment with the mixed acids. 
They found the greatest increase in weight to be "jZ per 
cent, a number slightly in excess of that which would 
correspond to the requirements of the formula which they 
adopt. 

An experimental inquiry into the composition of gun- 
cotton, as obtained by Von Lenk's process, has been insti- 
tuted by Mr. Abel ; and the very numerous analytical and 
synthetical results which he has obtained confirm the 
correctness of the formula assigned by Crum and Hadow 
to the most explosive gun-cotton, and demonstrate satis- 
factorily that the products obtained by following strictly 
the instructions given by Von Lenk are invariably trinitro- 
cellulose, in a condition as nearly approaching purity as a 
manufacturing operation can be expected to furnish. 

The most explosive gun-cotton is perfectly insoluble in 
mixtures of ether and alcohol ; but by varying the pro- 
portions and strength of the acids employed for the con- 
version of cotton, products of less explosive character are 
obtained, which are more or less freely soluble in ether and 
alcohol (furnishing the well-known material collodion). If, 
therefore, in manufacturing gun-cotton, the. conditions 
essential to the production of insoluble pyroxylin are not 
strictly fulfilled, the uniformity of the product will suffer. 

The ordinary products of manufacture are never alto- 
gether free from soluble gun-eotton ; but the proportion 
present is small and very uniform, amounting to about 1*5 
per cent. They contain, besides, a small quantity (about 
0-5 per cent.) of matter soluble in alcohol alone, and 
possessed of acid characters, which is evidently produced 
by the action of nitric acid upon such small quantities of 
resinous or other matters foreign to pure cellulose, as are 
not completely removed from the cotton fibre by the puri- 
fication which it receives. 

There appears good reason to believe that this impurity 
in gun-cotton is of comparatively unstable character, and 
that the great proneness to spontaneous decomposition 
which has been observed by Pelouze and Maury, De Luca, 
and others, in some specimens of gun-cotton, is to be as- 
cribed in great measure to the existence in those specimens 
of comparatively large proportions of those unstable bye 
products. 



90 On Recent P^^ogress in the History of 

One hundred parts of carefully-purified cotton wool have 
been found by Mr. Abel to furnish from i8i'8 to 182-5 
parts of gun-cotton. The increase which perfectly pure 
cellulose should sustain by absolutely complete conversion 
into a substance of the formula C^^HyN^Ojj {trinitro- 
cellulose) is Sy^ ; the above results are therefore strong 
confirmations of the correctness of this generally accepted 
view of the composition of gun-cotton. In carrying out 
the actual manufacturing process, as prescribed by Von 
Lenk, somewhat lower results are obtained, because of 
impurities existing in the cotton employed, and of loss of 
product during its purification. 

Very extensive experiments are in progress at Woolwich, 
with the view of examining fully into the extent of liability 
to change of gun-cotton when preserved in store, or ex- 
posed for prolonged periods to light and to degrees of heat 
ranging between the ordinary atmospheric temperatures 
and that of boiling water. The results hitherto arrived at, 
though they have shown that, under severe conditions, 
gun-cotton is liable to decompose, have not confirmed the 
conclusions arrived at by the French chemists, with regard 
to the great instability of the material. Thus, De Luca 
states that all specimens exposed by him to sunlight 
decomposed either on the first day or within a few days. 
But, at Woolwich, no single instance of such rapid decom- 
position of gun-cotton, made by the present process, has 
been noticed. A very gradual and slight development of 
gas occurs after a time when the substance is exposed to 
sunlight ; but the quantity which has been collected from 
specimens exposed at Woolwich, to direct day and sunlight 
for two years and a half, is very small, and the gun-cotton 
has, in all instances, preserved its original appearance. 
Pelouze and Maury state that gun-cotton always decom- 
poses perfectly within a few days, by exposure to tempera- 
tures of 55° — 60° C. (130^ — 140° F.), and they lay great 
stress upon the explosion of a specimen directly it was in- 
troduced into a vessel heated to 47° C. (116° '6 R). But, 
at Woolwich, a specimen of ordinary product which has 
been exposed now for twelve months to 65^ C. (150° F.), 
has evolved only a small quantity of gas, and retains its 
original appearance perfectly. Several specimens, after 
having been exposed for some hours to a temperature of 
96° C. (194° F.), during which period some nitrous vapours 
were, in all instances, evolved, have since been exposed to 
light in closed vessels for about twenty months, and still 



i 



Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder. 9 1 

retain their original appearance and explosive characters. 
Several large ammunition-cases, closely packed with gun- 
cotton, have been preserved for six months in a chamber, 
the temperature of which was maintained for three months 
at 49S C. ( 1 20? R), and afterwards at 54S— 5 5 "^ C. ( 1 30S R), 
arrangements having been made for periodically 
registering the temperature within the boxes, which were 
kept closed. In no instance has the latter temperature 
risen to an extent to indicate serious chemical change, i. e., 
it has always been below the temperature of the air in the 
chamber. These few examples of results already obtained 
are given to show that the behaviour of gun-cotton manu- 
factured in England by Von Lenk's process, does not, as 
yet, at all justify the condemnation which the material has 
recently received in France. 

One most important point in connection with the preser- 
vation of gun-cotton, appears to have been lost sight of by 
the French experimenters. The material may be most 
perfectly preserved, apparently for any period, either by 
immersion in water, or, still more simply, by being impreg- 
nated with just sufficient moisture to render it perfectly 
uninflammable. In this condition, gun-cotton is much 
safer than gunpowder can be rendered, even by mixture 
with very large proportions of incombustible materials. It 
may be transported with quite as much safety as the un- 
converted cotton ; indeed, it appears to be very much less 
prone to gradual decay, if preserved for very long periods 
in a damp condition, than cotton or other vegetable sub- 
stances. Many specimens of gun-cotton, preserved for 
several months in a very damp chamber, together with 
paper, cotton fabrics, and wood, retained their strength of 
fibre and all their original properties, and no signs even of 
mildew upon them, while the paper fabrics in immediate 
contact with them had completely rotted away, and the 
wood was covered with fungi. 

Considerable progress has been made in the manipula- 
tion of gun-cotton, with the object of modifying its 
explosive action. The rapidity with which gun-cotton 
burns in open air admits of ready and very considerable 
variation by applying the simple expedients of winding, 
twisting, or plaiting, gun-cotton yarn of different sizes. 
But, although a mass of gun-cotton may be made to burn 
in a comparatively gradual manner by being very .tightly 
wound, a charge of the material in that form acts quite as 
destructively when exploded in the bore of a gun as an 



92 Proposed Substitutes for Gunpowder. 

equal charge consisting of the yarn wound very loosely, 
because the pressure of gas established by the first ignition 
of the charge renders the compact packing of the gun- 
cotton powerless to resist the instantaneous penetration of 
flame between the separate layers of the material. The 
assertion that a power had been acquired of controlling the 
explosive action of gun-cotton in a firearm by simply 
varying the compactness with which the material was 
twisted or wound, has, therefore, proved quite erroneous. 
There are, however, two methods of reducing the rapidity 
of explosion of gun-cotton, which are much more likely to 
furnish successful results. The one consists in diluting the 
material by its admixture either with a less explosive 
variety of gun-cotton or with some inexplosive substance, 
such, for instance, as the cotton in its original form. The 
latter mode of dilution has recently been applied by 
Messrs. Prentice to the construction of cartridges for sport- 
ing purposes, and they describe the results already arrived 
at as very promising. The second method of controlling 
the explosion of gun-cotton consists in consolidating the 
material by pressure into compact homogeneous masses, 
and in confining the first i'gnition of such compressed gun- 
cotton in the bore of the gun, to certain surfaces. The 
gun-cotton fibre in the form of yarn or plait may be com- 
pressed into very compact masses by being rammed into 
strong cylinders of pasteboard or other suitable material ; 
but much more perfectly homogeneous and solid masses 
are produced, independently of cylinders or other cases, by 
a method which Mr. Abel has recently elaborated, and 
which consists in reducing the gun-cotton fibre to a fine 
state of division or pulp, as in the process of paper-making, 
and in converting this pulp by pressure into solid masses 
of any suitable form or density. 

This method of operating affords also special facilities 
for combining both methods, dilution and compression, of 
reducing the explosive violence of gun-cotton. The 
material is, in fact, operated upon by this system, in a 
manner exactly corresponding to the processes by which 
the explosive action of gunpowder is regulated to so re- 
markable an extent. Some results, which are admitted by 
the most sceptical as encouraging, have already been 
arrived at, in the systematic course of experiments which 
are in progress, with the object of applying the methods 
of regulation, pointed out, to the reduction of gun-cotton 
to a safe form for artillery purposes. Its arrangement in a 



Vegetable Fibres. 93 

form suitable for small arms is a much less difficult pro- 
blem, which may be considered as approaching a perfect 
solution. For employment in shells and for military mines, 
both land and sub-marine, the compressed or solid form of 
gun-cotton presents special advantages, on account of the 
great compactness which may be imparted to it ; a given 
weight arranged so as to ignite instantaneously under 
pressure {i. e. in strong vessels), may be made to occupy 
the same space as an equal weight of gunpowder, whereas 
the forms of gun-cotton hitherto applied to those purposes 
occupy about three times the space of gunpowder. 

Beautiful! pyrotechnic effects |may be readily produced 
by means of gun-cotton, though the absence of smoke, 
which, in some of its applications (especially in mines), 
would constitute an important advantage, detracts from 
some of the effects which may be obtained with pyrotech- 
nic compositions. On the other hand, gun-cotton fireworks 
may be displayed in-doors without inconvenience. 

There appears at present no reason to doubt that the 
application of gun-cotton with great advantage to at least 
some of the more important purposes for which gunpow- 
der is used, will, ere long, be fully established, and that 
this interesting explosive agent is destined to occupy a 
permanent and prominent position among the most impor- 
tant products of chemical industry. — " Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal." 



I 



AN INQUIRY INTO VEGETABLE FIBRES 

AVAILABLE FOR TEXTILE FABRICS. 

By H. Sherwood. 

N resuming the subject crudely opened out in the July 
number of the TECHNOLOGIST, it must be recognised 
at the outset of an inquiry into the properties and adapta- 
bilities of known fibres, that, whilst the fibres of flax and 
hemp have been used for ages in certain forms (and 
recently jute has been added), yet, out of that beaten 
track we cannot appeal to experience on such a sufficient 
scale as the mercantile world thinks necessary to form a 
definite judgment on matters so practical. We do not 
even possess sufficiently definite analyses of the best 



94 Vegetable Fibres Available for 

known fibres to guide to practise in their treatment. A 
glance at the various improvements patented relating to 
fibres, will suffice to show that the proposed processes are 
structures built upon an unknown foundation — mere sur- 
face treatment of an unknown disease. Much precedent 
cannot, therefore, be appealed to in corroboration of any 
conclusions arrived at, which will be liable to be viewed as 
mere private experience, or opinions. 

The down, or seeds, as cotton, bombax, &c., need no 
consideration, as they are obtained prepared by Nature 
herself, for the manufacturer. It may, nevertheless, be 
asked of our colonial botanists whether it be not possible 
by culture, as has been done in the case of cotton, to 
increase the length of the down on the seeds of bombax, 
mudar, &c., which would then become valuable materials 
for several uses. 

It is on fibres forming the bark, and the spiral vessels of 
plants, that manufacturing skill is specially required. 
These, as found in commerce, consist of the filament, 
accompanied with much loose vegetable matter, inner 
bark, &c. These matters are varyingly easy to remove, 
when there remains the filament itself, of which state of 
fibre " flax-cotton " has been about the only type. Yet, in 
this state, a large bulk of fibres must be used, if used at 
all, for textile fabrics, either because of their great rough- 
ness when uncleansed, or because of their non-adaptabihty, 
or want of strength, for spinning, if separated into indivi- 
dual cells. The cells of the filament are agglutined 
together by mixed vegetable and mineral compounds, and 
most probably by inner skinny envelopes encircling each 
filament, composed of two or more cells. The downs, men- 
tioned as cotton, &c., are pure cellulin, except a minute 
portion of foreign substances, as a surface coating. Nearly 
such also is linen cloth after long wear, when the agglu- 
tining substances have become gradually removed, and the 
fibre has become easily separable into its cells. It is in this 
state of complete separation that many fibres exhibit their 
chief value. In this state only can ages develop on them 
their full tints, and from them in this state will the cloths 
of greatest beauty in the future be produced. Improve- 
ments must of necessity be chiefly in the direction of 
bringing the fibres into one or other of these states, and of 
adapting the processes of manufacture to the peculiarities 
they present. It is especially desirable that the characters 
and properties of all the known and easily obtainable fibres 



Textile Fabrics, 95 

should be so ascertained and defined as to mark clearly 
their special suitability for various uses. Such a definition 
would much aid the progress of improvement. The writer 
trusts, that attention being drawn to the subject, and the 
lack being perceived, more extended research will be made 
public than the petty quota he now endeavours to con- 
tribute. 

Let us examine first, China grass and its varieties. 
These vary considerably in strength and fineness, growing 
generally to eight feet or more in length, according 
to chmate and soil. They are capable of being easily 
cleansed from loose vegetable matter, so as to produce 
long filaments of great strength, which for fabrics 
requiring excessive strength, would be much superior 
to flax or hemp, though in comparison with these fibres 
in the same state of preparation, the filaments are rough 
and coarse, consequently, less adapted for light uses. 
Its highest value is attained in a state of separated cells, 
which vary from three to eighteen mches in length ; of 
surprising wiry toughness and brilliancy when properly 
cleansed and uninjured by preparation ; of good colour 
needing little or no bleaching. In this state it has now come 
into acknowledged use, although on the market much 
impaired and imperfect. Being in appearance, fineness, 
and length, similar to mohair and lustre wools, it appears 
well adapted for mixing with them, or for forming warps 
for lustre wefts. For mixing with silk fibres its utihty 
seems more doubtful ; being so much coarser and stiffen 
Yet as a weft yarn for silk warps it appears adapted to form 
cloths of great beauty. Nor need want of colour be here 
a drawback, as it appears capable of being dyed in colours, 
apparently permanent of a full rich red, violet and blue. 
There is little doubt that from the fibre so separated, 
European manufacturers could produce cloths exceeding 
in fineness and evenness, and consequently in beauty and 
brilliancy, the famed grass cloths of China. These cloths 
might not be so fine, and could not be more brilliant than 
a flax cambric can be produced ; but they would possess a 
glassy stiffness, (so opposite to the tendency of flax to 
become linty), which would command for them a high 
appreciation and value. The use of China grass in this 
state for fancy trimming manufacturing is apparent, as also 
for many fabrics for ladies' dress and for some upholstery 
cloths. Probably also for superior fancy drills, it would 
produce goods highly appreciated on the continent and in 
warmer climates. 



96 Vegetable Fibres Available for 

It is remarkable that in separating this fibre, the lustrous 
coat of each cell is so thick that when the outer portion of 
it (which is organic) is left intact with all its natural 
brilliancy, the cell is perceptibly thicker even to the naked 
eye, than it is, as usually treated, with this outer coat 
destroyed. It is attached with unusual facility, as is also 
the strength of the cell. Samples of combed grass at 
present found in commere, do not possess more than from 
one-third to two-thirds of their natural strength. But 
although the difficulty in preserving all these is considerable 
(which we will afterwards examine), yet the total difficulties 
to be surmounted in bringing the fibre into this state are 
not so great as in most of other fibres, and by the employ- 
ment of reasonable means, the cells may be obtained with 
close upon their natural length, strength, and brilliancy, 
accompanied with perfect separation. 

The relative actual value of China grass is high. Its 
present quoted price of ^^85 per ton may be called a 
" fancy one." The trade cannot give it, and will not do so 
long, when it is producible, with equal profit, at as low a 
price as Bombay hemp itself It is a forcible example of 
the heavy vis inertice which hangs over everything, not 
hackeneyed, in commerce, that so valuable a fibre, producble 
at so low a rate, and in iUimitable qualities should be so 
difficult to obtain, and at prices so fabulous : — For, the 
fibre even if simply cleansed (by means within the reach of 
everyone), for a strong rope or coarse cloth filament, would 
be a valuable adjunct to our fibrous materials, and in increas- 
ing demand at remunerative rates to the producer. 

2nd. Flax is the earliest mentioned of all vegetable 
fibres. From even the coarser varieties of it, the Egyptians 
appear to have produced some fine fabrics. It has always 
remained until a comparatively recent date, the great staple 
vegetable fibre. But when machinery began to develope 
and prove the possibility of advantageously concentrating 
the labour hitherto spread over every home, the fact of 
cotton being found ready without any tedious preparation, 
for the machinery, caused it to be used for purposes to 
which flax and other fibres in certain states of preparation 
are better adapted : whilst advances have not been made 
in working flax necessary to enable it to sustain its 
legitimate position. It cannot be supposed that any 
alteration of state of fibre would cause its present state in 
use to be superseded ; yet it may be a matter of question, 
(yet unanswered by the many proposals which, during the 



Textile Fabrics. 97 

last half century, have been brought forward,) whether some 
mode of cleansing flax without inducing the formation of 
the drab colouring matter by retting might not produce 
filaments further separated, equally lustrous, and of a 
colour requiring little or no bleaching for ordinary cloths. 
Such a method would also diminish the codilla or remove 
the necessity for its production. The opinion is still firmly 
entertained by some whose lives have been chiefly spent in 
studying the flax plant and its products, that the present 
mode of obtaining the fibre is of comparatively modern 
date, and that ancient civilization had modes of imme- 
diately obtaining the fibre in a better and more treatable 
state. There seems reasonable ground for supposing it to 
be perfectly practicable if operated upon direct from the 
plant. 

But the notable improvement which has been proposed 
during the past few years is the complete separation of the 
fibre into its individual cells. These vary very much in 
diflerent qualities of flax. From coarse flaxes they are of 
a fineness about equal to Middling New Orleans Cotton, 
varying in length from i to if inches. The cell of the 
finer flaxes being proportionately elongated. They are of 
great brilliancy, are comparatively smooth-surfaced, straight 
and nearly cylindrical : may be spun on cotton machinery, 
especially if previously combed (an expense only admis- 
sible for first-class uses). Uncombed, it is to be feared that 
the linty parts so difficult to avoid during its preparation 
would, for fine yarns, cause considerable unevenness ; and 
that this alone would prove a serious drawback to its being 
employed as a general substitute for cotton; because, 
the shorts produced by the breakage of the cells (which, 
though capable of more tensions than cotton are also more 
brittle), can be fully carded out, yet the length of the 
whole is rendered objectionably uneven. Nevertheless, as 
a set ofl" against the expense of combing, the noil would be 
a stronger material for heavy fabrics than an ordinary 
Indian cotton. If combed, it would produce cloths probably 
superior, to the finest cambric in evenness of make. 
Whether superior in glassyness of surface, experience alone 
could decide — as its position in this respect towards 
cambric flax may be considered somewhat analogous to 
the position of spun silk towards thrown silk. Unques- 
tionably, a fabric of great beauty would be produced under 
suitable means of finish. It would also, doubtless, be a 
valuable mixing fibre for short draft silks ; adding to them 



98 Vegetable Fibres Available, etc. 

a firmness and evenness of surface which, for some uses, 
suggests itself as an advantage ; and causing them to 
acquire an extended adaptability for many fabrics. For 
this use its fineness and high lustre strongly recommends 
it. For warps or wefts where glassyness is the property 
sought, except a very fine yarn be required, it would be a 
less desirable material than China grass. Looking at it as 
a general substitute for cotton, besides its inherent defect 
mentioned above, the comparatively high value of flax, 
loss of weight in producing (even if produced direct from 
flax without codilla), and cost of production, would prove 
probably insuperable hindrances in face of receding prices 
of cotton ; but no hindrance for the high class uses 
to which, when combed, it is adaptible. The " top " from 
the coarest flaxes being at least as valuable as the fine 
flaxes prepared specially for cambric yarns. 

The brilliant coat and strength of the cell is much less 
liable to injury during the preparation than those of China 
grass, but the cell is brittle and has a special tendency to 
bruise. It appears to dye equally well with cotton. Has 
little felting property beyond a bruising and entangling of 
the cells. 

There still remains to be noticed the state of "flax 
cotton," or flax separated into its filaments when perfectly 
cleansed. When it is found that an ordinary Bombay 
hemp produces a filament or flax-cotton of equal strength, 
of almost equal fineness, and for all practical uses equally 
valuable, with greater ease of production into that state, 
it will at once be seen that it is not to flax, nor even to 
codilla flax, that we must look for that class of fibrous 
material. 

(To be continued.) 



The necessity for a general depot of scientific instrumnets 
in London, where foreigners could always see and have ex- 
plained in their own language the capabilities of such 
instrument, has long been felt as a desideratum at the 
present day. For this purpose, arrangements have been 
made by Mr. Pepper, at the Royal Polytechnic Institution, 
for receiving every scientific apparatus towards this object. 
As we shall be in constant communication with him, 
patentees generally cannot do better than put themselves 
in direct communication with us. 



99 



THE ATMOSPHERIC CHURN. 

AS the age advances, so do the contrivances for render- 
ing a less amount of manual labour necessary in 
some of those procedures which have been going on in 
almost the same style since their very first institution. 
Amongst improvements of this description we may men- 
tion an apparatus by which the making of butter is effected 
upon an entirely new principle, it being produced by 
atmospheric action, the air being forced in intermittent or 
continuous currents into the midst of the milk or cream 
contained in the cylinder. This is accomplished by work- 
ing the tube or plunger up and down within the cylinder, 
keeping its disc or flange always below the surface of the 
milk or cream. The plunger being raised, a partial vacuum 
is created beneath the surface of the fluid, which causes the 
air to rush down through the hollow stem with great force. 
When the plunger is forced downward, the valve at the 
upper end of the tube will be closed, and the air below the 
plunger will be rapidly expelled through the fluid, by 
means of which, the globules containing the butter will be 
expanded, opened, and the butter liberated. 

By this invention, the long and tedious process of churn- 
ing is entirely obviated, and butter is made from fresh milk 
in ten minutes. Notwithstanding that this invention has 
but recently been introduced into England, its novelty, 
practical value, and economy have already commanded an 
attention that promises for it the highest place among the 
implements of domestic economy. 

This unique apparatus was awarded the first prize at the 
City of London Industrial Exhibition,, and has received 
extensive notice and patronage from the nobility and gentry. 
We recommend this churn to the notice of our readers, 
not only for its practical, but its economical worth. 



DISINFECTANTS. 



THE air we breathe, the water we drink, and also must 
be added the water we breathe in the form of dew and 
fog, are the vehicles by which the material causing epidemic 
disease is carried into the system. Disinfection must be 
directed to each of these carriers of poison, if it is to be 



I oo Disinfectants. 

effectual ; and, it is really a matter of careful chemical mani- 
pulation to disinfect, or what is practically the same thing 
to prevent, contamination. 

Volatile poisonous material obviously can be combated 
only by a volatile disinfectant, mounted police would be of 
little service in catching thieves on the house tops; to 
sprinkle the floor of a sick room with a fixed or non- 
volatile disinfectant such as chloride of Zinc is a sanitary 
stupidity. Chlorine is the aerial disinfectant par excelleiice ; 
there are abundant means contrived to generate chlorine 
for this purpose. Iodine answers the same end but has dis- 
advantages. Carbolic acid is also a volatile disinfectant and 
is superior to iodine in being cheaper and requiring less 
technical skill in its use. Above all things it is necessary 
that the disinfectant should be simple in its mode of 
application, otherwise the persons in whose hands the ap- 
plication too often falls, will in a sanitary point of view, 
make the same kind of blunder that the Irish footman made 
when, on being ordered to ice the champagne, poured the 
wine into the ice tub. Dry heat is a most powerful disin- 
fectant, it rarifies the poison and promotes its destruction 
by the oxygen of the atmospheric air, in other words, its 
oxidation 

If there were not practical difficulties in the application, 
doubtless, the recently invented spray producer so familiar 
to all, might be used to disperse throughout the atmosphere 
of a room non-volatile fluids which would destroy mephitic 
vapours existing therein. 

Decomposing animal substances carry off the palm for 
ofifensiveness. Animal stinks are derived chiefly from the 
decomposition of albuminous matters. Gelatin, which is a 
characteristic constituent of bones and hides may be con- 
sidered as an albuminous substance ; fatty matters of 
itself is much less prone to change, but even such a little 
albuminous matter mixed with it will give rise to a striking 
result. As an example — Suet is really solid oil encased 
in albuminous cells, it will quickly become horribly nasty 
from the decay of the albumen ; but separate the albumen 
from the oil or fat, and the fat will remain unchanged 
for a much longer time. 

Now, Chloride of Zinc has a remarkable property of com- 
bining with albumen and of forming thus a double chloride 
of Zinc and albumen, it has, by the way, an equally curious 
property of combining with woody fibre. Chloride of Zinc 
disinfects by seizing on all albuminous stuff, preventing its 



Reviews. loi 

decomposition and thereby checking in limine Xho. thousand 
and one other decompositional changes of other organic 
matter with which albumen may be associated. 

Permanganate of potash does the almost reverse of this, 
it hurries on decomposition, it oxidises — oxidation over- 
takes as it were the more orderly sub-arrangements of the 
component elements which would give birth to a noisome 
progeny. Permanganate of potash is, without question, the 
great purifier for water, even if added in excess of the re- 
quirements of the occasion nothing is simpler, than to get 
the excess. It communicates no disagreeable flavour, rid of 
and is not poisonous, on the contrary in the diluted form is 
wholesome. One word with regard to the water we breathe. 
Heat destroys its power — Respirators prevent its entrance 
into the lungs. Elevation above the ground takes us out 
of it : the lower strata of dews and fogs are the most poi- 
sonous. One maxim to conclude with — In unhealthy 
times never sleep with the windows open. 



Hardwicke s Science Gossip for August, No. XX. 
London : Hardwicke. 

This interesting and instructive scientific monthly still 
keeps that position for which it was designed — namely, to 
supply a void long felt by a numerous class of naturalists 
who have not time to dive into the vast arcana which is 
spread before them in the world of nature, and who find in 
this journal a perfect olla podrida of natural history. A 
most remarkable feature in this publication is the heading 
" Notes and Queries," under which a host of inquiries are 
to be found, the majority of which contain a mine of in- 
formation. 



NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. 



I02 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Permanent Photographs. — The use of the peroxide of hy- 
drogen for ehminating from photographs the last trace of the de- 
structive hyposulphites, has found opponents. Mr. F. W. Hart 
points out, that as the peroxide of hydrogen decomposes when in 
contact with gold or silver, and also contains hydrochloric acid 
(used for its preservation), he cannot but regard its proposed use 
as dangerous if not certainly destructive to the photograph. In 
reply, Mr. Dawson, of King's College, states that using the per- 
oxide of hydrogen used by Mr. Robbin, he found the trace of 
hydrochloric acid contained in it to be so trifling, that in a ten- 
volume solution, which is the strength at which it is used, blue 
litmus-paper remained unchanged. He also asserts, as the result 
of careful experiment, that the preparation does not decompose 
when in contact with a silver print. Dr. J. Emerson Reynolds is 
also conducting analysis connected with this subject, the results 
of which he promises to make public. At present he is inclined 
to believe that the application of peroxide of hydrogen to a print 
is only another mode of giving it a wash in a very weak solution 
of sulphide of sodium, and thereby facilitating fading. Thus 
" doctors differ." Tempus omnia revelat. The nature of that in- 
visible image which light fixes on a surface photographically pre- 
pared, is a mystery which has baflled the best efforts of our most 
persevering and distinguished physicists and chemists. Mr. M. 
Carey Lea {British Journal of Pliotogra]iliy) described a series of 
experiments bearing on the subject, in the course of which many 
errors were demonstrated, and some new evidence of great value 
made clear. These tended to prove that pure iodide of silver is 
not chemically affected by light ; that although, when exposed to 
light, it yields an image capable of development, yet the chemical 
composition of the iodide remains unaltered. The true action has 
therefore yet to be determined, and the controversy still continues 
between those who uphold the molecular or physical theory, and 
those who still retain their faith in the chemical theory. Some of 
the more recent efforts in this direction are due to Dr. Reissig, 
and certain experiments, which seem to show that pure iodide of 
silver exposed to light under a pure aqueous solution of the 
nitrate releases oxygen and renders the solution acid, are im- 
portant. In the course of some remarks on the precipitation of 
silver, Mr. Carey Lea describes a curious fact in relation to the 
colour of the deposited silver. He says, " A plate was covered 
with a considerable thickness of ammonia nitrate solution, to 
which was added a dilute solution of Rochelle salt. The plate 
was then placed in sunlight and left for some time. Reduction 
took place, and the evaporation, which went on simultaneously, 
had extended over about one-half the plate, when it was removed 



Miscellaneous, 103 

from the sunshine. It was then carefully washed. All that part 
of the metallic silver on which the solution had been suffered to 
dry in the sun was pure steel-grey, whilst that which was removed 
still wet had a strong reddish bloom." The contrast remained 
permanently, and evidently depended upon some difference of 
molecular arrangement. " It would be interesting to observe," 
says Mr. Lea, in connection with this, " whether negatives are 
dried in the sun or not thereby somewhat different from the same 
or corresponding negatives dried in the shade ; and, also, whether 
positive proofs on paper could not be affected for good or for evil 
by drying in the sun." — J. W. W. in " Science Gossip." 

Yakieties in Ink. — Gold ink is made by grinding upon a por- 
phyry slab, with a muller, gold leaves with white honey, till they 
become reduced to the finest possible division. The paste is then 
collected upon the edge of a knife or spatula, put into a large 
glass, and diffused through water. The gold by gravity soon falls 
to the bottom, while the honey dissolves in the water, which must 
be decanted off The sediment is to be repeatedly washed till 
entirely freed from the honey. The powder, when dry, is very 
brilliant, and when to be used as an ink, may be mixed up with a 
little gum water. After the writing becomes dry, it should be 
burnished with a wolf's tooth, — Silver ink is prepared in the same 
manner. — Indelible Ink : A very good ink, capable of resisting 
chlorine, oxalic acid, and oblution with a-hair pencil or sponge, 
may be made by mixing some of the ink made by the preceding 
prescription, with a little genuine China ink. It writes well. 
Many other formulae have been given for indelible inks, but they 
are all inferior in simplicity and usefulness to the one now pre- 
scribed. Solution of nitrate of silver thickened with gum, and 
written with upon linen or cotton cloth, previously imbued with 
a solution of soda, and dried, is the ordinary permanent ink of 
the shops. Before the clothes are washed, the writing should be 
exposed to the sunbeam, or to bright daylight, which blackens 
and fixes the oxide of silver. It is easily discharged by chlorine 
and ammonia. A good permanent ink may be made by mixing a 
strong solution of chloride of platinum with a little potash sugar, 
and gum to thicken. The writing made therewith should be 
passed over with a hot smoothing iron, to fix it. Nitrate of 
silver, i to 2 dr. ; water, f oz. ; dissolve, add as much of the 
strongest ammonia water as will dissolve the precipitate formed 
on its first addition, then further add mucilage, i or 2 drachms, 
and a Httle sap green to colour. Writing executed with this ink 
turns black on being passed over a hot Italian iron. Asphaltum, 
I part; oil of turpentine, 4 parts; dissolve, and colour with 
printer's ink. Yery permanent. — " Paper Trade Review." 

A Law of Combustion. — Numerous and careful experiments 
have developed the law that the heat generated by the burning of 
any substance is pretty nearly in proportion to the weight of 
oxygen with which the substance combines in burning. For 



I04 Miscellaneous, 

instance, the combustion of one pound of hydrogen gas will raise 
the temperature of 33,808 lbs. of water one degree of the centi- 
grade scale, while the burning of a pound of tin will raise the 
temperature of only 1,144 lbs. of water one degree. But the 
pound of hydrogen in burning combines with 8 lbs. of oxygen, 
while the pound of tin combines with only one-fourth (^ths) of a 
pound of oxygen. A simple calculation will show that the 
quantity of heat generated by the combination of a pound of 
oxygen is very nearly the same in both cases. A pound of oxygen 
in burning hydrogen will raise the temperature of 4,226 lbs. 
of water one degree, while in burning tin it will raise the tempe- 
rature of 4,230 lbs. of water one degree. This law does not 
hold, however, in cases where the combustible in burning under- 
goes a change of form, from the gaseous to the solid, or from the 
soHd to the gaseous state. For instance, carbon in burning to 
carbonic oxide is changed from the solid to the gaseous form, and 
in this case a pound of oxygen generates only 2,962 units of heat, 
while in burning this carbonic oxide into carbonic acid, where no 
change of form takes place, a pound of oxygen generates 4,258 
units of heat. In burning zinc the oxygen is changed from the 
gaseous to the solid state, and in this case a pound of oxygen 
generates 5,285 units of heat. When either the combustible or 
the oxygen is changed from the solid to the gaseous form, a 
portion of the heat is absorbed, and the amount of sensible heat 
is diminished ; but when the change is the opposite way the 
sensible heat is increased. Even where no change of form occurs 
in either of the combining elements, the amount of sensible heat 
developed may be modified by a change of volume ; an increase 
of volume dimishing the sensible heat, and a contraction of 
volume adding to the heat set free. 

The Thames Salmon. — The capture of a salmon in Long 
Reach must be a source of great gratification to all lovers and 
promoters of pisiculture. The following letter goes a long way 
to prove that it was hatched in the Thames Angling Preservation 
Society's apparatus at Hampton : — To the Editor of the " Times." 
Sir, — I have received several communications relative to the 
salmon taken at Long Reach. All are agreed in believing that 
it is one of those hatched in the Thames Angling Preservation 
Society's apparatus at Hampton. If the small fry were facetiously 
described as Mr. Ponder's babies from the interest and care he 
took in them, both he and Mr. Buckland need justly be proud of 
this full-grown fish, and the angling public ought to fill the treasury 
of the society to enable the committee more largely to develope 
this portion of their work after so successful a result. I need 
scarcely add that any amount of labour which is given to me in 
the acknowledgment of contributions will be cheerfully rendered, 
and I shall be glad to have my services taxed to the utmost in 
discharging so pleasant a duty. — ^W. H. Brougham, Hon. Sec. 
II Adam street, Adelphi, W.C., Aug. 15. 



THE 

TEOELNOLOaiST: 

A RECOI^D OF SCIENCE. 

October, 1866. 

DEEP SEA TELEGRAPH CABLES COMPARED. 

BY N. DUDOT, ESQ., C.E. 

THE cable of Allan, for example, is constructed on 
quite a different principle to other submarine cables,- 
inasmuch as the whole of its effective strength and resist- 
ance is within the conducting power, or core, which is 
rationally combined, rendered efficiently strong, resistant, 
and comparatively inextensible, whilst that is not the case 
with the ordinary construction of wire-covered cables, 
where strength is sought on the outside of the conductor, 
but adds insufficiently to it. Hence it becomes inefficient, 
and does not answer the intended purpose. 

It does away with the necessity for outside spiral wires, 
and therefore is smaller, lighter, more flexible, and yet con- 
siderably stronger and more effective than all other kinds 
of submarine cables. It is, in fact, so far superior in every 
way, that, for the Atlantic or other deep seas, it certainly 
ought to be adopted in preference to any of them, whilst 
it is more cheaply constructed, more durable, more easily, 
safely, readily, and economically handled, carried, shipped, 
paid out, submerged, laid, and raised if required. 

Its inextensible core, wherein the necessary conducti- 
bility for the distance is combined with the greatest 
amount of relative strength possible to be attained, 
counteracts tension, and consequent injury to the insu- 
lating medium, retaining, therefore, all its original strength 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. K 



io6 Deep Sea Telegraph Cables. 

after submergence, and always insuring a continuous action 
of electric conductibility. 

Allan's cable, that he proposed to apply in place of the 
new Atlantic, which is i i-ioth of an inch diameter, 
with a specific gravity of 1*9, weighing 31 cwts. per 
nautical mile in ship, and 14J in sea, now submerged 
between Ireland and Newfoundland by the Telegraph 
Construction and Maintenance Company, being only | of 
an inch diameter, with a specific gravity of r5, weighing 
but 8J cwts. per nautical mile in ship, and 2\ in sea, con- 
tains the same amount of conductibility. The weight of 
the 2,000 nautical miles laid, being then reduced to 
850 tons instead of 3,100 tons, shows a clear saving of 
2,250 tons, and no less than ;^200,ooo in the construction 
alone. 

Its combined conducting power consists of a solid 
copper wire, weighing 250 lbs. per nautical mile, closely 
surrounded and shielded with the full strength bearing of 
20 No. 24 best steel wires spirally enclosing it. The 
3-i6ths of an inch (No. 9 gauge) metallic rope, or inexten- 
sible core, thus formed, constitutes the integral strength of 
the cable. When wrapped in insulating substance (four 
coats of gutta percha, alternated with four thin layers of 
compound, weighing 400 lbs. per nautical mile) firmly 
bound, and covered externally with protective coating of 
hemp canvass, thus completing Allan's f cable without 
exceeding 8J cwts. per nautical mile, it is so strong, and 
yet so flexible, that it will resist, without elongating even 
I per cent, upwards of 5 J times more strain than the new 
Atlantic cable. 

As has been above partly stated, the reasons are : — 

That, as in all the submarine cables which have failed, 
the conductor, or core, which in the new Atlantic cable 
consists of a strand of seven No. 18 copper wires set 
together, weighing 300 lbs. per nautical mile, equivalent to 
No. 9 gauge, is not strengthened previous to its insulation, 
which is exactly of same materials and weight as in Allan's. 

And that, to the outside of the insulator only, is applied 
material weight, which certainly affords some resting 
support, but very little direct strength to the part of the 
cable which ought to be made sufficiently strong. 

In the new Atlantic cable, the insulated conductor is 
wrapped in a layer of jute yarn, and enclosed in a padding 
made often No. 13 galvanized iron wires, surrounded with 
untatred Manilla yarn, spirally wound, intended to afford 



Notes on the Properties of Wood. 107 

strength and external protection. There being between 
those wires and the non-strengthened conductor, a 
thickness of 5-i6ths of an inch of insulating medium and 
jute yarn, which adds little to its strength, it is evident 
that the material strength of the envelope, thus applied 
concentrically away from the conductor, is insufficiently 
and wrongly applied. 

As a consequence, the new Atlantic cable, although 
nearly four times more bulky and heavy than Allan's 
cable for the same distance and depth, is upwards of 5 J 
times weaker, 50 per cent, dearer to construct, considerably 
more difficult to handle and carry, and will probably cost 
three times more to ship, pay out, and submerge. 

It must, therefore, be acknowledged, that the fact of 
uniting the above-named advantages, in a small cable, is 
the achievement of a great desideratum, which constitutes 
Allan's valuable, and not sufficiently appreciated invention, 
deserving of better encouragement by all interested in 
deep sea telegraphy, which means the civilized world. 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 

BY wood we understand the substance of trees — viz., 
timber, which is that portion of a tree between the 
rind and the marrow, as also to distinguish the heart from 
the sapwood. The inner structure of trees is the founda- 
tion of all the peculiarities of grain of the wood. It is 
alike in all European and foreign trees. If, with the assist- 
ance of a powerful magnifying glass, we examine a cross 
section, we see on the outer surface of the section, first, the 
back and cambium, next the sapwood, then the heartwood, 
and in the centre the marrow. From the centre radiate, 
the rind thin lines, which being crossed by rings, take the 
appearance of the cob-web of a spider. By these rings we 
are enabled to arrive at the age of a tree, one being added, 
nearly every year. This rule cannot always be followed 
out in its integrity, owing to, in some instances, the August 
sap forming a second ring in the same year, by this reason, 
the age of a large tree becomes very doubtful if it be esti- 
mated by its yearly rings. These rings have a close con- 
nection with the development of the leaves, for when found 

K 2 



io8 Notes on the Properties of Wood, 

imperfect, it is owing to either the loss or the freezing of 
the branches. Then again, it may have been caused by 
insects and larger animals who live upon and in trees, or 
by dryness. 

The unequal width of the rings is the main feature by 
which we judge of the physical condition of the wood, and 
therefore we will examine this point closely. 

The healthy life of a tree requires, as a necessity, a 
certain modicum of light and a constant supply of fresh 
air, besides the nourishment which it absorbs from the 
soil, through the media of its roots. A tree transferred to 
a more suitable climate or richer soil, will be found to im- 
prove its condition ; but should any element be found 
wanting, that tree will not improve, or perhaps it may in- 
crease in size, losing, on the other hand, its specific weight. 

The Fir, which grows on very dry marl, forms narrow 
yearly rings ; if on rich and damp marl, they are wide ; but 
when on wet soil they are again smaller. The common 
Fir, on moor soil, has smaller yearly rings than~if on dry 
sand or marl. It is evident from this, that too dry or too 
wet a soil is not suitable for the development of this tree. 
A white fir-tree, twenty-five years old, situated in a tolera- 
bly suitable ground, may have a diameter of three inches 
or so, whilst another on dry ground will be but one inch 
thick. If we submit a cross-section of each under the 
microscope, the former will appear like a net with large 
pores, whilst the second looks almost like one solid mass. 

The greatest amount of attention should be given to 
this fact in the selection of masts and spars for ship-build- 
ing. The usual width of the rings in the Fir when young is 
2*4 mil. with a slight decrease towards the bark. In the 
Swedish and Russian firs the smallest rings are found, 
which is ascribable to the shortness of the summer in those 
climates, but still the same result obtains in more southerly 
latitudes. 

The Leafwoods, with large pores, analogous, but opposite 
to those of the Pines, with them, although the rings become 
smaller, the quantity or bulk of the porous springwood 
does not decrease in the same ratio. A cubic inch, there- 
fore, contains more mass, the less we find pores in the same, 
or in other words, the broader the yearly rings so much the 
greater will be the mass of the wood. The reason for this 
is, that the pores are considerably smaller on trees with 
broader yearly rings, and are, at the same time, less 
numerous. The outer rings of trees are often found as 



Notes on the Properties of Wood. 109 

porous as the rootwood. This is frequently the case with 
the branches of the trees. Therefore, if we have to select 
between two oaks, we shall choose the one with the broader 
yearly rings, because, in a cubic foot of the same, we shall 
have a larger quantity of wood than in the other. Should 
it happen that a whole forest produces trees with wide 
yearly rings, and another, trees with smaller rings, then 
arises the question whether the former is caused by the 
damp condition of the soil, in which case the wood in the 
first will be more porous and loose than in the latter. It is 
necessary therefore, that we take into consideration the 
specific weight as well as the broadness of the rings, and 
if found to correspond, then we may conclude that the 
timber is sound. Wood which has rings of more than six 
7nil. wide for a section of some inches should not be used 
in building. Trees which have grown in clammy or marsh 
soil furnish bad timber. 

More regularity in the width of the rings from the centre 
towards the bark is found in the Pine. The process 
depends much upon the position of the tree and the sur- 
rounding influences. In the Leafwoods, a greater variety 
in the rings is to be found ; but these, as well as the Pines, 
have that same feature in common, that the rings increase 
towards the bark, and that close to the latter they decrease 
again. The number of branches influence the width of 
the rings in their position. It is hardly necessary to remark 
that the assertion that the rings are wider on the south 
side of a tree than those on the north side is devoid of 
truth. 

The bark is of very great importance to a tree. It acts 
as a protective band for the distribution of the sap, and is, 
therefore, necessary for the formation of the yearly rings. 
If it gets damaged or split at a certain place, it will be 
observed that the next following ring increases considerably 
at this wound. There is no rule without an exception, and 
we have it exemplified in the case of the almond-tree, 
{Amygdalus), which bends hollow in the place where the 
bark has been damaged. 

In some trees destruction commences with the ripening 
of the wood, as with the Canadian Poplar (Popiihis), and 
the Willows {Salix), which begin to darken in the centre, 
and by their smell indicate their decay. The sapwood of 
hardwood trees is not of much use, never lasting for any 
period, and when used, only serving to introduce destruc- 
tive organs into the better wood. 



no Notes on the Properties of Wood, 

When trees arrive at a certain age, they should be cut 
down, that is, if it is intended their wood should be of a 
good and durable quality. If left growing, the quantity 
will certainly increase, but the quality will suffer in an 
inverse ratio. 

The colour of wood is a prominent feature, with the 
various species, as also of the quality of the wood. If a 
tree is felled in a rainy or damp atmosphere, say during a 
mild winter season, the heart of the wood will then retain 
its natural wet colour for a longer period. In a dry spring 
atmosphere the heart wood dries sooner, although the sap- 
wood retains its moisture longer than the ripewood of the 
stem. By this latter process the moisture evaporates and 
draws towards the bark, by which the sapwood sometimes 
takes the darker colour of the ripewood. The atmosphere 
fully develops the proper colours of the various woods after 
they have been exposed to its influence for some time. 
The period when timber may be said to be highest in 
colour, is during the time when the tree is in full bloom. 
If the colour of an oak is of one cast, it is the sign of its 
good condition, but it must be of the same shade in the 
ripewood as well as in the yearly rings. A proper judg- 
ment upon the condition of the wood can only be given 
when the tree is forested. 

The scent of some woods enable us to pass a judgment 
upon their condition. In the early Spring, old white 
Poplar trees (Poptdus albd)^ give forth an obnoxious smell, 
which proceeds from the sap flowing from the decayed 
interior to the outside. Pinewood retains its natural smell 
for years. Leafwood trees have a sour smell, and the 
stronger it is the healthier the wood. Should the smell be 
faint the tree is dying off. 

We now come to the sap or blood of the tree, which 
circulates in it, promotes its life, and is composed mainly 
of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The 
sap forms a considerable body in the green or fresh wood, 
changing, more or less, the quality of the wood, the inti- 
mate study of its influences being of great technical impor- 
tance. It has been said that the sap flows out of a tree 
after it is cut down. TlTis is only the case with very few 
woods, as, with most of them, the moisture evaporates. 

The amount of sap considerably changes during the 
seasons of the year. A fine example of this is furnished 
us in a work called " Exploitation des Bois," by M. Duhamel 
de Monceau, and which we extract from a pamphlet by M. 



Notes on the Properties of Wood. 1 1 1 

Justen, recently published. M. D. de Monceau, had felled 
during the year 1732-33 eight oaks each month, of equal 
age, from which he obtained the following results : — 

Pounds Month. 

340718 , December. 

340-906 ... January. 

328-031 February. 

33i'o87 March. 

3ii"875 April. 

319-500 ... May. 

297-312 June, 

297.250 ,. July. 

314-469 August. 

306-875 September. 

328-906 October. 

331-000 ... ... ... November. 

From these figures, which are Parisian weight, we find 
that during December and January the trees had more sap 
than during the other months. The sap diminishes in 
October, November, February, and March, in April it is 
less than the four months above enumerated, and is least 
in the months of June and July. Another experiment was 
made with six young oaks, in which the December wood 
again had most sap, thus proving that there is more sap 
in the December wood. The least amount of sap being 
contained in the July and August wood. 

Heavy hardwoods lose, by drying, about one-third of 
their original weight ; lighter woods lose from about one- 
third to one-half, being to, in some degree, dependent on 
the soil where they grow. The bark prevents the sap from 
running out of the stem. Experiments have proved that the 
weight of wood with its bark on, greatly fluctuate, where- 
as, the weight of wood without its bark, steadily diminishes. 
Wood never loses all its sap. When air-dry it generally 
has 20 per cent, of its weight. 

The preceding portion of the article has been culled 
from a work by M. Joseph Justen, of Liverpool, the follow- 
ing we extract in extenso : — 

It is of importance to know how long various timbers of 
different dimensions and strength will take to become air- 
dry, that is to say, how soon will they arrive at the medium 
weight which they maintain for always, and to which they 
return whenever the influence of the atmosphere alters it. 



1 1 2 Notes on the Properties of Wood. 

Many mechanics require dry wood for their works, but it is 
not seldom that they also use it before it is properly sea- 
soned. 

In former remarks I have alluded already to several influ- 
ences which affect the due seasoning of timber, and from 
these it is impossible to adopt a general rule, because in each 
place surrounding circumstances must be taken into consi- 
deration. Let me, however, refer to the cause of the warp- 
ing of floor-planks, which has its reason, that the air does 
not reach the lower side of the deal. It shows itself stronger 
where the plank is placed at the top, and the lower side has 
been left in its rough state, by which a larger quantity of 
moisture is discharged by the outer side, which causes the 
warping. In exposing various woods to the action of water 
it will be found that the younger stems are more subjected 
to its influence, because they absorb more water than old 
wood. For hydraulic constructions none but well seasoned, 
old hardwoods should be used, and the sapwood should 
also be avoided, because it promotes the decay of the sound 
parts. 

The specific weight must next be taken into considera- 
tion. Most of the woods swim in the water. The specific 
weight of wood is found by taking first the dry weight ; 
then it is thrown into water until quite saturated, after which 
it is weighed again. • We must then weigh it under water. 
If we then divide with the difference of the second and third 
weights, which represents the weights of the water displaced 
by the wood, into the natural dry weight we obtain the 
specific weight. This answers in general well enough, but 
it is not so correct as the process recommended by Mr. 
Marcus Bull. He justly observes that the wood is liable to 
swell in the water, and after having taken the dry weight 
he covered the piece of wood with a varnish, having the 
exact density of the water. This varnish is composed of 
rosin, having a density of 1*079, ^^^ wax, having a density 
of O'gGj. By this varnish the water cannot penetrate into 
the wood. The solid matter of the wood divested of all 
cavities is heavier than water, and its density or weight, 
compared with that of water, varies, according to Rumford, 
from 1-46 to 1*53. 

It is very difficult to give a general figure for the specific 
weight of any kind of wood. Pieces from the same tree 
produce different results, but the following figures give an 
average weight : — 



Notes on the Properties of Wood. 1 1 3 



Ironwood 1*201 

Greenheart 1-200 

Sabicue wood I'loo 

Brazil wood I'lOO 

Ebony I'oSo 

Box roso 

Medlar 0*950 

Lilac or pipe tree... 0'903 

Oak 0*885 

Beech 0-852 

Ash 0*845 



Yew 0*807 

Elm O'Soo 

Apple 0733 

Fir 0*657 

Lime 0*604 

Cypress 0*598 

Cedar 0561 

Poplar (silver) 0*529 

Sassafras 0*482 

Poplar (common ... 0*383 
Cork 0*240 



The weight of water for the above is taken at i '000. 

Experience has shown that the time when trees are 
felled has much influence upon the condition of the wood. 
A trial was made in Germany with four pieces of oak cut 
down in December, January, February, and March. A tin 
ring was fixed at one end of each of the four pieces. These 
rings were filled each with two quarts of water, and it 
proved that the piece of wood cut in December did not 
permit any water to pass through its pores. The January 
wood, after forty-eight hours, passed a few drops. During 
the same time the entire quantity had run through the 
February wood, and the water had passed through the 
March wood within two hours and a half. This accounts 
for the reason that barrels of which the wood was felled in 
February or March will lose within a year as much as eight 
quarts of water, whilst others lose hardly any at all. One 
should suppose that wood would absorb salt water more 
easily than fresh water, because the pressure of the former 
being so much higher. Still this is not the case, and Mr. 
Duhamel has proved this by an experiment He took two 
pieces of oak from the same plank, weighing each 5lbs. 
During eleven months the one was exposed to salt water, 
and increased only by 2* 141 lbs. in weight, whilst the other, 
put into fresh water, increased by 4* 141 lbs. 

Wood which lies in the atmosphere will constantly vary 
in weight, which depends upon the wet or dry season, and 
as the action is accordingly, we find the wood in its section 
in a regular hygrometrical action. 

If we attempt to abstract all moisture by heat from the 
wood, we must not forget that at the same time we destroy 
its nature, that is the physical condition of the wood, by 
which it becomes very liable to break. Almost the same 
influence has too much hot oil upon wood. Through this 



114 Notes on the Properties of Wood. 

it loses considerably of its weight, and soon after the oil 
has been put on, the wood becomes brittle and warps more 
easily than in its natural state. 

The remainder of the sap which is left in the pores of 
seasoned timber serves as a binding substance in the whole ; 
it also prevents any extensive hygroscopical action, 
provided the tree was cut at the proper time. 

The hygroscopicity is in constant action in the wood, and 
affects its body, shape, and weight, which, in time, leads to 
its dissolution. This change is as much a chemical as a 
physical process, and is noticed in all woods. 

The weight of wood is of great importance to us, 
because its hardness, its resisting, and its heating power, as 
well as other valuable properties, are all, more or less, de- 
pending upon it. Let us, therefere, enter closer into this 
subject. In the first instance we must consider that even 
wood which has been forested very light, will become heavy 
when put for some time into water ; but, in such timbers 
the sap is already given to dissolution. If the fibre were 
the only substance in the wood, then the specific weight 
would depend upon the number of pores contained in its 
body. The pores are, however, filled with a substance, 
such as resin, dye, &c. It comes to this, that young trees 
contain a great quantity of sap, whilst old trees have less, 
but a volume of air instead. 

Suppose we leave the troublesome factor, the water, for 
a moment, out of question, and inquire into the reasons 
which cause the heavier or lighter specific weight in dry 
wood. The hardest and heaviest woods come from the 
hotter climates. The only exception is the pine, which 
thrives considerably better and furnishes heavier timber 
when it has grown in colder regions, or upon high moun- 
tains. Trees grown on northern slopes furnish lighter 
timber than if south or west. In these remarks we have 
already noticed the fact, that the soil has great influence 
upon the width of the yearly rings, and I also remarked 
that from this we are able to form a conclusion with regard 
to the specific weight. 

We have since heard of a number of facts by which the 
connection between the yearly rings and the specific weight 
is greatly modified, but, as an instance, I mention the Fir 
and Larch trees, which both are heaviest when their rings 
are small. Another influence upon the specific weight is 
exercised by the resin and the dye which are contained in 
the interior of the wood. On level dry ground of deep 



Notes on the Properties of Wood. 1 1 5 

sandy soil, we find the Fir {Pinus silvestris), beautifully- 
red inside ; in the same condition we find the Fir {Pinus 
vlughus), on turf soil, where there is an abundance of 
water ; but when we look at it on lias soil it shows broad 
yearly rings and hardly any colour at all. The Larch tree 
again in such soil develops itself well with a rich colour. 
The cause for these appearances must, therefore, rest with 
the chemical condition of the soil and its effect upon the 
individuality of the Fir. Oaks generally furnish good 
timber when grown slowly in dry ground, whilst those from 
wet soil appear considerably spongy. Similar results are 
obtained with other trees. 

Trees cut in summer give lighter wood than when felled 
in winter time. The cause for this may probably be 
ascribed to the fact that in winter a large amount of 
nourishment is stored in the stem, which, during the spring 
and summer, is spent for the formation of blooms and 
leaves. 

We call hardness of the wood the resistance which it 
opposes v/hen another body enters it. If wood were an 
equal body, like minerals, we should be able to determine 
its resisting power or hardness ; but it being differently 
built, and whilst trying its hardness other properties inter- 
fere, we cannot arrive at a decisive result. Sometimes a 
wood has very hard fibres but little body, that is, it is 
lighter built than another wood with soft fibres and a full 
body. It is, therefore, unadvisable to judge the hardness 
of a wood according to its fibres. Experiments to ascer- 
tain the hardness should be made across the stem, and not 
upon a longitudinal section, and, although there is no in- 
strument which leads us at once to a definite result, we can 
generally arrive with a saw at a fair conclusion. Many 
persons constantly employed on wood are of the opinion 
that it becomes harder if it is worked or barked ofT whilst 
green. 

Wood, as a porous body, contains, in its natural state, 
whether dead or alive, a certain amount of moisture. By 
the loss of that moisture, or with the increase of the same, 
the bulk of the wood either contracts or extends. If we 
have a piece of wood where this action takes place only 
upon one side it is obvious that the piece will alter its form 
or shape. The consequence of the loss of moisture is also 
the warping and the splitting of the wood. The inner 
structure of a stem is irregular ; for instance, we find the 
inner moisture of a yearly ring to be more than on its 



1 1 6 Pwai'Ngyet. 

outer side. This causes the splits on the exterior after the 
wood is dry, and it also accounts for the impossibility to 
form out of greenwood a regular body which could not 
lose its weight or shape. The time during which the eva- 
poration of the moisture takes place depends upon the 
state of the atmosphere 

Several authors are of the opinion that the contraction 
is regulated by the specific weight. This, as a rule, cannot 
be adopted ; for instance, Lilac and Oak, both being heavy 
and hard, contract quickly, whilst the South American 
Maple, which is equally hard, contracts slowly. It is evi- 
dent, however, that the fuller of sap a tree is, the greater will 
be the contraction. This will account for the fact that we find 
on cut timber the cracks extend from the exterior towards the 
centre, because the sapwood will contract more than the 
heart of the wood. Planks turn with their sides upwards, 
that is, the edges rise from the level of the centre line. 
This explains why we turn the inside of a plank towards 
the joists whilst we lay a floor, which prevents the twisting. 

The contraction and action of the wood cannot be 
checked altogether. Among the means to prevent it, stands 
foremost the one ot putting the tree into water ; but when 
taken out it must not be stored in a place where it dries too 
soon, as it still would burst if done. Nor must it be left 
too long in the water as this will injure the quality of the 
wood. 

All the wood which is used is never quite dry ; besides 
this, it works a little in itself, under the changes of the 
atmosphere, and therefore attention must be paid to the 
selection of timber for the same purpose, for the heartwood 
is less subjected to such actions than sap or splintwood. 
This is an important point with furniture makers. The 
extension or contraction is less apparent in the length of 
the fibre than in the cross section of the wood. 



PWAI-NGYET. 



I HAVE noticed your remarks on the substance called 
Pwai-ngyet in your interesting little periodical 
"Science Gossip." As it was I who furnished the bees 
which were forwarded by the Agri-Horticultural Society of 



Pwai-Ngyet, 1 1 7 

Calcutta to Mr. F. Smith of the British Museum, for identi- 
fication, and which he pronounced to be Trigona IcBviceps 
(as Dr. Mason, to whom you refer, states in his book on the 
natural productions of the Tenasserim provinces) ; and as, 
therefore, I know both the substance and the insect well, 
I have great pleasure in giving you such information as I 
can on the subject. 

A few years ago the secretary of the Calcutta Agri-Horti- 
cultural Society wrote to me for information regarding 
Pwai-ngyet. Until then, I knew very little about it, but my 
attention having been called in this way to it, I made it 
my business to find out what it was. 

If I read your remarks rightly, you appear to be of 
opinion that Pwai-ngyet is the pure unaltered gum or resin 
of Canarium strictum, only bored and channelled by the 
bee. If this were so, then the substance should only be 
found on that tree. It is, however, found on different trees ; 
sometimes too in the ground, or in a hollow among rocks ; 
and, occasionally, even in the hollow post of an old house. 

I have seen the bees making their nests in all these 
several situations. 

Pwai-ngyet, I believe myself, is a combination of various 
gums or resins, and probably also of oils, gathered from 
various sources, while in a soft state, by the bee, and built 
up and moulded, very much as wax is moulded ; with this 
difference, that whereas wax is formed by the honey-bee 
into cells of perfect and uniform symmetry, the cells in 
Pwai-ngyet assume no regular form at all. 

What trees contribute their juices to form Pwai-ngyet I 
cannot say for certain, though I incline to think that 
Thtngan-tsee, or the resin of the Thengan {Hopea odoratd)^ 
is the chief ingredient, and that the oil of the various Dip- 
terocarps, or wood-oil trees, particularly of Dipterocarpus 
/^vis,th.e wood-oil Xxqq par excellence, also enters into the com- 
position of the m.aterial. My reasons for thinking so are, 
that the texture, the colour, and the smell of Pwai-ngyet are 
all such as would apparently result from a combination of 
the two substances mentioned ; and that Hopea odorata 
and Dipterocarpus Icevis are among the principal giants of 
our forests, and common trees. On the other hand, I do 
not think (though I will not be sure) that Cccnarium strictum 
is found in our provinces, although I believe a species of 
Canarium, a large timber tree, is found in Pegu. 

The Trigona Iceviceps builds its nest generally in the 
hollow of a tree, entering by a small aperture. These 



ii8 



Pwai-Ngyet, 



apertures are lined with Pwai-ngyet, and sometimes only 
show a small rim of that substance raised above the bark 
of the tree. Sometimes however, (perhaps always if undis- 
turbed), the bees go on building outside, and adding on to 
the rim, until they have found a wide-mouthed entrance 
which projects as much as a foot from the tree. These 
structures commonly assume the shape of the mouth of a 
large trumpet flattened horizontally, and have a perpendi- 
cular diameter of a foot or so, and a horizontal diameter 
of three or four inches. They are built with great regula- 
rity in their exterior half, but not so regularly towards the 
base, from the necessity of -adapting the structure to the 
shape of the tree where the hole may chance to be. They 
are very curious and pretty objects, but being very promi- 
nent, attract the notice of the passer-by, and so, often lead 
to the spoiling of the habitation. 

" Sic non vobis nidificatis apes," 





Front view 
of mouth. 



Nest of Trigoua Iceviceps, one-sixth antural size. 

I send you a rude sketch of one of the trumpet-openings. 
I despatch also, by post, together with this notice, a small 
piece of Pwai-ngyet, broken off the upper base of such a 
work. By holding this up to the light, you will see three 



Pwai-Ngyet. 1 1 9 

or four large cells of about an inch in diameter, without any- 
opening. I can only suppose that the object of these cell- 
walls is to strengthen the narrow base in its support of the 
larger projecting mass. If so, here is another instance of a 
mysterious intelligence possessed by one of the smallest of 
living creatures. 

This piece, marked No. i,will show the ordinary texture 
colour, and general appearance of Pwai-ngyet, as it is found 
in the jungles. No. 2, is nearly white, a very unusual, 
colour. I send it because of the greater resemblance to 
Thengan-tsee, or the resin of the Hopea odorata ; of which 
I also send a small piece (No. 3), in order that you may be 
able to ascertain how far the two substances are chemically 
identical. 

What the internal economy of the nest of Trigona Icevi- 
ceps is I cannot say, as the tree has commonly to be felled 
in order to obtain the contents, and this I have never seen 
done. I am informed by the Burmese that from five to ten 
viss are usually obtained from one nest. A viss is about 
3f lb., and costs about 4 annas (6d.) in the bazaar. I should 
imagine that, considering the source whence it is procured, 
the supply must be very limited ; and, if exported, it would 
soon equal beeswax in price. 

Its principal, if not only use, at present, is for caulking ; 
and, for this purpose, it is mixed with earth-oil or petro- 
letim. 

The method is to boil the Pwai-ngyet in water, which 
makes it quite soft, and then to knead it with a certain 
quantity of the petroleum, until it attains the consistency 
of a lump of putty, which it much resembles. In that state 
it is fit for use, and is extremely viscid and tenacious. On 
putting a piece of Pwai-ngyet into boiling water, in order to 
perform the operation myself, I noticed that the surface of 
the water was covered with a thin film of oil. This confirms 
me in the idea that oil is united with resin in the composi- 
tion of Pwai-ngyet. It is soluble in oils and in turpentine, 
but not in spirits of wine. I may conclude by mentioning 
that the mistakes made by several persons in Burmah with 
regard to the origin of this substance must have arisen from 
the fact that the name of Pwai-ngyet is often used here, in 
the bazaars, to denote any kind of resin or Dammer, but the 
true Pwai-ngyet of the Burmese is that made by the small 
bee called Trigona loeviceps, and is made by them in the 
manner I have tried to describe. 

Moulmein. C. S. P. Parish. 



1 20 On Scientific Physical Training 

The drawing, one-sixth the natural size, is an imaginary- 
restoration, as but the lower half is before me. The 
portion marked A, forms specimen No. i, sent to you. 
B, within ths dotted line, marks the space over which the 
blind cells, for strength, as I suppose, extend. From the 
shape of the base, as brought to me, the mass must have 
rested partly on some such excrescence of the trunk as I 
have tried to represent. The actual entrance into the tree 
in this instance was by a narrow perpendicular slit, two and 
a half inches long and three-tenths of an inch wide, the 
upper part of which may be seen in the specimen. The 
width, laterally, in the middle of the stem of the structure, 
is exactly one and a half inch. The weight of the whole, 
judging by the portion I have, may have been half a pound. 

C. P. 



ON SCIENTIFIC PHYSICAL TRAINING AND 
RATIONAL GYMNASTICS. 

BY M. ROTH, ESQ., M.D. 

(Continued from page 78.) 

WE come now to the point of rational gymnastics. I 
repeat there is only one good system of gymnastics, 
that which takes care of the human body. It should not be 
the object in a gymnasium to see who can climb the most, 
who can vault the best ; but the object should be to pro- 
duce harmony of the different parts of the human body, 
consequently, every part should be simultaneously de- 
veloped. The figures have been modelled in order to show 
the elementary actions of the human body on which all 
other movements are based. The figures will show the 
various positions in which the elementary movements can 
be executed. The positions must be compared to the 
various keys in music, because the same movement in a 
different position produces a different effect. Figures i, 2, 
3 show different positions of the hands and feet ; 4, 
5, 6, 7, different movements of the head, as thrown for- 
wards, backwards, sideways, and turning. These flexion 
and turning movements can be combined in various ways. 
Figures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, show the elementary move- 
ments of the arms. We use the arms in all directions, but 



i 



and Rational Gymnastics, 



121 



here we have only the principal directions of the space — 
viz., to the body, arms bent, fingers touching, upwards, 
outwards, forwards, and backwards. You will observe that 




the difference between these and the so-called extension 
movements in the army is, that in these movements the 
NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. L 



12 2 On Scientific Physical Training 

hand is always stretched, and the fist is not clenched. 
When we have the hands clenched, a certain set of muscles 
at the back of the forearm are not brought into action. 




Other figures show elementary movements of the trunk 
similar to the movements of the head. We have actions 



and Rational Gymnastics. 



123 



to the right, to the left, forwards, and backwards, and two 
instances of combined movements: see figures 14, 15, 16, 




17, 18, and 19. Figures 20, 21, 22, 23, show the movements 
of the feet. 

By forming a combination of these elementary move- 

L 2 



1 24 O71 Sciejitific Physical Training 

ments of the different parts of the body, we have a basis 
upon which you are to act. Just as with the twenty-four 
elementary letters of the alphabet we can form endless 
combinations and also talk much nonsense, so it is with 
these elementary movements of the human body. Our 
object is not to make the greatest exertions in any one 
direction, and to do as many exercises as possible, even 
injurious ones, but to combine these movements for pur- 
poses that are useful in life. Our object is not to form 
tumblers, rope-dancers, &c., but to develop the powers of 
the body harmoniously ; therefore, we seek the combi- 
nation of these simple ideas. The same movements which 
are necesssr}^ for the first educational development of the 
body can be also made use of for the purpose of mental 
instruction, and an intelligent teacher can teach the ele- 
mentary geometrical forms by the aid of the various 
positions and movements of the limbs and body ; thus 
children can be taught what a horizontal and vertical line 
is, the various angles formed by two-lines, circles, and 
ellipses can be formed, &c., as you can convince yourselves 
by looking at these models, which form the basis of some 
other very important branches of physical training. I 
have also tried to introduce these elementary movements 
under the form of gymnastic games, which afford amuse- 
ment while tRe body is exercised. 

They form the basis of military gymnastics, because 
men are prepared for the drill through these. The greatest 
and best results have been obtained in the Swedish and 
Prussian armies by preparing the recruit before he enters 
upon his military duties, by these apparently simple 
exercises. Although they appear simple, they are not so 
simple, for the man has to do them with the greatest 
exactitude, and he is obliged to think for himself. They 
are called " free exercises," because there is no external 
help, no apparatus, no machinery is wanted. By placing 
together two, three, four, five, or more men, you can make 
them all work at the same time, and supply to one another 
the place of apparatus. This is the importance of this 
scientific basis in comparison with other systems, that you 
have a certain number of men working together at the 
same time under a certain word of command, either as 
individuals, or as one compound body, without being 
obliged to raise heavy dumb-bells, under the weight of 
which the men are panting for breath. The men on the 
right and left can supply the weight of the dumb-bell by 



and Rational Gymnastics. 125 

their power of resistance, which can be increased to any- 
desirable extent, and if there is a living resistance it is 
constantly necessary that the two or three men should work 
together, as if they would form but one body, governed by 
one mind. So that in fact we have not only a machine, 
but we have here a living body, whose mental faculties are 
brought into power by the exercise at the same time as 
the body. 

Figs. 24, 25, 26, 27 will explain to the reader the 
mode of combining these movements, in which two or 
three men can take part at the same time, and bring into 
exercise the various muscles of the body without the aid 
of apparatus of any kind. 

To show the importance of this system for military 
training, I will read the following extract from a letter just 
received (12th February, 1863), from Major Rothstein, who 
is at the head of the Royal Central Institution for Gym- 
nastics at Berlin.* 

" I am happy to say that rational gymnastics are pro- 
gressing favourably in our military institutions (Kadetten 
und Kreigs-Schulen), as well as in all the regiments of the 
army ; even the old commanders who did not like this 
mode of physical training, acknowledge its merits. 

"The free exercises of Ling have proved exceedingly 
useful for the development of the recruits. Here, at 
Berlin, the regiments of the Guard show much zeal for the 
practice of the gymnastic exercises. 

"In the regiments in garrison in the provinces, the pro- 
gress of this branch of military education varies according 
to the views of the commanding officers, and depends also 
very much upon social and other circumstances, but on the 
whole, progress is visible everywhere. 

" The full extent of this system on the physical develop- 
ment of our soldiers, and of our nation in general, will be 
shown only then when our youth shall share in the benefit 
of a rational physical education. 

" The greatest impediment to this attainment is the 

* In this Institution, commissioned and non-commissioned 
officers are instructed in the elements of anatomy, physiology, 
hygiene, educational, and military gymnastics. After having 
passed a theoretical and practical examination, they return to 
their regiments, and train there a number of non-commissioned 
officers, Avho assist in the physical education of the privates. 



126 On Scientific Physical Training 

fanatic advocacy of such systems of gymnastics, which aim 

only at brute muscular development."* 

If space permits I will try to show some of these move- 
ments with resistance with these three guardsmen, that you 
may see how unnecessary it is to introduce what is now 
supposed to be requisite, the use of dumb-bells and clubs 
into the army. Government, as a rule, prefer things that 
are not expensive ; and if it is proved that the introduction 
of these exercises will save expense in the way of apparatus 
and dress, then I have some hope that the system will be 
adopted. 

Advantages of free exerceises are — 

a. That the movements, being very simple, are easily 
understood and easily executed. 

b. Much time is saved, because they can be executed 
simultaneously by many persons, 

c. The expense for apparatus and machines is saved, and 
the dresses less spoiled. 

d. The free movements can be executed in any place, 
in the open air, as well as in-doors ; for instance, in schools, 
barracks, in the open field, in the camp, and in the 
bivouack. 

e. As every motion of a free exercise is to be executed 
exactly, and as many persons are simultaneously at work, 
they must accustom themselves to a certain attention and 
precision, by which means the sense of order is developed, 
and the attention sharpened. 

f. The free exercises produce an agreeable feeling in all 
the movements of the body, and develope better than the 
exercises on gymnastic apparatus, a good posture, and an 
appropriate appearance and deportment of ordinary life. 

There is an erroneous opinion prevalent that free exer- 
cises are suitable only for youths, and not for adults. As 
long as gymnastics are not made a part of education 
generally, the free exercises are useful also to adults, 

* For further information regarding these exercises, I must 
refer you to the following works on this subject : — 

1. '* The Gymnastic Free Exercises of Ling, according to the 
system of Ling," arranged by Major Rothstein, translated, with 
same aJditions, by Dr. Roth. 

2. " Elementary Exercises or Movements according to the Sys- 
tem of Ling." 

Sheet Tables of a few Gymnastic Exercises. — M. R. 



and Rational Gymnastics. 127 

although they may be considered only as preparatory 
exercises. 

Without wishing to disparage exercises with apparatus, 
as long as they are practised with caution and within 
certain limits, I will mention in favour of the free exercises, 
that if the exercises with the aid of apparatus are exclu- 
sively or too frequently practised, the body loses its natural 
instinctive sense for equilibrium, instead of having it 
developed. The sense for form and graceful positions and 
movements of the body is lessened, while the sense for 
equilibrium in such artificial positions as rarely or never 
occur in life is developed. 

Exercises in Gyjnnasia. — Notwithstanding that soldiers 
are inspected before they are sent to the gymnasium, in 
order to find out whether they are fit for the great exertions, 
there is too great a demand made upon their strength. 
This gymnastic forcing cannot be avoided, if men are, in 
the course of a month, to go through their desired gym- 
nastic training. This is impossible, and the man returns, 
or the whole company returns to the regiment, where they 
have no apparatus, and, consequently, lose the little they 
have gained, and are as stiff as they were before. But if 
a system of exercises is introduced in which the mind is 
at work, it can be done very well, and if a man is too weak 
to do any of them, a second or a third person can assist 
him, and as no apparatus is wanted, it will be possible to 
give the men gymnastic education without sending them 
away from their regiment for a month. 

Great stress is laid on the development of the chest, 
which is produced by what is called the Oxford system. 
I feel it my duty to protest against these violent exercises. 
I have to deal frequently with delicate and invalided ladies, 
whose chests are flattened and compressed ; if they are not 
consumptive, the circumference of their chest is considerably 
increased in a very short time, without the use of violent 
exercise. The development of the chest is accomplished 
by breathing, and by other movements by which the 
muscles of the shoulders and back are developed. In all 
these cases we bring the influence of the will and the mind 
to act upon the part which is weakened, and that is the 
reason why we get rid of all apparatus. 

The educational branch forms a part of the military 
gymnastics, that branch of rational gymnastics which 
teaches the exercises with the different kinds of weapons 



128 On Scientific Physical Trai7iing, etc, 

viz., the foil, the sing^le-stick, the sword, the lance, the 
bayonet, and also wrestling. 

There is a third part of gymnastics also based on the 
educational branch, called " a^thetic gymnastics," It means 
the application of movements of the human body for the 
expression of our feelings and ideas, I hope on some 
future occasion to present your numerous readers with 
drawings which show the attitudes of the body under the 
influence of different states of mind. Feelings of sympathy 
or kindness, affection and attention^ have all oval lines ; 
antipathy, anger, pride, and all bad passions^ are shown by 
angular lines. Other drawings represent the attitudes in 
prayer, the arms being extended,, and the hands raised in 
proportion to the fervency of the prayer. Some show the 
position of a person who is thinking ^ the natural position 
is, the head leaning slightly forward while the arms are 
crossed ; in this drawing the head is more inclined, and 
appears to rest on the finger placed near the chin. Where 
there is deep meditation, the head is leaning still more 
forward and rests on the haad. I point these out just 
to show in what way rational gymnastics may be made 
useful. 

There is another purpose to which these figures may be 
applied, and that is^ the training of blind people. Blind 
people are very much neg'lected. In the institutions I 
have visited, I find their chests very weak, and suffering 
from many complaints. As we have no other means for 
their instruction, I have made use of models, and I find 
they answer very well In the city is publishing a series of 
these figures in papier-mache for the object of teaching 
blind people. In order to give another impulse to the 
introduction of these simple exercises, the same firm are 
publishing engravings of these figures in the form of a 
game for children, so that they can be applied in schools 
where they have no apparatus to entice the children to do 
these exercises. 



129 



PREPARATION OF BROWN AND VIOLET 
COLOURS. 

TAKE one part by weight of rosanlline and mix it with 
one part also in weight of formic acid and half a part 
of acetate of soda, heat the whole at a temperature of i8o° 
to 200° C. The mixture commences to dissolve at the mo- 
ment it attains the temperature of 140°, and in a short time 
as the measure of the temperature rises, it becomes a dark 
brown. If, however, it is dissolved in spirits of wood or 
alcohol, it produces a red scarlet colour. 

If instead in the operation when the mixture becomes 
brown, the heat is applied until it attains the temperature 
of about 260°, and it is dissolved in spirits of wood or alco- 
hol, a colour of orange red appears. 

In following up the operation until the mixture arrives 
nearly to the temperature of 275^, and is dissolved in alco- 
hol, the colour becomes orange yellow. After having pro- 
duced one of the other colours, if it is allowed to cool, the 
matter becomes hard, and may then be employed as a dye 
for impressions. 

For preparing the finest colouring matter, — brown — mix 
the matter or production after it has become scarlet red, 
with oil of aniHne in the proportion of three parts of oil for 
one part of red-scarlet matter, and heat the whole at the 
temperature indicated, and separate the excess of oil of 
aniline by the known process. 

To obtain a violet colour, mix the rosaline with valerianic 
acid in the proportion of one part by weight of the first, 
and one part also by weight of acid, and heat it until the 
mixture commences to thicken and attains the temperature 
which varies accordingly to what is required, the mixture 
becoming more blue according to the heat applied, until it 
arrives at a violet blue. 

It is left to cool and then boiled in water, and again 
allowing it to get cool the colour is ready for use. 

With this colouring matter you may dye print on silk or 
on linen a fine violet-red or violet-blue. 

To prepare this colouring matter, violet, valerianic acid 
may be substituted to those of the same group, such as 
those of steuric, butyric, acetic, and cenanthylic, &c., but 
the preference should be given to valerianic acid. 



THE 
Hil 



130 



GRAPHOTYPE. 

graphotype invented by M. De Witt Clinton 
:tchcock, one of the most able engravers of New- 
York, has produced impressions from drawings by means 
of the typographic press. 

This is the process : — Commence by preparing an arti- 
ficial block of chalk, prepared of the finest chalk, by re- 
ducing it to a fine powder, and mixing with water to the 
consistence of cream, separating the parts that precipitate, 
repeating that operation several times, in fact, prepare it as 
washed chalk, passing it through a sieve and afterwards 
through a metallic cloth of 1,600 to 1,700-th part of a 
square centimetre ; press it very regularly upon a surface 
of a zinc plate, perfectly smooth and dressed. Upon this 
zinc plate charged with chalk is another plate placed, 
finely polished, and then the whole is submitted to the 
action of an hydraulic press. The press is then withdrawn 
and the plate removed. The chalk is then found firmly 
attached to the zinc, presenting a dense and superior sur- 
face, that requires nothing further than to be undone and 
made ready for the ink which is used for drawing on it 
by the artist, as on wood, that is to say, it is commenced 
by a red pencil the principal outlines, and then by the aid 
of a fine pencil of different sizes, line by line is traced. 

The ink which is used is a mixture of gelatine and lamp- 
black, which dry instantly, in such a manner that the series 
of lines, whatever they may be, may be crossed immedi- 
ately by others. The drawing being finished, the portions 
of chalk interspersed between the lines of the drawing 
are withdrawn or taken up, to the depth of about 3 milli- 
metres, or as near as possible, by means of a brush or 
pencil of hair, and others of velvet or silk, and the chalk 
plank is then softened by plunging it in a solution of a 
silicate alcaline. 

A print is then taken from that block for typographic 
type in the ordinary manner. This process is so delicate, 
that the artist is able to make the finest lines, and an im- 
pression may be easily taken in three hours after the 
drawing is made on the' chalk ; in a manner this new 
process has an immense advantage over that of wood, not 
only as regards price, but as regards time which runs 
between the termination of the drawing and the repro- 
duction by the press. Besides, this new rapid process and 
economical method give the same advantages to the artist. 



131 



THE FOOD FISHERIES OF FRANCE. 

THE very latest novelty in French oyster culture is the 
introduction by Madlle. Sarah Felix, the sister of 
the late Madame Rachel, of the American horse-shoe 
oyster. This lady is an enthusiastic ostreoculturist, and 
she has a suite of packs near Havre, which are said to be 
very profitable. Many of Madlle. Felix's countrymen have 
of late years taken to oyster farming, and in a short time 
the foreshores of France will be crowded with oyster beds, 
when one of the greatest industries of that country will 
assuredly be the breeding and fattening of that popular 
shell fish. The expense of rearing oysters is so trifling, 
and the returns so large, that thousands of the seafaring 
people have gone into the business, and many of the inland 
vine growers and general farmers have removed to the coast 
in order to try there luck at this new industry. There is 
a great demand for the oyster in all parts of France, and 
as the mollusk may be kept out of the water for a few days 
without any harm, or can be kept in tanks and be artifi- 
cially fed till such time as it is wanted for table purposes, a 
number of fishermen who could not find an outlet for either 
their round or flat fish in consequence of the rapid transit 
required to insure their fish being fresh on arrival at the 
market, have within a year or two taken to the rearing and 
fattening of oysters. There are few places now on the 
shores of France where oyster culture is not carried on in 
some one of its varied phases ; there are either viviers for 
keeping them al^e till called for, pares for breeding them 
n, claires for fattening them, or pits for greening them. 
And the French Government, with a view to promote so 
laudable an industry, has established model beds on various 
parts of the coast, in order to teach practically the art of 
oyster farming. As well as being practically useful in a 
commercial sense, these model beds have been of great use 
to M. Coste and other French naturalists, by allowing them 
to determine the exact age at which the oyster becomes re- 
productive, without which knowledge no animal, sea or land, 
can be profitably bred. The French pare sy.stem also ad- 
mits of the proper study of the spat mystery, which is now 
attracting the gravest attention of all interested in the 
natural and economic history of the oyster. As an example 
of the spat difficulty, it may be mentioned, that while in 
the basin of Arcachon, the spat has never been known to 



132 The Food Fisheries of France. 

fail, yet around the He de Re the fall for these some years 
back has been very intermittent, as it has also been on the 
English beds. In the sheltered basin of Arcachon the 
plentiful spatting may be accounted for on the principle 
that the spat has nowhere else to go — it must fall within 
the basin. In an open expanse of sea it is different ; the 
spat may be carried away to great distances by tidal in- 
fluence, or a sharp breeze upon the water may waft the 
oyster seed away for many a long mile. Every bed has its 
own time for spatting ; thus, one division of the Re beds 
may be spatting on a fine warm day, when the sea is like 
glass, so that the spat cannot fail to fall ; while, on another 
portion of the island, the spat may fall on a windy day, be 
thus left to the tender mercy of a fiercely receding tide, 
and so be lost, or fall, mayhap, on inaccessible rocks, a long 
way from the shore. On the Isle of Oleron, which supplies 
the green oyster breeders of Marennes with such large 
quantities, it is quite certain that in the course of the 
summer a friendly wave will waft large quantities of spat 
into the artificial pares, when it is known that the oysters 
in these pares have not spawned. Where does this foreign 
spat come from t The men say it comes off some of the 
natural beds of the adjoining sea — is driven in by the tide, 
and finds a welcome resting place on the artificial receivers 
of their pares. It is altogether an erroneous idea to suppose 
that there are some seasons when the oyster does not spat, 
because of the cold weather, &c. Some of the pares had 
spatted at Arcachon this year in very ungenial weather. 
The spatting of the oyster does not depend on the weather 
at all, but the destination of the spat doe^ because if the 
tiny seedling oyster does not fall on propitious ground it is 
lost for ever. New oyster beds are often discovered in places 
where it is certain oysters did not exist in previous years — 
how came they then to be formed t The spat must have 
been blown upon that ground by the ill wind that carried 
it away from the spot where it was expected to fall. If the 
spat exuded by the large quantity of oysters known to be 
stocked in Xki^ pares at Whitstable, in Kent, the home of 
the " native," were always to fall on the cultch of Whit- 
stable, instead of on the adjoining flats and elsewhere, the 
company would soon become enormously wealthy. At 
present, one of the largest items of their annual expenditure 
is for brood to be fattened for the market. This brood 
they buy everywhere, in order to keep the London oyster 
taverns constantly stocked with natives. 



The F tod Fisheries of France, 1 3 3 

The difference between French and English oyster farm- 
ing is not much, but the little that there is is of great im- 
portance in the economy of a large oyster farm. The 
endeavour of the French is to obtain spat or brood without 
purchase ; hitherto this has not been the case in England ; 
the dredgermen are but too willing to pay for brood when 
it can be obtained, but of late years, in consequence of a 
paucity of spat, it has become scarce and ill to get. The 
new oyster farms which have been laid down in England of 
late years are all upon the French plan, and already we are 
hearing of their success, spat having fallen upon some of 
them in great plenty. In the Firth of Forth oyster beds 
no pains are taken to protect the oyster, the grounds are 
never overhauled or " worked," the brood is sold by the 
hogshead to all and sundry who will come and buy it ; the 
result, as may be expected, is that in Edinburgh oysters 
are scarce, are also small in size, and dear. While the men 
of Whitstable have become rich by their thrift the men of 
Newhaven have become poor from consenting to the spolia- 
tion of their oyster beds, which are naturally the finest in 
the world. They have at length killed the goose for the 
sake of the golden ^<g^. 

Any attempt to find out the figures pertaining to the 
annual oyster commerce of France is generally abortive. 
No one knows exactly what these figures are, but of course 
every man forms his own opinion. An oyster merchant of 
Rochelle doing business with the growers of the adjacent 
islands of Oleron and Re, will say 250,000/. per annum, 
while a Bordeaux shipper, with large ideas, will give figures 
representing four times that sum. It is unquestionable 
that there is an immense oyster business done in France. 
Paris alone requires at present a daily supply that in the 
course of the season is said to amount to 100,000,000, and 
the large provincial towns all consume in proportion. Count- 
less numbers are besides exported, cured, prepared, and 
pickled. Offtcial figuers state that in 1862 the three factors 
appointed by the Government for the sale of oysters in the 
grand market disposed of 67,836,900, being an increase of 
12 J millions on the preceding year. We are constantly 
coming across paragraphs in the provincial newspapers of 
France, about the oyster trade. Lately the Pkare de la 
Manche told us that Paris now required ten times as many 
oysters as in 1856, and that they were now double the price ; 
further, that 6,000 women get a living during the oyster sea- 
son in opening oysters alone. The same paper also gave 



1 34 The Food Fisheries of France. 

us the astonishing intelligence that hintres de la Manche 
were the most esteemed in Paris, that the green oysters of 
Marennes were not now in demand, except for exportation, 
and that the Ostend pitted oysters had taken their place. 
It is certain that Ostend furnishes to Paris about three 
million oysters per annum, there are official figures to that 
effect. There has been also published a cluster of reliable 
figures about the oyster grounds of Arcachon, in which it 
is stated that the oyster grounds of the basin, including the 
royal parks on either side of the bank of La Hillion, cccupy 
space to the extent of 1,200 acres. A stock of over two 
millions of breeding oysters was gradually laid down in the 
royal grounds, and there yielded an enormous amount 
of spat. A portion of the two millions — viz., 500,000, laid 
down in 1863, is said to have yielded young to the extent 
of seven millions ! If this statement be correct as to a fortieth 
part of the mother stock, what would the total yield be } 
It would in fact, be too enormous for figures to express it. 
Everybody has heard about the immmense fecundity of 
the oyster, and to yield such supplies as are indicated by 
the above figures the animal would require to be very pro- 
lific. The writer has seen a little branch taken from an 
artificial bed, which contained a few thousands, and he has 
seen many common tiles with hundreds of oysters on each. 
The Whitstable of France is on the He de Re, where may 
be seen a few thousand oy^X^x pares and also a few hundred 
claires, or fattening ponds, and hundreds of Jthousands of 
oysters in all stages of growth, from the size of a pin's head 
to a crown piece. One of the many difficulties which the 
French oyster growers have had to solve is the construction 
of a proper medium for the reception of the spat. Every 
kind of material has been tried, branches of trees, logs of 
wood, fragments of rock, and now tiles made of clay, are 
being extensively used, and with the greatest possible 
success. At Arcachon a hive of an ingenious kind, that is, 
a suite of small boxes filled with gravel, and contained in a 
larger box, was tried, and was found to suit very well ; the 
best of all bottoms could be constructed in the pares by 
the filling into them of the numerous shell middens that 
are to be found in some of the fishing places. The forma- 
tion of new pares and elaires still goes on the French sea- 
board, new concessions of ground for that purpose being 
frequently made, and a tour to most of the fishing places 
of interest gives the idea of the future wealth to be obtained 
from this source, more especially when the natural and 



Introducers of Exotic Flowers, etc, 135 

economic history of the oyster comes to be m.ore thoroughly 
known than it is at present. The French people also grow 
mussels, on what is now known as the artificial plan. About 
four miles from Rochelle there may be seen a wonderful 
mussel farm that has been profitably cultivated for hundreds 
of years. The mussels are sold largely for food, and afford 
a good living to the people who cultivate them. The 
British fishermen might obtain a hint from the mussel farm 
of Aiguillon and grow their own bait, which is scarce and 
dear. The mussels are grown on frames of basket-work, 
called bouchots, and are larger and of finer flavour than the 
natural mussel. There is nothing that is very new to say 
about the fresh- water fisheries of France. Huningue, still 
continues to fulfill its mission, by sending out to the barren 
rivers of France sufficient fish eggs for the re-stocking of 
many of them ; and, it is satisfactory to know, with good 
results, many of the French rivers, which, a year or two ago, 
were totally destitute offish, being now wonderfully stocked. 
A large number of district piscicultural reports have been 
contributed to the manuscript department of the Arcachon 
Exposition, and all of them were of the most favourable 
character, giving full details of the work done, and the 
different kinds of fish that had been manipulated for pisci- 
cultural purposes, some of which were common enough, as 
carp, perch, &c. In a Catholic country like France, where 
there is an urgent demand for fish as fast-day food, it may 
be necessary ta cultivate the very commonest fishes ; but 
in England, where the people are more fastidious about 
their fish diet, it would not be profitable to cultivate any 
other fish than that venison of the waters — the salmon. 



INTRODUCERS OF EXOTIC FLOWERS, 
FRUITS, ETC. 

THERE has been a class of men whose patriotic affec- 
tion, or whose general benevolence, have been usually 
defrauded of the gratitude their country owes them : these 
have been the introducers of new flowers, new plants, and 
new roots into Europe ; the greater part which we now 
enjoy was drawn from the luxuriant climates of Asia, and 
the profusion which now covers our land originated in the 



136 Introducers of Exotic Flowers, etc, 

most anxious nursing, and were the gifts of individuals. 
Monuments are reared, and medals struck, to commemorate 
events and names, which are less deserving our regard than 
those who have transplanted into the colder gardens of the 
North the rich fruits, the beautiful flowers, and the succu- 
lent pulse and roots of more favoured spots ; and carrying 
into their own country, as it were, another Nature, they 
have, as old Gerald well expresses it, " laboured with the 
soil to make it fit for the plants, and with the plants to 
make them delight in the soil." 

There is no part of the characters of Peiresc and Evelyn, 
accomplished as they are in so many, which seems more 
delightful to me, than their enthusiasm for the garden, the 
orchard, and the forest. 

Pieresc, whose literary occupations admitted of no inter- 
ruption, and whose universal correspondence throughout 
the habitable globe was more than sufficient to absorb his 
studious life, yet was the first man, as Gassendus relates in 
his interesting manner, whose incessant inquiries procured 
the great variety of jessamines ; those from China, whose 
leaves, always green, bear a clay-coloured flower, and a 
delicate perfume ; the American with a crimson-coloured, 
and the Persian with a violet-coloured flower ; and the 
Arabian, whose tendrils he delighted to train over " the 
banqueting-house in his garden ;" and of fruits, the orange- 
trees with a red and parti-coloured flower ; the medlar ; 
the rough cherry without stone ; the rare and luxurious 
vines of Smyrna and Damascus ; and the fig-tree called 
Adam's, whose fruit, by its size, was supposed to be that 
with which the spies returned from the land of Canaan. 
Gassendus describes his transports when Peiresc beheld the 
Indian ginger growing green in his garden, and his delight 
in grafting the myrtle on the musk vine, that the experi- 
ment might show us the myrtle wine of the ancients. But 
transplanters, like other inventors, are sometimes baffled in 
their delightful enterprises ; and we are told of Pieresc's 
deep regret when he found that the Indian cocoa-nut would 
only bud, and then perish in the cold air of France, while 
the leaves of the Egyptian papyrus refused to yield him 
their vegetable paper. But it was his garden which pro- 
pagated the exotic fruits and flowers, which he transplanted 
into the French king's, and into Cardinal Barberini's, and 
the curious in Europe ; and these occasioned a work on 
the manuring of flowers by Ferrarius, a botanical Jesuit, 
who there described these novelties to Europe. 



Introducers of Exotic Flowers^ etc. 137 

Had Evelyn only composed the great work of his 
"Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest Trees/' &c., his name 
would have excited the gratitude of posterity. The voice 
of the patriot exults in the dedication to Charles 11. pre- 
fixed to one of the later editions. " I need not acquaint 
your majesty, how many millions of timber-trees, besides 
infinite others, have been propagated and planted through- 
out your vast dominions, at the instigation and by the sole 
direction of this work, because your majesty has been 
pleased to own it publickly for my encouragement." And 
surely while Britain retains her awful situation among the 
nations of Europe, the " Sylva " of Evelyn will endure with 
her triumphant oaks. It was a retired philosopher who 
aroused the genius of the nation, and who casting a pro- 
phetic eye towards the age in which we live, has contributed 
to secure our sovereignty of the seas. The present navy 
of Great Britain has been constructed with the oaks which 
the genius of Evelyn planted ! 

Animated by a zeal truly patriotic, De Serres in France, 
in 1599, composed a work on the art of raising silk-worms, 
and dedicated it to the municipal body of Paris, to excite 
the inhabitants to cultivate mulberry-trees. The work at 
first produced a strong sensation, and many planted mul- 
berry-trees in the vicinity of Paris ; but as they were not 
yet used to raise and manage the silk-worm, they reaped 
nothing but their trouble for their pains. They tore up 
the mulberry-trees they had planted, and, in spite of De 
Serres, asserted that the northern climate was not adapted 
for the rearing of that tender insect. The great Sully, 
from his hatred of all objects of luxury, countenanced the 
popular clamour, and crushed the rising enterprise of De 
Serres. The monarch was wiser than the minister. The 
book had made sufficient noise to reach the ear of Henry 
IV., who desired the author to draw up a memoir on the 
subject, from which the king was induced to plant mul- 
berry-trees in all the royal-gardens ; and having imported 
the eggs of silk-worms from Spain, this patriotic monarch 
gave up his orangeries, which were but his private gratifi- 
cation, for that leaf which, converted into silk, became a 
part of the national wealth. It is to De Serres, who intro- 
duced the plantations of mulberry-trees, that the commerce 
of France owes one of her staple commodities ; and 
although the patriot encountered the hostility of the prime 
minister, and the hasty prejudices of the populace in his 
own day, yet his name at this moment is fresh in the hearts 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. M 



138 Introducers of Exotic Flowers, etc. 

of his fellow-citizens ; for I have just received a medal, the 
gift of a literary friend from Paris, which bears his portrait, 
with the reverse, " Socicte d' Agriculture du Departemcnt 
de la Seine." It was struck in 1807. The same honour is 
the right of Evelyn from the British nation. 

There was a period when the spirit of plantation was 
prevalent in this kingdom ; it probably originated from the 
ravages of the soldiery during the civil wars. A man, 
whose retired modesty has perhaps obscured his claims on 
our regard, the intimate friend of the great spirits of that 
age, by birth a Pole, but whose mother had probably been 
an English woman, Samuel Hartlib, to whom Milton 
addressed his tract on education, published every manu- 
script he collected on the subjects of horticulture and agri- 
culture. The public good he effected attracted the notice 
of Cromwell, who rewarded him with a pension, which, 
after the restoration of Charles II., was suffered to lapse, 
and Hartlib died in utter neglect and poverty. One of his 
tracts is " A design for plenty by an universal planting of 
fruit-trees." The project consisted in enclosing the waste 
lands and commons, and appointing officers, whom he calls 
fruiterers, or wood-wards, to see the plantations were duly 
attended to. The writer of this project observes on fruits, 
that it is a sort of provisions so natural to the taste, that 
the poor man, and even the child, will prefer it before 
better food, '' as the story goeth," which he has preserved 
in these ancient and simple lines : 

" The poor man's child invited was to dine, 
With flesh of oxen, sheep, and fatted swine, 
(Far better cheer than he at home could find,) 
And yet this child to stay had little minde. 
You have, quoth he, no apple, froise, nor pie, 
Stew'd pears, with bread and milk, and walnuts by." 

The enthusiasm of these transplanters inspired their 
labours. They have watched the tender infant of their 
planting, till the leaf and the flowers and the fruit ex- 
panded under their hand ; often, indeed, they have amelio- 
rated the quality, increased the size, and even created a 
new species. The apricot, drawn from America, was first 
known in Europe in the sixteenth century : an old French 
writer has remarked, that it was originally not larger than 
a damson ; our gardeners, he says, have improved it to the 
perfection of its present size and richness. One of these 
enthusiasts is noticed by Evelyn, who for forty years had 



Introducers of Exotic Flowers, etc. 139 

in vain tried by a graft to bequeath his name to a new- 
fruit ; but persisting on wrong principles, this votary of 
Pomona has died without a name. We sympathise with 
Sir William Temple when he exultingly acquaints us with 
the size of his orange-trees, and with the flavour of his 
peaches and grapes, confessed by Frenchmen to have 
equalled those of Fontainebleau and Gascony, while the 
Italians agreed that his white figs were as good as any of 
that sort in Italy ; and of his " having had the honour " to 
naturalise in this country four kinds of grapes, with his 
liberal distributions of cuttings from them, because "he 
ever thought all things of this kind the commoner they are 
the better. 

The greater number of our exotic flowers and fruits 
were carefully transported into this country by many of 
our travelled nobility and gentry ; some names have been 
casually preserved. The learned Linacre first brought, on 
his return from Italy, the damask-rose ; and Thomas Lord 
Cromwell, in the reign of Henry VI 1 1., enriched our fruit- 
gardens with three different plums. In the reign of 
Elizabeth, Edward Grindal, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, returning from exile, transported here the 
medicinal plant of the tamarisk ; the first oranges appear 
to have been brought into England by one of the Carew 
family ; for a century after, they still flourished at the 
family seat at Beddington, in Surrey. The cherry orchards 
of Kent were first planted about Sittingbourne, by a 
gardener of Henry VIII. ; and the currant-bush was trans- 
planted when our commerce with the island of Zante was 
first opened in the same reign. The elder Tradescant in 
1620, entered himself on board of a privateer, armed 
against Morocco, solely with a view of finding an oppor- 
tunity of stealing apricots into Britain : and it appears 
that he succeeded in his design. To Sir Walter Rawleigh 
we have not been indebted solely for the luxury of the 
tobacco-plant, but for that infinitely useful root, which 
forms a part of our daily meal, and often the entire meal 
of the poor man — the potato, which deserved to have been 
called a Rawleigh. Sir Anthony Ashley first planted 
cabbages in this country, and a cabbage at his feet appears 
on his monument. Sir Richard Weston lirst brought 
clover-grass into England from Flanders, in 1645 ; and the 
figs planted by Cardinal Pole, at Lambeth, so far back as 
the reign of Henry VIII., are said to be still remaining 
there : nor is this surprising, for Spilman, who set up the 



I40 Introducers of Exotic Flowers, etc. 

first paper-mill in England, at Dartford, in 1 590, is said to 
have brought over in his portmanteau the two first lime- 
trees, which he planted here, and which are still growing. 
The Lombardy poplar was introduced into England by 
the Earl of Rochford, in 1758. The first mulberry-trees in 
this country are now standing at Sion House. By an 
Harleian MS., it is mentioned that the first general plant- 
ing of mulberries and making of silk in England was by 
William Stallange, comptroller of the custom house, and 
Monsieur Verton, in 1608. It is probable that Monsieur 
Verton transplanted this novelty from his own country, 
where we have, seen De Serres's great attempt. Here the 
mulberries have succeeded better than the silkworms. 

The very names of many of our vegetable kingdom 
indicate their locality ; from the majestic cedar of Lebanon, 
to the small Cos-lettuce, which came from the isle of Cos ; 
the cherries from Cerasuntis, a city of Pontus ; the peach, 
ox persicum, or mala Persica, Persican apples, from Persia ; 
the pistachio, ox psittacia, is the Syrian word for that nut. 
The chestnut, or chataigne, in French, and castagna in 
Italian, from Castagna, a town of Magnesia. Our plums 
coming chiefly from Syria and Damascus ; the damson, or 
damascene plum, gives us a recollection of its distant 
origin. 

It is somewhat curious to observe on this subject, that 
there exists an unsuspected intercourse between nations, in 
the propagation of exotic plants, &c. LucuUus, after the 
war with MIthridates, introduced cherries from Pontus into 
Italy ; and the newly-imported frult.was found so pleasing 
that it was rapidly propagated, and six-and-twenty years 
afterwards, as Pliny testifies, the cherry-tree passed over into 
Britain. Thus, a victory obtained by a Roman consul over 
a king of Pontus, with which it would seem that Britain 
could have no concern, was the real occasion of our 
countrymen possessing cherry-orchards. Yet, to our 
shame, must it be told, that these cherries from the king 
of Pontus's-city of Cerasuntis, are not the cherries we are 
now eating ; for the whole race of cherry-trees was lost in 
the Saxon period, and was only restored by the gardener 
of Henry VIII., who brought them from Flanders — with- 
out a word to enhance his own merits, concerning the 
bellum Mithridaticum ! 

A calculating, political economist will little sympathise 
with the peaceful triumphs of those active and generous 
spirits, who have thus propagated the truest wealth, and 



I 



hitroducers of Exotic Flowers, etc, 141 

the most innocent luxuries of the people. The project of 
a new tax, or an additional consumption of ardent spirits, 
or an Act of Parliament to put a convenient stop to popu- 
lation by forbidding the banns of some happy couple, 
would be more congenial to their researches ; and they 
would leave, without regret, the names of those whom we 
have held out to the grateful recollections of their country. 
The Romans, who, with all their errors, were at least 
patriots, entertained very different notions of these intro- 
ducers into their country of exotic fruits and flowers. Sir 
William Temple has elegantly noticed the fact. "The 
great captains, and even consular men, who first brought 
then over, took pride in giving them their own names, by 
which they ran a great while in Rome, as in memory of 
some great service or pleasure they had done their country ; 
so that not only laws and battles, but several sorts of 
apples and pears were called Manlian and Claudian, Pom- 
peyan and Tiberian, and by several other such noble 
names." Pliny has paid his tribute of applause to 
Lucullus, for bringing cherry and nut-trees from Pontus 
into Italy. And we have several modern instances, where 
the name of the transplanter, or rearer, has been preserved 
in this sort of creation. Peter CoUinson, the botanist, to 
" whom the English gardens are indebted for many new 
and curious species which he acquired by means of an 
extensive correspondence in America," was highly gratified 
when Linnaeus baptized a plant with his name ; and with 
great spirit asserts his honourable claim : " Something, I 
think, was due to me for the great number of plants and 
seeds I have annually procured from abroad, and you have 
been so good as to pay it, by giving me a species of 
eternity, botanically speaking ; that is, a name, as long as 
men and books endure." Such is the true, animating 
language of these patriotic enthusiasts ! 

Some lines, at the close of Peacham's " Emblems," give 
an idea of an English fruit-garden in 161 2. He mentions 
that cherries were not long known, and gives an origin to 
the name of filbert. 

^' The Persian Peach, and fruitful Quince ; 
And there the forward Almond grew, 

With Cherries knowne no long time since ; 
The Winter Warden, orchard's pride j 

The PMlibert that loves the vale, 
And red Queen apple, so envide 

Of school-boies, passing by the pale." 

" Curiosities of Literature/' 



142 



ON THE GROWTH AND PREPARATION 
OF FLAX. 

FLAX is grown for the fibre for manufacturing pur- 
poses, or for the seed for crushing for oil and cake. The 
varieties are few. Some of the provinces of Holland and of 
northern France produce the best descriptions sent to the 
English markets. 

Those soils most suitable for flax are deep loams and 
sandy earths, having a considerable quantity of vegetable 
remains as a component part ; although, both in England 
and Ireland, exceedingly fine crops have been produced on 
well-worked clays. In Zealand, where the finest flax is 
grown, the cultivators prefer land having a wet bottom, but 
this is not generally thought desirable. In the north of 
Ireland, too, moist lands have frequently been preferred to 
those that are dryer. 

When new land is intended for flax, it is best to break it 
up the season before sowing, and re-plough it in the follow- 
ing spring, so that the seed may be placed in the ground, in 
this colony, about the middle of October onwards. Both 
these ploughings should be deeply and well done ; and, after 
the last, the land should be rendered fine with the harrows. 
If the object be to grow for seed only, the drill method is 
the best ; but, otherwise, the ordinary broad-cast plan will 
be sufficient, covering the seed afterwards to a sufficient 
depth, by giving a cross, double, close harrowing. In 
most countries, flax is sown after a corn crop ; and in Ire- 
land and France it has been put in directly after the wheat 
harvest, and left to stand the winter; or, in the former 
country, after a crop of potatoes has been lifted. When 
the linseed is allowed to ripen, the crop is considered an ex- 
hausting one ; but this is not the case where the plants are 
pulled in their green state for fibre only. In the first choice 
of linseed, that of a bright brownish colour, oily to the 
touch, with due regard to weight, should be selected ; and 
if afterwards the crop be productive, large in quantity, and 
fine in quality, the seed should then be continued to be 
changed from one description of soil to another. In Eng- 
land and Ireland, the farmers usually prefer sowing Dutch 
seed, imported annually for the purpose. The weight of 
seed per acre to be sown depends upon the object of the 
crop, and manner of sowing. If a crop of linseed is to be 
saved, the drill method is preferable, to give plants air, and 



I 



On the Growth and Preparation of Flax. 143 

width to throw out laterial shoots and become bushy ; but 
where flax is intended to be taken in its green state, the 
broad-cast plan is sufficient ; and from eight to ten pecks 
of seed to the acre, or six pecks, if sown in drill fashion. 
Thickly sown flax grows high, and produces a fine staple, 
soft and supple. 

The culture of the young crops consists principally in 
weeding ; which, if they have been sown in drills, can be 
readily done with the hoe, but, if sown broad-cast, the weed- 
ing must be managed by hand. Sometimes sheep may be 
turned upon the crops ; they will eat the weeds, and not 
touch the flax plants. This, however, can only be done 
when the ground is in a dry state, and would be a cheap 
and expeditious mode of exterminating the weeds. There 
is sometimes a danger of crops becoming laid in wet and 
stormy seasons, particularly if they are thick and heavy; 
Cultivators in Ireland guard against this by running stakes 
and cords across the fields diagonally, yet this can scarcely 
be attempted here. Small crops should be put in from 
mid-October till the end of November, and much must be 
left to chance afterwards. 

The produce of flax fibre to the acre is not easily stated 
varying as it does from three or four hundredweights to 
half a ton. The produce of flax in seed is ordinarily from 
eight to twelve bushels an acre ; but, in the former case, it 
must be borne in mind that the weight is given in the gross, 
before being prepared for sale. The average price of lin- 
seed in the English markets is generally from three shil- 
lings to four shillings a bushel. The seed is separated into 
three qualities ; the first being retained for sowing, the 
second for crushing for oil and cake, and the third or in- 
ferior description, for boiling for cattle food. The price of 
the fibre in England fluctuates so much, that it is not ad- 
visable to endeavour to arrive at an average. The London 
price currents of the day are the best guides. The annual 
importation of flax and hemp into Great Britain now 
amounts to about 100,000 tons. More than 180,000 lbs. of 
rough flax and hemp are used in the cordage of a first-rate 
man-of-war, including rigging and sails. 

To take in a crop of flax, it must be pulled by hand just 
as it comes into full flower, at least when fibre is the ob- 
ject ; or before the seeds in the capsules become of a 
brownish colour, when fibre and seed are both required, or 
when seed only is the object ; and the operation of pulling 
differs according to the intention of the crop. When it is 



144 On the Growth and Preparation of Flax. 

grown for the fibre only, It should be pulled and tied-up in 
sheaves like oat-forage, and carried off immediately to be 
watered ; but when the seed is to be taken from the plant, 
it is pulled and laid in handfuls and left to dry. If fibre 
and seed are both required, this drying should not be longer 
than necessary. On the continent, the practice is to let the 
flax lie upon the ground for two or three days ; although 
one day would be sufficient if the sun is very powerful, and 
the air dry. 

In the process of rippling, which is the next operation, a 
large cloth should be spread on a convenient spot ofground 
with the ripple placed in the middle of it. The pods contain 
ing the seeds are forced from the stalks by means of the iron 
comb called the ripple, fixed on a beam of wood, on the 
ends of which tv/o persons sit, who, by pulling the seed 
end of the flax repeatedly through this comb, execute the 
operation in a very complete manner. Many people in Scot- 
land who bestow much attention on the cultivation of flax, 
ripple off the seed where there is no intention of saving it ; 
as it is found when flax is put into water without taking off 
the pods, the water soon becomes putrid, and the fibre is 
greatly injured thereby. The capsules obtained by rippling 
should be spread in the sun to dry ; they are then broken, 
either by threshing or treading ; and the whole, capsules, 
seed, and refuse, must be carefully sifted, winnowed, and 
cleaned. When the seed is laid up, it must be frequently 
turned over and ventilated to prevent its taking any heat. 

In separating the fibre from the bark, it is necessary to 
accelerate the process of putrefaction, and this may be ac- 
complished in various ways; but the chief are steeping 
alone, and steeping and bleaching. In performing this 
operation the flax — whether it has been dried and rippled 
or pulled green without rippling — is loosely tied into small 
bundles (because then it is most equally watered) ; and 
these sheaves should be built in a pool in a reclining up- 
right position, so that the weight placed above may keep 
the whole firmly down. The weights made use of are 
commonly stones placed on planks, or directly on the flax 
itself. The most certain rule by which to judge when flax 
is sufficiently watered is, when the boon becomes brittle 
and the harl separates easily from it. In warm weather, 
ten days of the watering process are sufficient, twelve days 
will answer in any moderate weather ; but care must be 
taken not tosteep too it long at any time. The pools wherein 
flax is being steeped should always be looked to after a 



On the Growth and Preparation of Flax. 1 45 

week. Grassing, or bleaching flax, may take place after 
the last operation of steeping if it be requisite ; and in 
doing this, the fibre is spread very thinly on the ground, 
and in regular rows, — the one being made to overlap the 
other a few inches, with the object of preventing, as much 
as possible, its being scattered by the wind. Grassland, 
where the herbage does not grow to any great heighth, is 
the best for the purpose. The time for grassing is regulated 
by the state of the flax ; a few days only are ordimarily re- 
quisite; yet during this operation the flax should be re- 
peatedly examined, and when it is found that the boon has 
become very brittle, so that on being broken and rubbed 
between the hands, it freely parts from the harl, it is taken 
up, a dry day being chosen for the purpose ; and being 
again bound in sheaves, is either sent directly to the mill, 
or broken and scutched at home by a machine for that 
purpose. 

The main dressing of flax consists of various operations, 
such as scutching, tracking, or breaking — ^by which the 
woody part is crushed, and heckling or combing — by which 
the fibre is separated from the woody portion, and sorted 
into lengths. This is all done by simple machines ; one ton 
of fine flax being produced from four tons of stem. Any 
glutinous matter may be removed from the article after it 
has passed the machines by soap and water, if a very clean 
and white staple be required. Indeed, the value of flax de- 
pends much upon the care and skill with which the pro- 
cesses are conducted ; and according to its quality, its 
value varies from about 40/. to 180/. per ton. 

Probably the best system for cultivators to adopt is, 
merely to grow and tie up the flax, if fibre be the intention, 
leaving the rippling, scutching, tracking, and heckling to 
professed hecklers. 

Flax-cotton, very much used at the present time, is a 
material prepared from flax, hemp, and other vegetable 
fibres. 



NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. N 



146 



AN INQUIRY INTO VEGETABLE FIBRES 
AVAILABLE FOR TEXTILE FABRICS. 

BY H. SHERWOOD. 

(Continued from page 98.) 

IN previous numbers we have noticed China grass, and 
flax. Hemp claims our next attention. It appears to 
have been always considered only available for lowest uses. 
Beyond rope, twine, or sackcloth, it must not rise. Yet, in 
its cleanest aspects, it seems to say " I know, and you 
know my value." This sole use for heaviest purposes, 
arises out of the close manner in which nature has 
agglutined its cells into filaments, which again, by looser 
vegetable matter, are formed into a broad sheet. Witohut 
lessening its use for its present heavy purposes, art might 
have rendered it the most useful fibre we possess (consider- 
ing its price), for a medium class of fabrics in a partly 
separated state, as flax-cotton; and, to a limited extent, 
valuable in a state of separated cells. 

The individual cell in hemp is coarser than in flax, in 
about the ratio of three to two. It is of similar length, nearly 
as brilliant, less equal in thickness, tapering towards the 
end ; and is at least equally valuable and desirable as the 
cotton substitute obtained from China grass, and, in an un- 
combed state, similar to it, but possesses better spinning pro- 
perties. Though not adapted to the fine uses for which a 
similar state of flax is adapted ; yet, for yarns, for many pur- 
poses requiring brilliance, as warps for fancy mixed fabrics, it 
will be valuable, probably equally so, as the shortest "Top" 
taken out of China grass. 

In the partly separated state as a flax-cotton, produced 
by ridding entirely the filament from loose vegetable matter, 
Bombay and Sunn hemp of good qualities, considering 
their price, are more desirable for many uses than any 
other of bur fibrous materials, and will, doubtless, at some 
day assert their claims to these uses. 

And here, perhaps, an apology may be permitted to be 
put in for this state of fibre. When introduced by 
Claussen, fifteen years ago, it attracted considerable atten- 
tion, yet it did not appear to have suggested a definite use. 
Seeing that it was specially suited for working on fine tow 
machinery, complaints were made of its price (36s. to 60s.) 
exceeding that of ordinary tows, and had its price been 



^ 



Vegetable Fibres, 147 

that of the tow from which it was produced with great 
loss of weight, (borne by the fibre instead of the cloth), ft 
would have commanded a large use (!) There is indispu- 
tably in flax-cotton, from whatever fibre produced, much to 
recommend for extensive use. It will produce close upon its 
own weight, of cloth. It requires simply carding on tow or 
other cards to produce a clean, even yarn, as fine as is prac- 
ticable for an ordinary combed flax. It will produce a 
character of cloth greatly needed, widely dififerent from 
any tow-cloth ; equidistant from cotton and linen cloth ; 
firmer and more durable than cotton ; softer, warmer, and 
more even than linen, whilst equally fine ; its firmness and 
strength being desirable qualities in fabrics, such as sheet- 
ings, towellings, shirtings, jeans, &c., all of which would be 
better fabrics produced from it than if produced from 
cotton ; yet their price would not reach so high as 
if produced from the lowest Indian cotton, with its 
40 per cent, waste, and high cost of spinning. The ob- 
jection that fibre, minus trash, costs more, whilst producing 
a valuable cloth, than fibre, plush trash, producing a poor 
cloth, is not worthy of attention. Surely, Britain possesses 
men of more honourable discrimination ! No fear need 
exist that good materials of this class will ever become 
high in price : — The various fibres are so abundant and so 
wide-spread which are useful chiefly in this state, (and 
which now are largely rotting as they grow,) that a great, 
abundance must always exist of fibres available for flax- 
cotton at low rates, to sustain a large class of manufactures 
of great excellence in all heavy fabrics extending from 
body-linen down to the lowest uses. It does not appear 
probable that cotton will ever again compete so much in 
price with other fibres, as to completely drive them out of 
the market, as heretofore. There seems, therefore, every 
reason for supposing that a manufacture of fabrics from 
this class of fibrous materials, would be highly successful^ 
and would meet with a ready market ; an eager one after 
their excellencies become tested, with a rapidly increasing 
production of a safe lucrative character. 

Jute and its kindred fibres scarcely need attention here, 
having already found their legitimate uses, which seem 
little likely to be extended with advantage. It is compara- 
tively little improvable by art, from the state in which it 
comes on the market. It consists of fairly regular fila- 
ments difficultly separated into their cells, which do not 
possess the character necessary for spinning into fine yarns. 



148 Vegetable Fibres Available for 

It seems, therefore, to find its natural use in coarse fabrics, 
where cheapness and weight of cloth are the first conside- 
rations. All the tests through which it has passed have 
not brought out any properties which would suggest for it 
a desirable use for the higher classes of fabrics. 

New Zealand flax {Fhormium tenax). This fibre has a 
great name (In prospective T) It forms one of the splendid 
colourings used to impart a roseate hue to the colony. It 
grows to a great length, being the veins of a liliaceous 
leaf, lying behind a tough epidermis, which is difficult to 
separate completely except treated in a green state. When 
simply separated from the epidermis, its toughness exceeds 
that of every other fibre. As a rope material, when un- 
cleansed, it is very strong, but does not possess much 
binding property. Like all the other endogens, the fibres 
are built up of very short cells, which do not exceed three- 
eighths of an inch in length, of great brilliance, of moderate 
fineness, brittle, stiff, and possessing none of the properties 
necessary for spinning so short a material. After the fibre 
has been cleansed from loose matter, the cells bristle out 
to an unusual degree, which has doubtless given rise to the 
mistaken idea that a good fibre would be obtained for tex- 
tile fabrics. No delusion can be greater than the supposi- 
tion that the fibre can be thus useful in a completely 
separated state. It is, however, able to be cleansed and 
divided into a flax-cotton of unequal finenessof filament, and 
of length and other properties adapted for producing heavy 
useful fabrics. More brittle and more glossy than a similar 
material from any of the exogens (consequently less use- 
ful), yet, for these fabrics, it may realize some of the too 
glowing hopes entertained for it; though its greatest utility 
will be for cordage, for which purpose, considering its low 
procurable price, it ought to be largely used. As a 
cleansed fibre, it dyes no better than any other, is difficult 
to bleach, and though the cells are so short and brilliant 
they possess none of the soft, pulpy, felting property found 
in Pine-apple or Yercum fibre. The ordinary methods em- 
ployed to cleanse and prepare other fibres, only render 
Fhortnium tenax harder and more brittle. Amongst the 
extraneous matter lying on the fibre, is found an oil, a true 
resin and tannin ; yet, probably water and beating are the 
only agents employed by the Maories in its preparation 
for their uses. It is scarcely to be supposed that these 
matters can be utilised with advantage, as has been pro- 
posed. The fibre appears to be obtainable in large quanti- 



Textile Fabrics, 149 

ties from other of our colonies, where greater heat will 
supply a more abundant crop, and probably more desirable 
varieties than exist in New Zealand itself. 

Broussonetia papyrifera and others : — This fibre in many 
varieties is diffused through a very extensive portion of the 
warmer parts of the Temperate Zones, and contributes 
largely to the manufacture of dress in the islands of the 
Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It does not appear to have 
claimed much attention from Europe, although it might 
occupy a more important position than has hitherto been 
allotted to it. From the facts of being of vigorous growth, 
and its cultivation everywhere known, it could doubtless be 
made a large produce, and might be imported at a very low 
price. 

It posesses properties which approximate 'much more 
to cotton, than any other fibre. its characteristics there- 
fore specially deserve attention. When cleansed from 
loose vegetable matter, it separates into filaments equally 
fine with good flax. These filaments are of greater length 
than flax, but are so jagged and branching, as possibly to 
cause them to be thought unsuitable for working on flax 
machinery. The separated cells are of great fineness, 
about equal to a good stapled cotton ; from one to one and 
a half inches in length ; even less brilliant than cotton itself; 
soft; more cylindrical than cotton, though inclined to twist in 
a similar manner. From these properties it may be gathered 
that we have here one of the nearest approaches to cotton 
presented by the fibrous cell of any of the exogens ; and 
if any fibres can replace cotton as a full substitute, this at 
least is one of them. The cells are diflicult of separation, 
as nature appears to have made up for a lack of loose vege- 
table matter, by an additional tenaceous gum-resin, to 
eradicate which, the public modes of treating fibres subject 
this fibre to too rough treatment, and thereby induce the 
formation of lint. When partially separated into a state of 
flax-cotton, this is a fibre fitted for medium fabrics, possessing 
much, if not all, the softness and warmth of cotton without 
the brilliance of other fibres ; but also with no greater 
strength than cotton. Perhaps it is questionable whether, 
, from the somewhat uneven length of the fibres composing 
it, a yarn could be produced of even so great strength as 
cotton itself It appears to possess more felting property 
than most of fibres, and to dye equally well with cotton. 
It. might be grown with facility as a profitable crop in many 
parts of the south of Europe, especially in Italy and Greece, 



150 Vegetable Fibres Available^ etc. 

In the pressent state of manufactures, the fibre would pro- 
bably be most valued, in its simply washed and opened 
state to work as a flax ; and would then at a low price pro- 
duce a warm, even, strong cloth of considerable beauty. 

Fine Apple Fibre. — On examining this fibre, we cannot 
but indulge the idle regret that the aggregation of endo- 
genous fibres unqualify them for sustaining the part for 
which some of the properties of this fibre in particular 
would have rendered it so valuable, had they been linked 
with others unfortunately wanting. It is of considerable 
strength and possesses the property of splitting up into long 
filaments of the fineness of jute, but possessing double its 
strength. These single filaments are employed in semi- 
civilised countries, as if yarns, for weaving into a glassy 
cloth or muslin. The filament is capable of considerable 
sub-division, but from the interlinking of the cells, becomes 
jagged and tender. The cells are of fineness, almost ex- 
ceeding any silk : very soft and bright, but are not more 
than a quarter of an inch in length ; the fibre cannot there- 
fore be used in that state, and can be extensively useful 
for fabrics only as a flax-cotton, much inferior than from 
the cheapest hemps ; or, for ropes ; or, as a magnificent 
paper-material, for which it is probably one of the best 
fibres known. It appears to be obtainable in large quan- 
tities at very moderate prices ; and it may naturally be 
asked (though a subject foreign to this inquiry), how it 
happens that English capital does not bring forward im- 
mense quantities of such fibres, prepared into half-stuff on 
the spot, by adapted machinery, in which form it would be 
conveyable at as moderate freights as coal. It cannot be 
the fear of too little profit, or of limited demand. It should 
be enough to know that thousands of tons of this fibre rot 
annually on the ground, which could be procured at mere 
cost of labour and transit. It scarcely needs bleaching,as it 
cleanses into oneof the whitest fibrous materials which exist. 
The papers shown as produced from it, form no criterion of 
its value, having been evidently produced from it in an 
uncleansed state, and not thoroughly disaggregated. 
Where toughness combined with fineness is the object 
sought, its value must be very high. 

(To be continued.) 



151 



INDIAN CORN GROWING IN NATAL. 

THERE are numerous varieties of Indian corn, sup- 
posed to arise principally from the difference of climate 
where the plant is cultivated, but there is no doubt but 
that America is its native country, for there, and also in 
the West India Islands, it is seen growing wild, and pro- 
duced in the greatest perfection from the wild seed. The 
height of American mealies is various, being from ten to 
twelve feet in ordinary situations, and in some places at- 
taining a growth of fourteen feet without losing any of its 
productiveness. The value of the grain to America is 
nearly as great as that of rice to India, for it forms a prin- 
cipal food for the inhabitants — white and coloured — and is 
almost the sole support of the Mexicans. Indian corn is 
also grown largely in the southern portion of the European 
continent, in continental Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. 
The plant is less subject to disease than wheat, since blight 
mildew, and rust scarcely ever affect it. The chief 
enemies in this colony to mealie growers are insects, where 
mealies have been sown very early in the season. 

The return of this crop, as compared with wheat, is ex- 
ceedingly large. In Mexico and Peru, where it grows most 
luxuriantly, its productiveness appears largest, for we are 
assured that in many favourable spots in these countries it 
frequently yields 140 to 150 bushels per acre, without ap- 
plication of manure ; only this is where artificial irriga- 
tion is practised. To gather there from 100 to 120 bushels 
per acre, on loosely cultivated land, and where no artificial 
means of watering are used, is very common. The produce from 
its mealies in the Northern and Southern American States 
is less heavy than in Mexico and Peru, at least on the average 
run of lands, but is vastly superior to that of other cereals. 
Where the average yield of wheat per acre, on the generality 
of but fairly cultivated North American soils, does not exceed 
from sixteen to eighteen bushels, that of mealies comes up 
to forty or fifty. In some of the moist and warm regions 
of Mexico, two harvests of Indian corn are frequently 
gathered ; so, likewise, is this sometimes done in the West 
Indian Islands. In Australia, and in New Zealand, in 
favoured localities, the return is from forty to fifty bushels 
per acre. The culture of mealies has been always success- 
fully carried on in Georgia ; the ordinary increase in good 
years being from fifty to sixty bushels per acre ; and by 



152 Indian Corn Growing in Natal, 

the finest ears being selected for seed, and careful cultiva- 
tion of the land, and attention to crops, the corn has in- 
creased in size and productiveness, and even a larger yield 
than that is often obtained. This last result was some 
many years ago produced by a cultivator named Baden ; 
hence the choice corn known ever since as Baden corn. In 
Italy and Spain the return is about from thirty to forty 
bushels of corn to the acre, but the farmers of those coun- 
tries are not the most enlightened and industrious men in 
the world. 

The method of planting Indian corn in the American 
States is by drawing shallow drills, three or four feet apart, 
and by dropping the seeds by hand at six inches apart, and 
by lightly harrowing the ground afterwards. In Canada 
and Australia, the seed is sown in the broad-cast method, 
after the ground has been ploughed to a fair depth ; and 
the seed-harrows are subsequently run lightly over the 
field. By sowing mealies in • rows after the plough some 
quantity of the seeds may be saved, and the means 
afforded for . horse-hoeing the crop ; yet we consider the 
broad-cast manner of sowing nearly as good, and if the 
crop is thicker than is wished, any surplus can be easily 
pulled out and carried off for stock food. Where land has 
been thoroughly well ploughed, say for oats one season ; 
been manured and deeply ploughed the next spring, and 
sown with mealies broad-cast, and the after culture of the 
crop properly attended to by deep hoeing, a return may 
almost invariably be calculated upon, in this colony, of 
from fifty to sixty bushels per acre of saleable produce in 
average seasons. We have ourselves grown upon a small 
patch of ground, containing just about eleven acres — the 
land having been previously well manured, and the crop 
kept clean — sixty marketable bushels per acre (or twenty 
muids), besides others that served for poultry use, with an 
almost countless store of pumpkins, that paid a great deal 
more than the harvesting expenses of the mealie crop. 

The mealie harvest is very differently conducted to the 
wheat harvest. When the corn is ripe, the ears are picked 
off the stem by hand, thrown into heaps upon the ground, 
and afterwards is carted from the field ; the stalks being 
left to stand some time longer, until opportunity serves for 
their being cut down with an English hedging-knife, and 
gathered up for carriage home. In America, the mealies 
are topped just betore the ear is getting ripe, and these 
tops, together with the stalks, after harvest are stacked up 



Indian Corn Growing in Natal. 153 

and thatched, to be used for winter food for cattle. In 
this colony, we think that sufficient attention is not paid in 
this particular, and that more general use should be made 
of tops and stalks ; the former for winter keep for stocks of 
all kinds, and the latter for fuel for domestic purposes. If 
mealie stalks, after being carted home from the field, were 
cut into short lengths — say from eighteen to twenty inches 
long, — were stacked, and covered down with grass to keep 
them dry until they are required for the purpose to which 
the grower designs them for, much profit would accrue to 
him. We constantly see the natives, who live at any con- 
siderable distance from wood, carrying to their kraals all 
their mealie stalks for cooking purposes. 

Shelling the corn is easily performed by the common 
American mealie-sheller ; and four or five natives, properly 
directed and kept at work, can readily shell from twenty to 
five and twenty muids — sixty to sixty-five bushels — in a 
day, from dry ears. The cobs, stripped of the corn, afford 
excellent fuel, particularly where stoves are used, or for 
heating ovens. 

The application of the Indian corn crop is, in this coun- 
try, almost as various and important as it is in North and 
South America ; for, firstly, a country family can begin to 
use it before the time of full harvest, since the tender ears, 
stripped of their jackets while green, roasted by a quick 
fire until the grain is browned, and eaten with a little fresh 
butter, or with salt, are nutritious ; secondly, when the 
grain is riper and harder, the ears boiled in their leaves form 
a good and wholesome dish for dinner ; or the grains, at 
that period of their growth, kept for a considerable time, 
and mixed with green kidney-beans, also dried, afford a 
fair accompaniment to meat, they having been first soaked 
for a few hours in water previous to their being cooked. 
The dry grain, ground into flour and meal of various 
degrees of quality, has many uses, and for horse-feeding, 
sheep-feeding, pig-feeding, and poultry-feeding, may con- 
stantly be made infinite service of In England, the 
Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk cottagers make 
vast use of Indian corn for fattening the geese that reach 
such notedly heavy weights at Christmas time in the Lon- 
don market, and the people of Germany fatten poultry with 
it to a very considerable extent. 

Like other grain, mealies may be fermented, so as to 
produce beer ; or may be distilled, and a very wholesome 
spirit obtained thereby. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. O 



1 54 Miscellaneous. 

Upon referrcnce to town-market prices of the last three 
years, we find that the average value of mealies has been 
gradually rising; and indeed, during 1864, some importa- 
tions by sea took place, showing that the yield of the last 
year had not been sufficient for the demand. The supply 
to begin I865 with, is very limited ; so we are inclined to 
think that a still higher average value may be calculated 
upon for some seasons to come, than has ruled during the 
few past ; anticipating that the consumption, for a variety 
of purposes, will be greater, and that the crop will be found 
a useful one in a rotation necessary for keeping arable land 
in the best state of cultivation. In calculating the return 
of profit of mealie crop, — first, the marketable grain ; 
second, the weight of edible straw, with the manure made 
therefrom ; and, lastly, the quantity of fuel must be taken 
into account ; and it is as well to call to notice, that a very 
large winter supply of pumpkins and gourds may be ob- 
tained from the same ground, or if those are not approved, 
a store of vegetable marrows may be procured for family 
use. Ripe vegetable marrows are often served up in France 
during the winter, with all kinds of meat. The concom^zeell 
a la moelle is esteemed a first-rate dish in Paris. Vegetable 
marrows, however, if required to be kept long, must be 
stored in a dry place, after being gathered quite ripe, and 
left in the sun a day or two. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Willis's Aniline Printing Process. — Mr. Vincent Brooks, 
the well-known lithographer, has taken this patent process in 
hand ; and, as a means of superseding manual or mechanical 
methods of reproducing architectural drawings, plans, &c., it pro- 
mises to take high ground in public favour. The main advantage 
of the process is, or rather should be, in its extreme economy 
where but a few copies are required. In common with other pho- 
tographic processes, it secures perfect accuracy and rapidity of 
production. A tracing may be used with perfect safety for this 
purpose, but the paper on which it is made should be thin, clear, 
and colourless, and the drawing made with British, or very black, 
Indian ink, and the washes given with somewhat more strength 
than usual. Colours are objectionable, owing to their varied 
actinic powers. Ordinary sketches on common drawing paper 



Miscellaneous. 155 

may be used as negatives ; but, when placed over the prepared 
surface, the Hght requires more time to do its work, owing to the 
increased thickness of the medium it has to pass through. 
Where scientific diagrams and drawings are required in small 

numbers, this process will be specially advantageous. Messrs. 

Southwell Brothers have introduced a lithographic process for 
tinting the backgrounds of photographs so as to give the effect of 
a portrait on a neutral ground with white high lights. The pro- 
cess is thus described in the specification. A good portrait nega- 
tive has its background carefully blocked out or rendered opaque. 
In the finished print it is therefore perfectly white, and this is 
then laid upon a flat board, and covered with a piece of tracing- 
paper. On this the portrait is carefully outlined with a lead 
pencil, and the image thus formed is then cut out. Over that 
portion of the photograph on which the proposed tint is not re- 
quired, the tracing-paper is fastened with a little gum ; and then 
the tint is printed over the whole, and the removal of the tracing- 
paper with a damp sponge completes the first part of the process 
so far as regards the background ; if a general tone is required 
over the whole, a second printing is used. The photograph is 
next damped between sheets of wet blotting-paper, and a properly 
prepared embossing block is used in a lever or other press, to give 
a texture to the whole resembHng in effect and appearance that 
of drawing-paper. — J. W. W. in ' Science-Gossip.' 

Wine. — The quantity of wine imported in the first six months 
of this year was 8,493,240 gallons, as compared with 7,025,828 
gallons in the corresponding period of 1865, and 8,264,211 
gallons in the corresponding period of 1864. Of the total im- 
ports this year 3,995,451 gallons were red wine, as compared with 
3,263,987 gallons and 3,070,108 gallons in the corresponding 
periods of 1865 and 1864. The imports of French wine appear 
to be steadily increasing, having amounted to 1,286,256 gallons 
of red wine and 528,987 gallons of white wine to June 30th this 
year, as compared with 943,811 gallons of red and 487,397 gal- 
lons of white wine to the corresponding date of 1865, and 
907,320 gallons of red and 464,957 gallons of white wine to the 
corresponding date of 1864. The imports of wine have con- 
siderably increased this year from Portugal and Spain. The 
arrivals from British Colonies, which were never very large, have, 
however, been further curtailed. Spain sent us to June 30th this 
year 669,244 gallons of red wine, and 3,190,710 gallons of white 
wine, the totals in the first half of 1865 being 492,888 gallons, 
and 2,475,773 gallons, and in the first half of 1864, 446,099 
gallons and 4,073,545 gallons. 

Consumption of Tea. — The Board of Trade Returns (says 
Messrs. Travers) show a remarkable increase in the quantity of 
tea entered for home consumption, during the five months ending 
May 31st, as contrasted with the corresponding period of the year 



156 Miscellaneous. 

1865; the amount for the present year being 41,608,254 lbs., 
against 29,643, 1 2 2 lbs. in 1 865, an increase of nearly 1 2,000,000 lbs. ; 
this does not, however, represent a corresponding increase in 
actual consumption, as the clearances during the month of May, 
1865, were almost nominal, in consequence of the reduction of 
the duty to 6d. per lb., which was announced in April, having 
been postponed till the ist of June of that year. As compared 
with the corresponding five months in 1864, it is not so con- 
siderable, being little more than four millions in excess, and this 
probably represents fairly enough the increase that has resulted 
from the reduction. Since 1864 there has been a slight but 
gradual decrease in our exports, which are, in round numbers, 
represented by 13,000,000, 11,000,000, 10,000,000 lbs., during 
the five months of the years 1864, 1865, 1866 respectively. A 
somewhat similar decrease is apparent in our imports, which may 
be taken as 58,000,000, 57,000,000, and 56,000 000 lbs., during 
the first five months of the years 1864, 1865, 1866. With regard 
to sugar, it appears by the same returns that the increase in the 
imports for the five months ended 31st of May last, as compared 
with the corresponding period of 1865, consists chiefly of the 
finer qualities. This is so far satisfactory as indicating that the 
alteration in the duties, made two years ago, was a step in the 
right direction, besides being a proof of the injurious influence 
the scale exercised on the quality of our imports ; but the differ- 
ence between the past and present state of things is purely one 
of detail, and the principle stands condemmed, notwithstanding 
that its evil effects have, to a certain extent, been mitigated. 
The decrease in exports of raw sugar is extremely large, the 
figures being, for the present year, 7,566 tons, against 14,479 ^^^^s 
for the corresponding period of 1865 ; and the decrease in the 
deliveries for home consumption is even larger, the figures being 
199,116 tons against 208,850 tons. As regards the stock of raw 
sugar in the United Kingdom, on the 31st of May last, a large 
increase is shown for every quality, with the exception of No. i, 
or that equalled to white clayed, which shows a small decrease as 
compared with 1865. The total increase for the present year in 
the stock amounts to 36,043 tons. — " Journal of the Society of 
Arts." 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

* Hardwicke's Science-Gossip ' for September. No. XXI. Hard- 

wicke, Piccadilly. 

* The Artizan' for August and September. Offices: 19 Salisbury 

Street. 
^ The Canadian Naturalist ' for December, 1865. London : Baillie.er 



THE 

TEOBLISrOLOaiST: 

A RECOR.I3 OF SCIEISrCE. 

November, 1866. 

ON OZONE AND ITS RELATIONS TO 
ANIMAL CHARCOAL. 

BY T. W. TOBIN. 

THERE are three forces necessarily called into action 
in a simple chemical combination of two elementary- 
bodies, and the formation of the resulting compound — , 
first, a force by which each of the primary substances 
undergoes a decomposition or destruction of its constitu- 
tion ; secondly, an attractive force, a mutual affinity between 
the respective elements ; and thirdly, a new force is created, 
effecting the structure of the resulting compound. The 
absence of, or interference with, either of the two former 
conditions prevents or modifies the reaction, and the chief 
governing principle in most instances of combinations is 
the inertia offered by one or both of the primary bodies to 
the decomposition of form. The presence of a third neutral 
body sometimes greatly modifies the behaviour of the two 
active elements, although not in itself suffering any change 
of constitution — a property remarkable in itself as proving 
exceptionable to the doctrine of chemical affinity. The 
action, moreover, is inexhaustible and continuous, it is in 
proportion with the quantity of the substance. 

This peculiar action has been named " catalysis',' but to 
accurately define the extent of the term would be proceed- 
ing on doubtful ground. Numerous instances abound in 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. P 



158 On Ozone and its Relations to 

which the direct cause may be traced to this principle, in 
others it offers the best explanation as to the reactions of 
substances on each other. The behaviour of finely di- 
vided platinum, known as "spongy platinum" on a mix- 
ture of hydrogen gas and atmospheric air or oxygen gas 
is an instance in question. In the voltaic action of an acid 
on an oxidizable metal influenced by the presence and 
contact of another less oxidizable metallic body. Fermenta- 
tion, the germ of decay and organic decomposition, mias- 
mata and aromas, may even be comprehended by the same 
hypothesis. It is only necessary to disseminate the inactive 
principle, the neutral body, in the presence of certain other 
substances capable of being affected by it, and the resulting 
action takes place, leaving the inactive principle intact for 
future generation. But this property is more remarkable, 
and, perhaps, most practically useful, in the action of animal 
charcoal or soluble organic matter. 

An alcoholic solution of gum guiacum should be effected 
in the following manner : — \ oz. of pure solid gum in ten 
ozs. of alcohol, sp. gr. '830, four ozs. of distilled water to be 
added, which ought not to precipitate the gum. If such 
should take place, or should the mixture assume a turbid 
appearance, more alcohol must be added to render the 
solution clear, and the clear liquid decanted in stoppered 
bottles, and unexposed to light. The test thus prepared is 
for the detection of ozone or nascent oxygen, the substance 
containing which under experiment for it should show a 
neutral reaction to test paper. 

One hundred grains of fresh burnt animal charcoal may 
be now placed in a test tube ; on to it a quantity of the 
test liquid is poured so as to about quarter fill the vessel, 
by stopping the aperture and slowly turning the tube over 
to expose the charcoal alternately to the air, and then 
covering it with the liquid contents of the tube, and repeat- 
ing the operation about a dozen or more times, a slight 
but decided change of colour of the test liquid will become 
perceptible ; in some instances a longer time is necessary 
to indicate the same effect. Gum guiacum in a powdered 
state is of a nearly white tint when first pulverized, but on 
exposure to the air soon assumes a green hue. It possesses 
a strong af^nity for uncombined or nascent oxygen in par- 
ticular, becoming discoloured from its normal condition to 
a purple or deep blue when in combination with it. The 
alkaline permanganates and chlorates yield an equivalent 
of oxygen in contact with the gum, both being a solution, 



A nimal Charcoal. 159 

and give the characteristic purple tint. It is, however, 
destroyed in the presence of a free acid. Owing to its 
affinity for oxygen, the pulverized gum, as just mentioned, 
becomes green in contact with the air by combining with 
the oxygen therein. If the clear solution of the gum ex- 
posed to the air be observed horizontally under the surface, 
with the light coming in a perpendicular direction from above, 
a purple halo appears for a depth of about one-sixteenth 
of an inch, it cannot be detected when looked at from 
above. Freshly precipitated gum, from its solution by 
means of water or otherwise, if free from oxygen when pre- 
cipitated, soon absorbs sufficient from the atmosphere to 
turn it green : the effects described hereafter should, 
for this reason, be observed shortly after the experi- 
ment. 

Dr. Stenhouse and others have shown that animal, in 
common with other charcoal, possesses a peculiar property 
of condensing on its surface gaseous oxygen and convert- 
ing it into ozone, and yet the ozone, which is known as a 
transmissable substance, is difficult and if not impossible to 
separate in its normal state from the locality of its genera- 
tion. The presence and actual contact of charcoal as a 
disinfectant is well known, and an instance scarcely exists 
in which the virtue of its properties has been known to 
affect their influence beyond the immediate proximity of 
the substance. The following experimental illustration 
may, however, show the fact more forcibly : — A long tube 
is filled with fine grained dry charcoal, and a current of 
atmospheric air passed slowly through it, on leaving the 
tube the air will be found to contain no greater quantity of 
ozone than previous to its entrance. If the charcoal be 
then moistened with spirit or water, still no additional trace 
of ozone will be found. The air, however, is neither 
deprived of any sensible amount of ozone, and yet the 
charcoal, during the process, possessed the full virtue of 
the ozoning properties. Under varying temperatures also 
no important alteration of weight is perceptible, for the 
substances are but mechanically mixed, and a slight dis- 
turbance would be sufficient to alter their composition on 
this assumption, and vary the proportion of gaseous ozone 
and charcoal. Independently of these instances it is im- 
possible for a substance to exist in the pores or surface of 
the charcoal when employed as a filtering material and 
saturated with the liquid under operation, or if possible to 
exist, it could hardly be replenished when exhausted by 

P 2 



1 60 On Ozone and its Relations to 

constant usage. I have known instances where animal 
charcoal has oxidysed 262 grains of organic matter requir- 
ing forty-five grains of oxygen in an average of 150 gallons 
of water per day, for nine, and twelve months consecutively, 
supplying it with three-tenths of a grain per gallon of 
gaseous oxygen without in any way having been exposed 
to atmospheric air. In more than one example, moreover, 
the charcoal was immersed in three feet of water, and the 
surface of such water was exposed to the open air and 
sunlight each day, circumstances favourable for speedily 
depriving it of any air it might naturally contain. 

As^ to the source of ozone to furnish such oxidizable 
matter present in solution. It is uncertain whether it is 
obtained from the actual organic matter, or whether the 
mineral salts coexistent with it, take an active part in fur- 
nishing this element. If distilled water, after considerable 
exposure to the open air, be treated with the ozone test, 
no indication of ozone will be found to be present. If, on the 
other hand, water, containing salts of lime, 8z:c., be treated 
in the same manner, a very different result will ensue. 
The water seemingly increasing in its capacity for ozone in 
proportion to the quantity of salts present. As might be 
reasonably anticipated, the least stable salt thus containing 
the oxygen necessary for furnishing the ozone, would be 
found to be affected after the process. Such actually takes 
place in practice by filtration. The carbonate of lime held 
as bicarbonate in solution is lessened often to the extent of 
two grains per gallon. Still more conclusive is the fact 
that a second filtration immediately afterwards does not 
reduce the salts. As a negative instance also of the direct 
virtue of these auxiliary salts, " rain-water " containing as 
it invariably does, organic matter, is found to be far more 
difficult to purify than water containing with it the average 
quantity of inorganic salts. 

Such is the action of animal charcoal or soluble organic 
matter that, if the organism is perfect and the affinities 
balanced, no reaction is perceptible. If, on the other hand, 
the forces of attraction are in a partial state of resolution, 
the animal charcoal taking to itself the oxygen of the com- 
pound, redistributes it into more simple and stable com- 
pounds. A subsequent analysis is found to yield a less 
oxidizable organic residue, slightly lessened by the amount 
of water and volatile gas, the product of the recombination. 

To the chemical analyst it is a familiar circumstance to 
meet with certain substances combining with each other 



A nimal Charcoal. 1 6 1 

not by mechanical mixture not sometimes even in solution, 
but which in other cases unite with avidity forming com- 
pounds impossible otherwise to effect. The simplest type 
illustrative of this principle is in the gases oxygen and 
hydrogen in mixture. So long as they remain undisturbed 
and maintained below a fixed temperature no change is 
known to take place. Chlorine and hydrogen when un- 
exposed to light, sulphur again and oxygen, nitrogen and 
oxygen, carbon and oxygen, each may exist mixed or in 
contact, without any change taking place, but should one 
or both elements of any of these combinations be freed by 
any cause from a chemical combination in the presence of 
each other, a secondary compound is at once created. 
Such is water, such is muriatic acid, sulphuric acid, nitric 
acid, and carbonic acid, such in fine are all the numerous 
organic compounds, with which chemistry abounds, and 
the ultimate cause effecting the majority of inorganic 
combinations. 

Ozone is a substance admitted by all authorities as par- 
taking of the general properties, but differing in certain res- 
pects from oxygen. Ozone is oxygen, but oxygen is not 
necessarily ozone. Ozone is the oxygen of combination, 
whether fixed in substance or free. When in combination 
it is satisfied, and loses all its characteristics of ozone. 
When freed it is oxygen possessing all the energy of com- 
bination without the power of reconstitution. But oxygen 
is not the only substance capable of being rendered nascent. 
The compounds of chlorides of platinum and gold are 
instances in which chlorine is rendered nascent by the caty- 
lictic presence of a third body. It is to this property the 
combinations alluded to already are due, and every element 
possesses the same property when newly freed from a re- 
cent combination. 

Now, those substances, possessing the capacity for oxygen 
and combining with it, are called oxides or acids ; other 
substances, although possessing the affinity are not capable 
of uniting chemically with oxygen, but converting it into 
ozone. Three bodies, ABC, are present ; between A and 
B the affinity may be represented by 4, and are in com- 
bination ; between B and C there exists an affinity repre- 
sented by 3 ; between A C by o. A B and C may there- 
fore be in mixture together, and the compound substance 
A B will be reduced when in presence of C to i, in its 
absence 4. If now another substance D, bearing an affinity 
to B equal to 2, and to A and C to o be added. When C 



1 62 On Ozone and its Relations to 

is present D will decompose the compound A B by the 
superior attraction it has for A ; in its absence the whole 
series will remain unaltered. Ozone, present in an uncom- 
bined state is characteristic of the body B. 

Those substances are ozonizable which have a capacity 
for free ozone, as just described, like animal and other 
charcoal, platinum and other bodies. The alkahne per- 
manganates and chlorates and like oxygen yielding bodies 
are ozonized. All oxygen possessing, including organic 
and decaying bodies, are ozonized, for, under some circum- 
stance, they may yield oxygen in a nascent state, that is, 
ozone. 

It is possible as referred to already to furnish ozone 
simply — first, by the decomposition of any substance con- 
taining oxygen in combination ; second, to ozonize the 
oxygen of the atmosphere by animal charcoal or some other 
substance of which this may stand as a type ; and thirdly, 
there is another and more important means of obtaining 
ozone employed by Nature in providing the atmosphere, the 
grand reservoir with that consential element. Water seems 
to bear the most intimate affinity for ozone. The atmosphere 
is known to contain it through the vehicle of moisture. It 
is found more plentifully on the face of the ocean, rarely in 
a covered and sheltered situation, never in an inhabited 
dwelling. Being an active principle, its energy is quickly 
concentrated and expended in the numerous ways Nature 
has ordained for its mission. How, then, is the supply 
maintained to compensate for the loss thus sustained } As 
it is found in the presence of moisture, so it is generated by 
the moisture, by the vaporization perpetually going on at 
the surface of the ocean by the constant evaporation on the 
whole extent of the globe is maintained at a uniform quan- 
tity. But to verify this by experiment : the evaporation^of 
ether by a heated glass rod, furnishes a copious supply, and 
will even sustain contusion with platinum wire ; the ozone 
test, solution of guiacum, if quickly dried on the surface of 
paper affords the characteristic indication of ozone in be- 
coming green. But the following perhaps is a more con- 
clusive experiment as to the generation of ozone by evapo- 
ration. 

Two test tubes, similar to those before alluded to, should 
be nearly filled with distilled water. In one case use water 
which has been exposed in the open air for a considerable 
time, say two or three hours, in the other case water which 
has been recently boiled. The ozone test should be applied 



A nimal Charcoal. 1 6 3 

to both at the same temperature. The result will show a 
prevalence of ozone in the water that has been subjected to 
quick evaporation by boiling, while in the other the unboiled 
sample precipitation of the gum will take place uncoloured, 
indicating a total absence of ozone."^ 

The accepted theory of ozone among chemists is as of 
an active state of oxygen, and like the elementary prin- 
ciples of electricity, it is never generated otherwise than 
accompanied by a corresponding or induced quantity of 
another opposing element, antozone ; although opposite 
and unlike in their nature, evincing properties positive and 
negative, yet having a strong mutual affinity fpr each other, 
they combine and become neutral when opportunity offers; 
and, in fine, bearing out their semblance to electric pheno- 
mena still more intimately, they may be again isolated, as 
just shown, by — 1st, chemical decomposition ; 2nd, struc- 
tural arrangement, as in magneto-electricity ; and 3rd, by 
re-combination and disturbance of form, as in frictional 
electricity. The FrankHnean theory as to the actual pre- 
sence or absence of a single principle, or the more recently 
accepted notion of the compound constitution of ^a subtle 
fluid here also equally applies ; and the question arises, do 
there exist two distinctive elements — ozone, and antozone ? 
Or are these effects attributable to the intensity and relaxa- 
tion of a simple primary principle ? By evaporation certain 
liquids may be ozonized, and the law applies equally to 
many others beside water, and ether. In the last experi- 
ment we generated an amount of the active element — ozone, 
and may reasonably anticipate a corresponding absence of 
this, or, an induced proportion of its coeval principle ; let, 
therefore, the same experiment be repeated in the follow- 
ing manner : — Place in a boiling flask one ounce of distilled 
water, as before ; some test paper must then be prepared 
as follows, a sheet of ordinary writing paper is to be satu- 
rated with the alcoholic test-liquid of gum guiacum and 
quickly dried over the flame of a spirit lamp, the colour of 
the paper should assume a light green tint. A strip of this 
paper is to be inserted into the neck of the flask, and the 
whole placed on a sand bath and moderately heated up to 

* The simplest manner of performing this experiment is to pour 
about one drachm of the water into a narrow test-tube and add 
about ten drops of test liquid, the gum in which will be precipita- 
ted of a characteristic w^hite, its normal colour, or green, in inten- 
sity according to the amount of ozone present. 



1 64 On Ozone and its Relations to 

the boiling point, ebullition may be continued, care being 
taken not to wet the test paper. The contents of the vessel 
will be in the following condition, as the test paper will 
show ; the vapour is absent of ozone, or, in other words, 
the presence of antozone is indicated by becoming dis- 
coloured or deprived of the amount of oxygen it previously 
held in combination ; the water on cooling as before would 
indicate the presence of ozone, but they have been but 
mechanically separated, by quickly shaking the contents 
the opposing principles will combine, and testing the 
same when cool a very dissimilar effect will be apparent 
from that previously described, little or no ozone being 
present. In condensing, the vapour gives up the antozone 
and neutralises the excess of ozone in the liquid from 
which it was derived ; in the presence of the atmosphere it 
however, behaves otherwise, ozonizing the oxygen thereof 
in condensing, it yields a large amount of nascent oxygen 
evident to the test-paper described. With iodide of starch, 
another test for ozone, similar indications ensue. 

The fact may be still further verified. Four ounces of 
distilled water, unboiled as before, is to be prepared by 
adding one drachm of the test fluid, the gum of which 
will be precipitated and render the solution of an opa- 
lescent tinge ; two similar quantities of this compound 
solution are to be placed in two similar test tubes, to about 
a quarter fill the same, one is to be corked, allowing a 
small vent aperture for expansion, the other, as previous, 
should have a strip of green test paper inserted at its mouth 
and otherwise left free for evaporation ; both are now to 
be placed in a sand bath and gently heated ; they will 
gradually, but decidedly, be observed to change from white 
to blue, of deeper intensity as they reach a certain tempe- 
rature, about the boiling point, they may then be stopped. 
The colour is indicative of an excess of ozone in both. 
The test paper shows an absence of ozone in the vapour of 
one, but in the other instance both vapour and liquid are 
confined ; and if each bear opposite properties, by com- 
minghng them, a neutral result must inevitably ensue. 
Such we find to be the case ; but in order that the experi- 
ment may be satisfactory, the stoppered tube should be 
allowed to cool, or be artificially cooled by a stream of 
water, and in that state shaken to condense the vapour in 
the liquid. Comparing this with the other, although not 
devoid of colour, it is little indicative of free oxygen, 
the quantity lost by evaporation through the vent aperture 



Animal Charcoal. 165 

or otherwise. And, further to prove that the gum is not 
structurally altered, it may be deprived of all the oxygen 
it contains by a deoxidizing agent, sulphuretted hydrogen. 
As an incidental observation, it may be noted how large a 
quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen is required to deprive 
the gum of its oxygen when oxydized by ozone. 

Water, then, in itself, may give rise to ozone, and induc- 
tively to antozone ; why it is that certain liquids evapo- 
rating should become ozonized — why they should suffer 
partial decomposition, for it is only those, substances which 
contain oxygen — in combination with another opposite 
element, that are capable of so doing, cannot be said with 
any amount of certainty. Oxygen is materially heavier, 
denser, than hydrogen, in the ratio of eight to one. When 
in combination the action of heat in a lesser form, such as 
to raise it to 212°, is as of a partial disturbance of its con- 
stitution ; the effect of this is, that the hydrogen probably 
absorbs and becomes satisfied with heat in one-eighth the 
time necessary for accomplishing the same effect on the 
oxygen, it becomes, during the full accomplishment of this 
process on the oxygen, partially volatilized. Hence, in 
the vapour is found the hydrogen or antozone principle, in 
the water the ozone. Under microscopic examination the 
decomposition of water by voltaic electricity presents an 
appearance confirmatory of this theory, the gases being 
freed much in the same manner as here described. 

In this wonderful generative agent — viz., evaporation is 
the vast supply of ozone maintained in nature. In the 
evaporation consequent upon rainfall, that constantly sa- 
turates the face of the earth, and from the condensation of 
the vapour generated therefrom, is animal and vegetable 
organism nourished and sustained. Organised substances 
in generation and decay, in health and disease, require ozone 
for their development— in the one case, for the cellular 
secretions and constructing the animal tissue ; in the other, 
for the full and speedy oxidizement of the germ of decom- 
position. The combinations, moreover, ozone effects with 
healthy organism in the part of food is striking, and worthy 
of observation. The gluten of wheat, milk, potato, and 
many other essential articles of nutrition are abundantly 
impregnated with free ozone, as may be detected by tinc- 
ture of gum guiacum (Brande). Truly, we may observe, 
that this is another instance of an all-wise Providence for 
the sustenance of our being. What is more bountifully 
supplied us than water ? What a more faithful minister to 



1 66 On Ozone and Us Relations to 

our wants ? But in it we also possess a tender guardian, 
gently abstracting from its bosom the very essence of life ; 
and still more gently, day by day, feeding the tender plant, 
and satisfying the thirsty forest with their daily wants — 
breathing to us the very spirit of life — and even then its 
mission is not expended ; it is finally ordained to enshrine, 
as in a pall, the deadly putrefaction, fatal and yet co- 
existent with such grandeur. 

The active energy of ozone in the atmosphere may be 
directly observed in many ways in its prejudicial behaviour 
to artificial and manufactured products. Metallic sub- 
stances, iron more especially, quickly becomes oxidized if 
alternately exposed to water and the atmosphere, owing to 
the generation of ozone. Water boiled in iron vessels is 
known speedily to destroy such by continued rusting ; the 
decay of stonework and timber may be equally attributable 
to the same cause. In the natural purification of water, 
evaporation and the generation of ozone thereby is promi- 
nently manifest ; the soil through which the water perco- 
lates consisting of an absorbent material and possessing no 
actual ozonizing properties, simply brings the liquid into 
more intimate contact with the air and promotes evapora- 
tion. On this principle the old systems of artificial filtra- 
tion through gravel and sand, and other finely divided 
substances owe their virtue. From the foregoing remarks 
it is evident, also, that by boiling water containing organic 
impurity much becomes oxidized by ozone ; but neither 
instance will bear comparison with the effects produced by 
animal charcoal. 

Animal charcoal, or bone black, consists of carbon and 
phosphate of lime principally, but also in conjunction with 
many minor substances, of which carbonate of lime is the 
most prominent. To be of good quality it should present 
a dullish cast, and not suffer any loss from organic matter by 
exposure to a dull red heat in a closed retort. On ignition a 
purely white residue should remain ; if clayey matter or 
metallic oxides be present they will be conspicuous on the 
surface after ignition, and the charcoal has, in all proba- 
bility, been previously employed for filtering purposes. 
The proportion of actual carbon present in the average 
quality of animal charcoal is about 20 per cent. (Sten- 
house), the remaining per centage consisting chiefly of 
phosphates of lime and magnesia. Newly burned charcoal 
is remarkable for its great absorbent power, both for gases 
and liquids. If a test glass be filled with water, a large 



A nimal Charcoal, 167 

quantity of fresh burned charcoal may be cautiously added 
to its contents without overflowing it. 

In a freshly prepared condition animal charcoal is but a 
feeble ozonizer, not even bearing comparison with many 
other less important substances ; but the curious and re- 
markable property of its ozonizing power is its increase of 
capacity by constant use. This may be achieved by being in 
contact for a long time with water containing large quantities 
of soluble organic matter. The material after such treat- 
ment presents a different appearance to new charcoal, 
being of a dead grey cast, much lighter in colour than 
when new, and it is entirely free from any surface powder 
that always attends new charcoal, and renders the liquid 
black on washing. 

When investigating this property, it occurred to me that 
the same power existed equally in both old and new charcoal, 
but from the circumstance of new charcoal being invariably 
covered with a very fine powder, the pores on its surface 
were impaired ; or that from this or other cause, it was pre- 
vented from absorbing the test liquid into its cells, and 
consequently calling a less area of surface into operation 
as an ozonizing agent. To ascertain the correctness of 
this view, I submitted equal quantities of new and old 
charcoal (by old, I mean such as had been used for several 
years as a filtering medium) to distilled water and spirits 
of wine alternately, for over a fortnight, taking precaution 
finally, to thoroughly wash both samples in water. They 
were then dried at ordinary temperature, and tested for 
their ozonizing capacity. The new I found to bear but 
very poor comparison with the old for ozonizing power. 

The next point of interest to ascertain was, as to which 
of the constituent elements composing the charcoal, the 
property owed its origin first. Neither phosphate of lime, 
carbonate of lime, nor carbon, whether in the form of wood, 
charcoal, graphite, or other state, is capable of ozonizing to 
any extent whatever, wood charcoal, however, taking slight 
exception to the rule. In substance, therefore, the consti- 
tuents are inert. Samples of good ozonizing animal char- 
coal, such as just described as old, were treated as follows : 
— 1st, To incineration to expel the carbonaceous and vola- 
tile matter, leaving the phosphate of lime and earthy salts ; 
2nd, By digestion with hydrochloric acid to abstract the 
calcigeneous phosphates and carbonates; and finally, 
another sample was pulverised as finely as possible in a 
pestle and mortar. On testing each residue, the results 



1 68 On Ozone and its Relations to 

showed their capacity, when compared with the original 
intact substance, was considerably impaired for ozone. 
Any material alteration, moreover, in form or substance, 
causes a proportionate lessening of its power, and even the 
accumulation of suspended organic matter arrested in the 
process of filtration, or of gum and resin on the surface, 
eventually determines a cessation of this property. 

But the affinity to which this is attributable : it consists 
of that of the second order necessary for chemical combi- 
nations, as first set forth, and the condition governing its 
action is, that the substance possesses a surface mechani- 
cally fitted for the reception and retention of oxygen. The 
oxygen thus situated seems to evince all the energy of 
combination, but lacking that force necessary for the con- 
stitution of a new form. The action of this induced 
oxygen lies only in proximity to the surface of the char- 
coal, or other ozonizable substance to which it owes its 
origin. For the purpose of calling its energy into play, 
actual contact is indispensable. This is illustrated very 
strikingly in the ensuing curious experiment.^ If coarsely 
powdered animal charcoal be intimately mixed with small 
portions of phosphorus, the great oxidizing power of the 
charcoal quickly determines the combustion of the phos- 
phorus ; again, should an accidental scrap of iron find its 
way into charcoal used as a filtering medium, an occur- 
rence not uncommon, the metal becomes soon covered 
with a thick coating of oxide, which eventually cements 
charcoal and iron into a conglomerate mass. 

Oxide of iron in itself is an ozonizing substance ; thus 
it is, that iron being a less oxidizable metal than zinc, be- 
comes converted into rust on exposure to the atmosphere, 
in a considerably shorter period of time than the latter 
metal, simply from the fact that the oxide regenerates 
ozone, and hence, continuously suppHes the combining 
oxygen to the compound. Most acids are ozonizing 
bodies — that is, possess the power of generating ozone : 
by this means they determine the oxidation of the base 
with which they combine. Zinc and iron are slowly oxi- 
dizable in water, if devoid of acid ; but in the presence of 
sulphuric or nitric acid, owing to the ozonizing effect of 
such on the oxygen of the water, speedily determines the 
oxidation of the metal, and forms a secondary compound 
salt. 

-^ Transactions of the Royal Institution, vol. i 



Animal Charcoal. 169 

Substances capable of ozonizing, as a rule, may be arti- 
ficially produced by certain substances containing oxygen 
as an element, and capable of having such expelled by 
heat or other agency, without otherwise altering or destroy- 
ing their structural arrangement. In organic and other 
natural products, this property is also often met with to a 
considerable degree. 

Animal charcoal is of the class of substance in question 
— by depriving the organic substance in the process of 
burning of its combined oxygen, it becomes thus perma- 
nently ozonizable. This process of burning in practice is 
rarely, if ever, achieved in the first instance. Sugar-re- 
finers, and others using this charcoal, find 'that after the 
second or third burning the substance is considerably im- 
proved in its filtering power. In the use of animal char- 
coal, for filtering impure water, great caution is requisite in 
its proper selection and adaptation. If badly-burned char- 
coal be chosen, it will probably give rise to a numerous 
series of failures. A species of putrefaction of the un- 
charred organic remains is almost certain to set up in the 
locality of the defective parts, and soon, by spreading, con- 
taminate the whole of the charcoal, together with any sub- 
stance in contact with it. We find instances occur, that 
water, after having been in contact with this substance, be- 
comes actually less pure from the introduction of this 
extraneous matter. Such qualities of charcoal are actually 
useless for all practical application, and on the evidence of 
the tests before mentioned, should be scrupulously rejected. 

The treatment of animal charcoal by reburning, solely 
for this reason, is beneficial ; for all others it is depreciatory 
to its virtue. The ozonizing capacity has been shown 
previously to exist in the combined substance, that each ele- 
mentary constituent was incapable of exercising this pro- 
perty, and hence we may reason, in proportion, that the 
balanced constituents are varied from their natural combi- 
nation, so would the ozonizing power be impoverished. 
Washing with dilute muriatic acid and reburning have been 
much used in the revivification of expended charcoal. The 
preference is now given almost exclusively in favour of the 
latter, but in practice they are both, after a certain time, 
incapable of effecting their purpose, and the charcoal be- 
comes useless. In theory, the failure is attributable to 
similar though opposite causes. By the treatment with the 
muriatic acid, the mechanically acquired matter that may 
be- present on the surface of the charcoal, is loosened, and 



1 70 Cocoa. 

the phosphate of lime and earthy salts by being superficially 
destroyed, leaves a partially renewed surface of the char- 
coal for ozonic action. The carbon, however, is left in ex- 
cess. In reburning, the foreign matter is charred, and part 
of the carbon of it, together with that of the charcoal, is 
volatilized. A new surface is here again exposed, but the 
phosphates and earthy salts are in excess, and the residual 
charcoal from the organic matter is introduced as a foreign 
element on the surface of the renewed charcoal ; in 
course of time the excesses of these extraneously intro- 
duced substances determine the cessation of the normal 
virtue of the charcoal. Much waste and a great amount 
of labour is expended in these fruitless restorations of old 
charcoal and freeing it from impurities. 

By certain of the experiments herein enumerated, animal 
charcoal has been shown by constant use to become im- 
proved. After a continued action on soluble organic matter 
for years the ozonizing power has been stated to have been 
increased. How great, then, the fallacy of submitting such 
to renewal, if, by that process, the standard of its ozonizing 
capacity be reduced to its original condition, or still worse, 
lessened, as above shown. 

The defect of used charcoal has been sought for in the 
wrong direction. If the impurity consists of calcinable 
matter, such as suspended clayey substance, chalk, &c., 
burning is ineffective ; if, on the other hand, from organic 
substance, other chemical means for its extraction 
should have been resorted to, and thus the acquired impu- 
rity abstracted, leaving the charcoal improved by the pro- 
cess of its action, and literally imperishable. 



COCOA (THROBRONIA CACAO, L.). 

BY JOHN R. JACKSON, 

Curator of the Museum, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

AMONG "household words" none are more familiar 
than tea and coffee. The infusions obtained from 
these two plants are not looked upon as a luxury, but as a 
necessary article to the households of all classes ahke. As 
a refreshing beverage tea always has held a high position, 



Cocoa, 171 

nor does it seem likely to depreciate in public favour, not- 
withstanding the introduction of other substances, and the 
strong recommendation which the Faham of Reunion has 
lately received at the hands of an enterprising Paris house. 
If China should fail to supply the European demand for tea, 
and Reunion with its AngrcBcum fragrans should step in as 
an only rival, then time and necessity might work a change 
in the public taste, and gossip and scandal might be talked 
over a cup of faham in place of that of bohea. 

Of the two beverages which are so intimately associated 
— tea and coffee — the former is the most popular, as the 
Government reports of the home consumption of the two 
articles show ; but, in answer, likewise, to this difference of 
figures it must be borne in mind that coffee has, to a cer- 
tain degree, a rival article in the market. We mean cocoa 
to which the public taste is becoming more and more 
adapted. The improvements which have been made in 
the preparation of this commodity have been the means of 
gaining for it a larger share of patronage, and we see no 
reason why cocoa should not become with us as favourite 
a beverage as it is with some other European nations. As 
an article of food it is extremely valuable, containing as it 
does a large quantity of nutritive matter, but without the 
stimulating effects of tea or coffee. 

If cocoa had no other recommendation, its botanical 
name alone should suffice to make it popular ; Linnaeus, 
by whom the name Theobroma was given, must himself 
have highly approved of the qualities of the seed by signi- 
fying it " as food for a god," which is the meaning of the two 
Greek words of which Theobroma is composed, namely, 
theos, a god, and broma, food. It was in use in very early 
times in Mexico, and was introduced from thence into 
Europe by the Spaniards about the year 1520. Benzoni, 
who travelled in that century, speaks of chocolate as a 
drink " fitter for a pig than for a man." Humboldt says it 
was extensively cultivated in the time of Montezuma, and 
in the time of the Aztecs the seeds were commonly used 
as money. 

The words cocoa and chocolate are both derived from 
the Mexican language, Cacava quahiutl being applied to 
the plant, and chocolate to the preparation. 

The cocoa tree at the present time is extensively cul- 
tivated in the West Indies and over the greater part of 
tropical America. Our supplies come chiefly from 
Trinidad and Grenada. It is a tree seldom rising more 



172 Cocoa. 

than sixteen or eighteen feet. The leaves are large, ob- 
long, and pointed. The flowers are small, arranged in 
clusters, the petals yellowish, and the calyx of a rose 
colour. The fruits which are oblong in form, vary in size 
from six to ten inches long, and usually about three or 
four inches broad. 

The cocoa plants are raised from seed, and the 
nurseries for this purpose should be pitched on a good soil, 
and in a position well sheltered from the sun. The seeds 
are planted in the month of November, and are covered 
with the leaves of the Banana and other plants. " The 
cacao trees should have sufficient shade to prevent them 
being burned by the sun. If they are too much exposed 
to its rays, their branches are scattered, crack, and the tree 
dies. They are also infested with worms, which gnaw the 
bark all round, then attack the interior and destroy them. 
The only remedy which has hitherto been found, is to em- 
ploy people to kill these worms, which are deposited by a 
small scaly winged insect, which gnaws the tree ; as soon 
as it hears the approach of its destroyers, it lets itself fall, 
and trusts to its wings for safety." 

As this tree requires to be sheltered from the direct rays 
of the sun " the mode of combining this protection with the 
principles of fertility, forms a very essential part of the skill 
which its cultivation demands. The cacao tree is mingled 
with other trees which shelter it, without depriving it of any 
of the sun's heat. The Erythrina and the Banana fare em- 
ployed for this purpose. The latter by the rapidity of its 
growth, and the magnitude of its leaves, protect it for the 
first year. The Erythrina endures at least as long as the 
Cacao ; it is not every soil, however, that agrees with it. It 
perishes after a while in sandy and clayey ground, but it 
flourishes in such as combine these two ingredients. 

In forming a new plantation a preference is usually given 
to land which has the advantage of irrigation from an ad- 
jacent river, without the chance of an overflow, and the 
cocoa plants should not exceed thirty-six inches in size 
when transplanted. " In one range of Cacao trees a Banana 
is placed between two Cacaos, and an Erythrina between the 
two following. In the other range a banana is placed be- 
tween each Cacao tree, and no Erythrinas, so that the latter 
are at the distance of two alleys. The Banana and the 
Erythrina are first planted, and when a shelter from the sun, 
is thus provided, the hole for the cacao is made, around 
which are planted four stalks of the yucca plant, at the dis- 



Cocoa, 173 

tance of two feet from each other. At the end of two 
months the Cacao is planted. The smaller the plant is, the 
better. There are, nevertheless, soils subject to worms, 
where the small plants do not thrive ; but, excepting this 
particular, the small plants are preferable, because the large 
require more labour for their- transportation." 

The Tkeobroma'knows no positive season for ripening its 
fruits, for they may be gathered during the whole year, but 
the planters have a certain period at which they gather them 
when they are proved by experience to be more solid and 
less liable to spoil. Each cocoa pod or fruit is fitted with 
seeds, some fruits containing as many as one hundred, and 
others not more than fifty. The fruits upon riptning* 
change from a green to a deep yellow, and they are then ready 
for gathering ; for this purpose, the sharpest of the negroes, or 
those accustomed to such work are employed, so that only the 
ripe fruit may be gathered. When dry, the pods shrivel up 
slightly, and change to a deep brown. After gathering, 
they are carried to a place where the seeds are taken out, 
which operation is performed on a well swept floor, covered 
with green leaves ; the pods are opened, and the seeds 
struck out by a piece of wood ; they are then cleaned of the 
pulpy matter surrounding them, and are subject to a process 
of fermentation, for the purpose of giving them a good 
colour previous to drying, which is done by spreading them 
out in the open air, or exposing them to the sun for about 
three weeks, when they are in a fit state for packing and 
shipping. 

Cocoa as we all know appears in commerce in various 
forms, the purest is that from which the skins have been 
removed by fanning, after being roasted and the cotyledons 
simply crushed ; in this form the article is called " cocoa 
nibs." Cocoa paste is the seed pulverised between heated 
rollers, and mixed with sugar, and chocolate in its various 
forms, is a similar preparation more or less flavoured with 
spices and vanilla ; some of these preparations are of an 
exceedingly delicate flavour, as for instance the celebrated 
" Chocolat Menier," " Fry's Victoria chocolate, &c." That 
which is sold as soluble cocoa, flake, rock, and othervarieties, 
is the ground seeds mixed with sugar, starch, gum, &c. The 
method employed by the Indians of old for roasting and 
breaking the seeds was very similar to that adopted by us 
at the present time, except, that we add heat to our rollers, 
and move them by machinery, they were roasted in earthern 
pots, then cleaned of the husk, and bruised between two 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. Q 



1 74 Social Science Congress. 

stones, after which they were made up by hand into cakes. 
The difference in the flavour of the chocolate we get on 
the continent to that produced at home is. due, of course, 
to the great variety of the flavouring ingredients that are 
added ; cloves, cinnamon, and all manner of spices are 
used, and it is even said that musk and ambergris have 
been added. 

The value of cocoa as an article of food is very great, 
being very rich in nutritive matter. It contains in lOO 
parts 51 of butter, 22 of starch and gum, 20 of gluten, and 
two parts of Theobromine, which is the peculiar principle of 
cocoa, and which contains more nitrogen than does the 
active principle of tea and coffee. As a refreshing beve- 
rage, however, cocoa is much inferior to either of these two 
well-known drinks, which are taken in infusion only, while 
cocoa is taken more as a substance. Amongst the poorer 
classes cocoa is decidedly the most important as a nutri- 
tive article. It recommends itself not alone on this score, 
but on the score of cheapness, for while cocoa may be ob- 
tained from 8d. to is. 4d. per lb., tea costs 3s. or 4s. 
Where the use of cocoa has been adopted in public insti- 
tutions, it has been found far superior to either tea or 
coffee as a wholesome and nutritious beverage. The duty 
levied upon cocoa is a penny per lb. The home con- 
sumption of the article being about four millions of pounds 
annually. 



SOCIAL SCIENCE CONGRESS. 

THE tenth annual meeting of the National Association 
for the Promotion of Social Science was celebrated 
during the month of October. The Inaugural Address was 
delivered at the Free Trade Hall by Lord Shaftesbury. 

Among the papers read may be mentioned one by Mr. 
Anthony TroUope, on " International Law of Copyright," 
which created great interest, in Section A of the Juris- 
prudence Department. In Section C of the same depart- 
ment, an interesting paper was read by Mr. D. Hill, Q.C., 
on the question, " Is it desirable to carry out life sentences 
to the utmost, and, if so, in what cases, and under what 
form of discipline 1 " The proceedings, in these sections, 



Social Science Ccngress, 175 

were preceded by an address from Lord Brougham, in the 
Civil Court 

An enumeration of all the papers read would alone form 
a lengthy report. We are, therefore, compelled, by want 
of space, to confine ourselves to a few abstracts of papers 
selected with a view to interest the majority of our 
readers. 

Lord Shaftesbury being the President of the year, de- 
voted the major part of his Inaugural Address to the con- 
dition of the working classes. In occupying a position so 
often filled by Lord Brougham, he seems to have satisfied 
his critics of all classes, and scarcely any testimony could 
be more conclusive as to the value of his address, from 
which we cull the concluding passage : 

"It is now time to conclude. But there are some, I 
fear, who will reply that I have entered on a high flight of 
speculation, and have left terrestrial difficulties too far 
below. Nevertheless, ' it is good for us to be here.' It is 
good for murmuring men to see how much of the misery 
that he suffers, or inflicts, is due to himself, and how little 
to the decrees of a merciful Creator. It is good for him 
to see how the principle of self-control is the grand principle 
of all social and individual freedom ; that the sense of 
responsibility to GOD and to his fellow-man, whether it be 
in the Sovereign on the Throne, or the labourer at the 
plough, is the source of all that is virtuous, and dignified, 
and considerate, and true. Neither is there any hope of 
obtaining excellence, unless our aims be directed by the 
highest standard. ' Be ye, therefore, perfect, even as your 
Father which is in Heaven is perfect.' Surely this was 
said by our blessed Lord rather to elevate the efforts and 
the prayers, than to declare the actual powers of fallen 
man. And have we no guide } When at night we lift up 
our eyes, and contemplate the peace and splendour of the 
Host of Heaven, how each one is conforming to the law of 
its nature, and, as it were, rejoicing to subserve the uni- 
versal order, we recognise an Omnipotent, yet gentle, 
principle that demands and receives a willing and exact 
obedience. When we turn our thoughts to the globe on 
which we dwell, we see, in all the works of the Great 'First 
Cause, the same invariable principle. It ruled at the 
Creation, has prevailed throughout all time, and will bless 
the countless ages of eternity. It is the law of kindness 
and of love, the law that — 

Q 2 



1 76 Social Science Congress. 

" * Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent 
Spreads undivided, operates unspent' 

Here, then, is the law for our ardent but humble imitation. 
It is rich in promise, joyous in operation, and certain as 
truth itself. Of su h a law how can wc speak but in the 
noblest language that ever fell from the pen of uninspired 
man, ' Of this law there can be no less acknowledged than 
that her seat is the bosom of GOD, her voice the harmony 
of the world : all things in heaven and earth do her homage, 
the very least, as feeling her care, and the greatest, as not 
exempted from her power ; both angels and men, and crea- 
tures of what condition soever, though each indifferent sort 
and manner, yet all with uniform consent, admiring her as 
the mother of their peace and joy.' " 

Lord Brougham, after suitable eulogies on deceased 
members, and other introductory observations, reminded 
the meeting that the report of the commission for inquiry 
into the great subject of capital punishment had been 
printed, that it is most important from the great body of 
information it contains, both on this and other countries, 
that it offered an almost solitary exception to the blank of 
the late session, for the material recommendation of the 
report against public executions has been adopted by Par- 
liament after a somewhat warm opposition in the upper 
house. He referred to defects in the law of evidence which 
still remain not only without remedy, but without any real 
defence: the exclusion of parties in cases before the 
Divorce Court and other courts, who know most of the 
facts. This no longer exists in civil suits, but in criminal 
cases we still shut out one party while we hear the other. 
The consequence, he said, of excluding the accused party 
had often been shown, and petitions to Parliament strongly 
expressed them, A person is charged with an offence, 
when he could at once explain all the circumstances, and 
show his entire innocence, and that the whole prosecution 
is a malicious proceeding, but his mouth is shut while his 
accuser is heard. The French course of proceeding in this 
respect is to be carefully avoided ; indeed, it was always 
proposed that with us the examination of the person 
accused, should only be taken upon his voluntarily' tender- 
ing himself, and being willing to undergo the sifting of a 
cross-examination. Another deficiency of the late session 
was, the not passing an act to amend the optional clause 
in the County Courts Act. The importance of the juris- 



Social Science Congress. 1 77 

diction of these courts has long been admitted. The 
number of suits they determine is prodigious. The optional 
clause requires the previous consent of both parties, and, 
as the one would refuse what the other proposed, merely 
because he proposed it, the clause has had very little effect, 
if any, in extending the jurisdiction to other cases inkind and 
in amount ; whereas, if the suitor could begin for a larger 
amount, and for other objects, it is certain, that the great 
facilities afforded by the local courts would induce the 
defendant to acquiesce, and a very material increase is 
thus withheld from that most valuable jurisdiction by the 
delay to make this obvious improvement. But, though 
the last session has been lamentably unfruitful of measures, 
he observed, the Commons have issued important com- 
missions for inquiry into the scandalous scenes of corrup- 
tion which too many of the late elections have displayed. 
He said that no question could be raised, although we see 
it attempted, as to the gross criminality of the parties, both 
the candidates and their agents, and the voters ; nor is 
there the least common sense in the allegation, that the 
voters cannot be made to regard selling a trust, which a 
vote is, for many, as criminal. They must be made to 
regard it as such by the infliction of severe punishment ;. 
the candidates and their agents must* also be punished. It 
is certain that bribery can only be stopped by sending 
those who give and those who receive bribes to the tread- 
mill like other offenders. He then referred to the late im- 
provement in our county and borough gaols, and attributed 
the greater part, if not the whole, of the diminution of 
crime during the .last half-year. He thought the result of 
this act should encourage the Legislature to pass other 
useful laws ; and spoke of a plan suggested by the great 
Duke and himself for facilitating the private bill business 
in Parliament, which, in its exhausting and harrassing effect 
upon the members, now interferes so much with public 
measures. His Lordship proceeded to remark that the 
friends of social science have reason to congratulate the 
public on the great achievement of the conductors of the 
Atlantic cable. They have finally succeeded, after the 
failure of last year, in this extraordinary and most import- 
ant undertaking, and the Atlantic no longer offers an 
obstacle to direct and instantaneous communication with 
the Western world, and in a few hours accounts can come 
from New York to London and Paris. Then he spoke of 
the evils of intemperance, and remarked that one sees with 



ijS Social Science Congress. 

astonishment and indignation, in cases before magistrates, 
intoxication urged in extenuation of offences, whereas it is 
a gross aggravation. No magistrate is entitled to suffer 
one such word to be uttered before him on the part of the 
accused. Any magistrate is bound to stop the party or 
his advocate the instant he begins this, and to tell him 
that if intoxicated he must suffer a punishment more 
severe. It is undeniable that a most wholesome effect 
would be produced by the general impression being made 
that drunkenness, though by law it may not be liable to 
punishment, except by small pecuniary penalty, yet makes 
offences to which it has given rise more severely punishable. 
He concluded his address by a reference to the progress of 
co-operation, which is shown by the great increase of 
business. The traders have joined in giving those under 
them the incalculable benefits of reduced hours of work ; 
and in the great towns, as well as in London, the half-time 
rule seems established on Saturdays, to the great benefit of 
the men, both physically and morally. Co-operation, he 
says, is due to the people — not to the Government or the 
Legislature. So are the institutions founded and conducted 
by private individuals, though licensed by Government. 
He referred to the Refuge of Female Convicts, the Carlisle 
Refuge in Ireland, the proceedings under Lady G. Fullarton 
for the Roman Catholics, and for the Protestants under 
Miss Twining, both which are highly approved by that 
philanthropist, our much respected colleague. Commissioner 
Hill. If, he says, in bringing his remarks to a close, so 
great have been the disappointments at home, have we 
anything to console us when we turn our eyes abroad ? 
We cannot, he says, pronounce anything with certainty on 
the state of the Continent as to what may be the distri- 
bution of dominion or the continuance of peace. He 
glances at the principal European powers, and thinks there 
is no doubt that the cause of progress is in a hopeful con- 
dition — that there Is a general tendency towards free insti- 
tutions — that the Protestant interest has gained con- 
siderably. In France, he says, there is so strong an 
opposition to the Imperial Government, and so general a 
desire of material prosperity, that there seems good ground 
for a belief in greater freedom of discussion being given to 
public bodies, and even in some relaxation of the laws re- 
specting the press also. Great sacrifices have been made 
for the termination of hostilities. The Emperor's conduct 
to prevent their continuance has been highly meritorious, 



Social Science Congress, 1 79 

and at length a general peace is concluded. Yes, peace is 
restored on the Continent, and all friends of social science 
must heartily rejoice. 

Such is a brief abstract of this powerful address which 
concluded in the following words : — 

" Although the glory of war lends its horrible atrocities a 
false glare which deceives us as to its blood guiltiness, in 
what does the crime of Napoleon, when he sacrificed thou- 
sands of lives to his lust of foreign conquest, differ from that 
of Robespierre, when he sought domestic power by slaying 
hundreds of his fellow-citizens } In one particular there is 
more atrocity in the crimes of the latter ; they were perpe- 
trated under the name and form of justice; whose sanctity 
tliey cruelly profaned ; but, on the other hand, far more, 
blood was spilled, far more wide-spreading and lengthened 
misery occasioned to unoffending provinces by the inva- 
sions of Spain, and Switzerland, and Germany, and Russia, 
than by all the acts of the Committee, the Convention, and 
the Revolutionary Tribunal- Nor will mankind ever be 
free from the scourge of war until they learn to call things 
by their proper names, to give crimes, the same epithets, 
whatever outward form they may assume, and to regard 
with equal abhorrence the conqueror who slakes his thirst 
of dominion with the blood of his fellow creatures, and the 
more vulgar criminal, who is executed for taking the life of 
a wayfaring man that he may seize upon his purse. We 
hesitate not to shed the blood of a common felon, and even 
those most averse to capital punishment make an excep- 
tion against the murderer. Thus there is no difficulty \xi 
prosecuting murders, and the juries convict, who in cases of 
theft or embezzlement, or even forgery, would hesitate. 
Such is the universal horror of murder, or even of attempts 
to commit it, and of partial committal. Then, why do the 
same parties regard the slaughter of tens or thousands, 
some with tolerance, and some even with approval t 

" ' One to destroy to murder by the law, 
And gibbets keep the lifted hand in awe ; 
To murder thousands takes a specious name, 
War's glorious art, and gives immortal.' 

Young, Universal Passion, Sect. vii. 

Such is the result of war, and while men will fight and slay 
their tens of thousands, the crime of murder on the largest 
scale must go on unpunished and unrepented. Yes, un- 
punished in this world. But our Heavenly Father bestowing 



1 8o Social Science Congress. 

free-will on His creatures hath declared them accountable 
for its abuse ; and, administering justice in mercy towards 
the numbers deceived or compelled into blood-guiltiness, 
He condemns those that have betrayed or forced them as 
their accomplices or their instruments to the unspeakable 
enduring torments of hell." 

Shortly after the conclusion of this address, the Sections 
commenced their meetings. 

Mr. M. D. Hill read a special paper on Capital Punish- 
ment, of which the following is the substance : — 

" Capital punishment, though retained in our criminal 
code, will probably be reserved for culprits . convicted of 
deliberate murder. If so, the convicts to whom imprison- 
ment for life will be applicable may be ranged in two 
classes — i. Such, as, by ferocity of disposition, or in gusts 
of ungoverned passion, have inflicted death, or serious, per- 
manent, and irremediable injury on the objects of their 
attack ; and in this class will be included convicts guilty of 
murder in the highest degree, if reprieved by the Crown. 
2. Convicts whom repeated convictions after punishment 
for felony — or grave misdemeanours, like perjury, the ob- 
taining money or goods on false pretences, or the wilful 
uttering of base coin — show to be incorrigible. The pro- 
tection of the public demands that convicts condemned to 
imprisonment for life should be sent to a gaol specially 
erected to receive them, from which escape should be made 
absolutely impossible, and from which discharge should be 
made so difficult that it could rarely occur. Thus, I con- 
template that the vast majority of convicts sentenced to 
perpetual imprisonment will change their gaol only for 
their grave. Such an inexorable fate, when it became 
known, would have, I believe, all the deterrent effect which 
punishment is competent to produce ; unless, indeed, the 
treatment of the prisoner were made such as to excite the 
envy of poor labourers at large. For myself, I do not 
think this a very probable event, even if we were to recur, 
as we never shall do, to the false indulgences now happily 
eradicated from our prison discipline. Confinement to one 
spot, with more or less of isolation, with severe restrictions 
upon correspondence, and exclusion from knowledge of 
what is passing in the world beyond the walls, would be, 
in all ranks of life, save to persons very exceptionally con- 
stituted, felt to be a hardship all but intolerable. But when 
to these privations you add abstinence from alcoholic be- 
verages of every kind, and from tobacco, you present a 



Social Science Congress. 1 8 1 

state of things to the minds of those likely to yield to the 
temptations which consign men to prison nearly as repul- 
sive as can well be imagined. Indeed, such a regimen, 
where combined with long hours of labour, plank beds, and 
no more time for sleep than Nature requires, would form a 
system of treatment so depressing to the mind of the 
criminal that, if he were rendered hopeless of mitigating 
its severity by good conduct, appalling consequences might 
be expected. His life might be shortened by despair, even 
if he were not driven to suicide. We are thus forced upon 
a problem not easy to solve — viz., how to inspire the crimi- 
nal with hope, without, by the relaxation of this object of 
harsh discipline, leading those who might be tempted to 
follow his example in crime to underrate the misery of his 
lot. When the prisoner knows that his confinement must 
come to an end, either because his term of imprisonment 
will expire or because he is in course of working himself 
out of prison by industry and good conduct, the danger of 
reducing him to despair is obviously lessened ; and, with 
prisoners of ordinary temperament, unless the expected 
return to liberty is placed at too great a distance, such 
danger calls for no special attention. But in cases of im- 
prisonment for life, in which the number of discharges is 
insignificant, the hope of return to society cannot have a 
practical operation. Our expedients for ex'citing hope are 
limited, therefore, to affording the criminal opportunities of 
bettering his condition in the gaol itself. And, for the 
reasons to which I have adverted, even that amelioration 
must be slow in progress, and must lead to nothing which 
persons at large would not consider a miserable state of 
life. As he is not to ascend to any great height, and yet, 
as it is important that his rise, though slow, should be, 
unless, from his own fault, continuous (or, at least, station- 
ary only for short intervals), it is evident that at the com- 
mencement of his incarceration, he must be placed in a 
very low condition indeed. The class of prisoners who 
have deprived a fellow-creature of life, or diminished its 
comfort and enjoyment by the infliction of a grave per- 
sonal injury, should, I think, for a period more or less con- 
siderable, be placed in irons, heavy at first, as heavy, 
indeed, as nature can support ; yet to be promptly 
lightened by good conduct until, at last, they are reduced 
to one ring, and even that one may eventually be with- 
drawn. This infliction of irons to be superadded to all 
the visitations undergone by convicts in penal servitude. 



1 82 Social Science Congress. 

which visitations may be also multiplied and increased in 
severity in the earlier stages. To these earlier stages the 
prisoner is to be sent back in cases of misconduct, and then 
left to work himself up again. Although, as I have shown, 
when the prisoner is shut out from all but the mere possi- 
bility of regaining his liberty, the means of inspiring him 
with hope are reduced to narrow limits, yet it must not be 
forgotten that some facilities for appropriate treatment of 
prisoners for life, arise out of the very absence of all neces- 
sity for so training the convict in prison as to endow him 
(when that is possible), with such a capacity for self-govern- 
ment as shall enable him to maintain a self-supporiing 
position on his return to society. When such a return is 
to be provided for, it is found essential to success that it 
should be kept in view from a very early stage of the 
punishment. No fair opportunity must be lost of giving 
the convict some power over his own actions, beginning 
with very slight relaxations of control, but approaching by 
the time of his discharge to a state differing comparatively 
little from that which he will enjoy when he finds himself 
on the outside of the prison gates, with his ticket-of-leave 
in his hand. As regards prisoners for life, however, relaxa- 
tions from strict and minute control need not begin until a 
later period, and should never extend so far as to place the 
criminal in a position similar to that which Sir Walter 
Crofton calls his "intermediate stage " in penal servitude. 
On the other hand, as it is not essential that he should form 
such habits of industry as will enable him to hold his place 
in the struggle undergone by a free labourer, indulgence 
may, after a term of years, be afforded by a diminution of 
his hours of toil. I scarcely need say that care must be 
taken to make ail prisoners for life not only acquainted 
with the rules by which, if they persevere in industry and 
good conduct, they will gradually mitigate for themselves 
the hardships of their lot, but they must also be enabled 
to see that such of their fellow-convicts as have earned the 
indulgences to which I have referred are in the full enjoy- 
ment of them. As to the second class of prisoners for life 
■ — viz., incorrigible offenders against the rights of property, 
they ought not, I think, to be subjected to the hardship 
and degradation of irons, but in all other respects I would 
recommend that the differences of treatment between them 
and the prisoners of the first class should be but slight. 



Social Science Congress. 183 

What is the Duty of the Mother Country as Regards the 
Protection of Inferior Races in her Colonies and Depe^i- 
dencies f 

The papers read were by Mr. R. N. Fowler, Mr. C. S. 
Roundell, and Mr. John Gorrie, the two latter having been 
prepared by request. Sir V. Surtees presided, in the 
absence of Mr. Dudley Field. Mr. Fowler's paper was on 
" The Treatment of Inferior Races by Great Britain " (re- 
ferring to the gradual extinction taking place in the Hud- 
son's Bay Territory of the Indian aborigines, the British 
possessions in South Africa, and the Maories in New 
Zealand). He concluded by saying that England had not 
shone in her treatment of subject races, and that the Em- 
peror of the French, in his wise and just protection of the 
Arabs of Algeria, had set us an honourable example which 
it was to our disgrace we had not imitated. It was well 
worthy this Association's inquiry if something could not be 
done to secure the rights and privileges of the natives of 
our different colonies. Their lands should be respected, 
and, when required for colonization, acquired by purchase 
or on fair terms, proper officers should be appointed to look 
after their interests and to protect them in the enjoyment 
of their rights. Above all, every facility should be given 
to those devoted men who strove to bring them to the paths 
of Christianity and civihsation. In reference to the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's territories, it was suggested that the 
charter should be withdrawn, and the aborigines placed 
under the protection of Canada. 

Mr. ROUNDELL read a very able paper. The portion of 
it directed to the condemnation of recent events in Jamaica, 
called forth applause ; and his inquiry into the question 
how far the negro is capable of civilisation was Hstened to 
with much interest. 

The Prevention of Infanticide. 

The discussion was opened by Dr. Lankester, Coroner 
for the Central District of Middlesex, who stated that he 
would confine his remarks to the murder of children newly- 
born, though the murder of children who had lived for a 
few weeks or months, or even for a year, was not uncom.mon. 
In 1863 he had held eighty-four inquests on newly-born 
children; in 1864, 100; and in 1865, 114. That included 
all cases of death, whether caused by natural causes or 
otherwise. In 1863, however, fifty-three verdicts of wilful 



1 84 Social Science Congress-. 

murder were returned in such cases ; in 1864, fifty-six ver- 
dicts ; and in 1865, sixty-one verdicts. Thus, in three 
years, in his district alone, 170 verdicts of wilful murder 
had been returned. 

A paper on the same subject by Mr. Safford was next 
read. It contained a very elaborate statement of the law 
both in past ages and in the present time upon the subject, 
and proposed that charitable institutions to receive illegiti- 
mate children should be founded, and empowered to compel 
both parents to contribute to their support. 

Mr. Aspland, Mr. Bracebridge, Sir Eardley Wilmot, Mr. 
Solly, Dr. M. Walker, and Mr. Chambers addressed the 
section upon the subject. 

The Pollution of Rivers. 

A special question for discussion in the Health Depart- 
ment was, " How can the pollution of rivers by the refuse 
and sewage of towns be best prevented V 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam, of Edinburgh, read a paper 
which he had prepared on the subject by request of the 
Council. He stated, that although the observations he 
would make would be of a general nature, the opinions he 
expressed were derived mainly from observation made on 
three Scotch rivers — the Leven, contaminated by public 
works ; the Water of Leith, contaminated by public works 
at the upper parts, and by town sewage at the lower parts; 
and the North Esk, mfluenced by discharges from public 
works and by sewage alternately. The pollution was 
principally derived from mining pursuits, manufacturing 
operations, and house sewage ; and the great question to 
be considered was how the pollution could be prevented. 
Irrespective of the question of the health of the neighbour- 
hood, there was the appearance of the stream itself. A 
good deal was said on the previous day as to the influence 
of smoke on the atmosphere and on the animal spirits of 
people, and he believed the appearance of a stream had 
similar results. He did not see how mining operations 
could be withdrawn, but they were not of so much import- 
ance. With regard to manufacturing discharges, he would 
say generally, that all practical means for the arrestment of 
the pollution should be employed. It was a question how 
far some rivers should be given up for manufacturing inte- 
rests, it always being a condition that the operations and 
discharges should not be prejudicial to the health of the 



' Social Science Congress. 185 

neighbourhood. In regard to the utiKzation of sewage, 
Dr. Macadam contended that the most successful system 
was that of irrigation, and detailed the manner in which 
this had been employed at the Craigentinny meadows, near 
Edinburgh, where even in a monetary point of view, it had 
prospered. Whether, however, the system paid or not, 
irrigation ought to be compulsory in all inland towns. As 
to seaboard towns, the discharges ought at once to be 
drained into the sea. With respect to the disposal of the 
sewage, he believed that local authorities generally were 
anxious to promote the welfare of the people, but they re- 
quired direction. They were frequently hindered in their 
good work by the constituency they represented, and they 
required' to be nerved to action by the pressure of a supe- 
rior authority. The sewage question would be best worked 
by a local authority controlled by a Royal Commission or 
Government Inspector. His decided opinion was that 
sanitary measures should be compulsory and not optional. 
In discussing this question he had refrained from any re- 
marks respecting the state of the Medlock, the Irk, and the 
Irwell, but these streams did not appear to him to be pure 
water. He would leave the application of the question to 
Manchester to be dealt with by those who were more con- 
versant with the district. 

The discussion was commenced by LORD ROBERT MON- 
TAGUE, who contended that the question under considera- 
tion lay at the root of the whole matter of sanitary- reform. 
There was no Act of Parliament, no legislation which de- 
served the name of sanitary legislation unless it provided 
for the purification of rivers. We had as much a common 
right to pure water as we had to pure air, and he believed 
that impure water did much more injury to the constitu- 
tion than impure air. In most mines not only was it easy, 
but it was a source of gain, to separate the polluting source 
of the water before it was turned into the river. In manu- 
factures, it was equally easy to prevent a pollution of 
rivers. If this were not the case, the difficulty would have 
been rather a staggering one, as anything that would in- 
terfere with the vast productions of such a place as Man- 
chester should be deeply considered before it was undetaken ; 
but even in that case the lives of men were of more value 
than all the wealth of Manchester. But even in the most 
difficult manufactures, such as gas works, bleach works, 
and paper works, it would be a source of gain and not of 
injury to the manufacturer to be compelled any longer to 



1 86 Social Science Congress. 

pollute rivers. Dr. Macadam had proposed that some 
rivers should be given over to the manufacturer, but he 
could not conceive that such partial legislation would for a 
moment be listened to. As to the question of sewage, he 
believed that there was only one means of freeing rivers 
from that pollution. Various schemes had been tried. 
The sewage had been sent into the air, but that did not do ; 
water had been tried, but it did not succeed ; land must 
now be tried, and that he felt certain would do. In regard 
to Mr. Hawsley's plan for earth-closets, he wanted to know 
where the earth would come from } Mr. Bateman, the 
eminent engineer, had calculated that it would require to 
supply London with the necessary earth for these earth- 
closets every year 400 acres of ground six feet deep. 
Where was that amount of soil to be got .-* He thought 
that was a " stumper " to the whole plan. His lordship 
concluded by moving that it be an instruction to the coun- 
cil, " That, while it is necessary to remove as speedily as 
possible excreta and refuse from houses, it is advisable to 
procure compulsory legislation against the pollution of 
rivers by refuse or the sewage of towns." 

Mr. Rawlinson remarked that, although it was well 
known that rivers were now polluted to a fearful extent, 
there were some things attributed to that pollution which it 
was just as well to clear away. All the ills that flesh is 
heir to were said to spring from this pollution, but, although 
a foul river was an intolerable nuisance, yet it must be re- 
membered that it was an advance in civilisation, and that 
we must start from the point that had been reached and 
advance further. The discharge of effete matter into run- 
ning water was a very great improvement on the ash-midden 
and the cesspool crowded in upon the cottage. Manchester 
had been searched by men competent to arrive at a correct 
conclusion with the view of ascertaining whether the most 
severe types of disease affecting the health of the popula- 
tion could be attributed to foul rivers, and they were bound 
to a contrary conclusion. Although rivers were very foul 
they did not work all those evils that were laid to their 
charge. In 1859, when the Thames was so foul that Par- 
liament sat with closed windows, the Registrar-General 
knew that the rate of mortality was small. He was happy 
to find that some of the manufacturers of Yorkshire were, 
without compulsion, doingmany things to perfect their sani- 
tary arrangements. The washings of wool, which used to 
pollute rivers in the most obnoxious form, could be so 



Social Science Congress, 187 

treated as to take out the soap soils and to make the water 
by no means injurious. 

Dwellings for the Working Classes. 

In Section A of the Department of Economy and Trade, 
a special question was raised as to what measures, legisla- 
tive and other, should be adopted in order to supply better 
dwellings for the working classes. On this subject various 
papers were read, including one by Mr. Barron Emmanuel, 
and one by Mr. T. Worthington. The former gentleman, 
in addressing'himselfto the practical part of the question, pro- 
posed to convert the existing railway arches into workmen's 
dwellings, wheneverthe process could be conveniently carried 
out, and he further suggested that in future railway Acts 
such a construction of viaducts should be necessitated as 
would admit of their being used for the like purpose. He 
was quite sure that such a provision as this would pay a 
large percentage to the railway companies who might think 
proper to embark in the investment. Mr. Worthington, in 
his paper, passed in review the various efforts which have 
been made, from time to time, by individuals and societies 
for the erection of model dwellings or the renovation of ex- 
isting property. In treating of those efforts, he alluded 
especially to what had been done in the metropolis, in York- 
shire, and in France ; and the conclusion he arrived at was 
that the proper course to be adopted was to incite the 
working men to combined efforts, aided by loans from the 
Public Loan Commissioners, to erect dwellings for them- 
selves. 

In the course of these discussions which afterwards took 
place on these papers and those of Miss Octavia Hill and 
Mr. Thomas Beggs, 

Mr. TORRENS, M.P., made some observations in explana- 
tion and support of his bill. He stated that it was not ne- 
cessary for him to plead the cause of that bill as if it were 
a new bill ; but he was there to defend the measure in its 
essential principles. In reference to the measure which 
had been brought forward by this association, he took the 
opportunity of stating that the promoters of his bill were 
not wedded to any particular forms or modes of carrying 
out the desired object. All they desired was that the Le- 
gislature should do the best they could under all the cir- 
cumstances. If any man or any society had a better or 
more comprehensive scheme than his own, let it by all 



1 88 Social Science Congress, 

means be produced, and he would support it to the utmost 
of his power. His bill would compel all local anthorities 
to hold themselves responsible for the existence of fever 
nests, and for the omission to pull down decayed tenements 
and rebuild them, with the aid of such powers as the Legis- 
lature would be enabled to bestow. 

Mr. E. Chadwick and Sir CHRISTOPHER RaWLINSON 
addressed themselves more particularly to the commercial 
part of the question, the former contending that a great 
deal of the cost of modern dwellings owed itself to the 
fixed building regulations, and to the settled habits of 
architects in the formation of their designs. He was fully 
assured that by an improved mode of construction, such 
buildings as those erected by Alderman Waterlow would 
yield a profit amounting to / instead of 5 per cent. 

Mr. R. Arthur Arnold, Government Inspector of 
Public Works, read a paper " On the Economy of Public 
Works." In the division of labour which might be said to 
be both the cause and the effect of civilisation, there are 
certain functions which universally appertain to the Go- 
vernment, whether it be what is termed local and subor- 
dinate, or central and imperial. First amongst such func- 
tions he would be disposed to rank the maintenance of 
the authority of law ; but as second, the execution of pub- 
lic works or such control of them as the condition of the 
community may render desirable. First, in importance 
among such works are the means of intercommunication. 
In this country it has happened that the original system in 
respect to communication between town and town has been 
superseded by railways, which have been constructed by 
private enterprise, and are not in any sense, the property 
of the nation. No man would affirm as a fundamental pro- 
position that the highways of a country should be private 
property. The present system was a wasteful one. The 
average cost of construction in France has been ;^25,ooo 
per mile against ^39,000 in England ; ;^6,ooo at least of 
this diff"erence is chargeable to the difference of our system. 
This would represent a total loss of i^/ 8, 000,000. But even 
this does not represent the measure of this defective economy. 
In all probability the forthcoming report of the railway com- 
mission will show that the public interest in the cheap and 
economic conveyance of their persons and property, is of 
transcendant importance. It is not very difficult to per- 
ceive that thorough unanimity of direction would more 
nearly assimilate the railway to the ancient highway system. 



Social Science Congress, 189 

That our railway system admits of, and will be subject to 
great reforms, there can be no doubt. But there is another 
class of public works which have been also, to a great ex- 
tent, subject to private enterprise, — viz., works in connec- 
tion with the public supplies of water and gas. Mr. Arnold 
has very strong objections to the possession of such works 
by private companies or individuals. In Lancashire, and 
particularly in Manchester, the possession and administra- 
tion of these supplies are, as a rule, in the hands of the local 
authorities. The results are very superior to those obtained 
elsewhere, both economically and as affecting public health 
and convenience. The gas and water supplies in Manchester 
are in very superior condition to those of any other city 
in England. But, for the system of permitting the provi- 
sion of elementary necessaries of life to fall into the hands 
of private companies, the water supply of London could 
never have been in its present unsatisfactory condition. 
The fluid supplied daily to the metropolis is estimated to 
contain not less than 100 tons of carbonate of lime. This 
constitutes the hardness of London water. The water 
supplied to Manchester, or that which it is said might be 
obtained for London from Wales, compared with that 
drawn from the chalk formation in the neighbourhood of 
the metropolis, is estimated to require one-half less soap, 
and one-third less tea, to effect the same results in the 
washing-tub or the teapot. Thus a saving might be ren- 
dered possible in the use of these two articles within the 
metropolitan area equal to ^^525,000 a year, or, capitalised 
at four per cent., to ^13,125,000 ; and the saving would ex- 
tend to other operations, both manufacturing and domestic, 
in which water is a constituent. The summary and unpre- 
cedented authority which public opinion has recently 
granted to the Home Office in respect to drainage, is the 
best evidence of the public sense of the importance and 
efficacy of sewers and drains in regard to public health. 
There is a great deal yet to be accomplished in the economy 
of refuse of towns. Mr. Arnold referred particularly to his 
own share of official labour in connexion with the cotton 
famine. In such a state of things, the working class gene- 
rally evidence a feeling that they have a right to employ- 
ment. The mere make-work system was a certain failure. 
The Public Works Act, which was one of many useful 
statutes that signalled the administration of Mr. Villiers, 
had a two-fold economic value. It afforded employment 
and promoted the execution of necessary sanitary works. So 
NEW SERIES. — VOL. I, ' R 



IQO Oyster Culture in England. 

little wasthisan eleemosynary measure, that he (Mr. Arnold), 
who had been most closely connected with its operation, 
would not recommend that its powers and provisions should 
be made generally at all times applicable to the entire 
kingdom. He would do this on sanitary and economic 
grounds. He had observed that the advantage of borrow- 
ing directly from the Government is highly valued by the 
local authorities ; the officers of the Government are able 
to check expenditure upon works not properly within the 
scope of such a measure, and to spread, by advice and sug- 
gestion, information as to the best and most approved modes 
of construction — and especially of details of construction ; 
the low and unvarying rate oi interest at which the State 
can, without national loss, make loans, does vastly promote 
the execution of sanitary works, as it obviously affects their 
economy. The advantage has been very apparent in some 
rural parishes. The Sanitary Act of last session has 
already rendered permanent many of the temporary powers 
conferred by the Public Works Act ; and Mr Arnold had 
no hesitation in repeating his humble opinion that the 
whole of its provisions, so far as they relate to the execu- 
tion of necessary sanitary works, with an increased credit 
with the Exchequer, might be generally enacted with ad- 
vantage to the economy of public works. 



OYSTER CULTURE IN ENGLAND. 

r N the times when the Romans held \}i\€\x partus magnus 
\_ in the upper waters of Portsmouth harbour and an- 
chored their galleys under the walls of the fortress whose 
remains may now be traced in the ruins of the Norman 
Castle of Porchester, the great estuary of waters which ex- 
tended east to nearly the walls of Regnum, or Chichester, 
as the ancient city was afterwards named, was famous for 
its oysters and the almost endless varieties of fish found in 
its many creeks and inlets. This reputation holds to the 
present day, but the improvidence of man has in many in- 
stances extirpated the oyster from grounds it had held 
since first covered by tidal waters, and on others has so re- 
duced its numbers that, dear as all sizes of the bivalve noware, 
from the three months' oysterling to the full grown native, 



Oyster Culture in England. 191 

the dredge will scarcely pay for the labour of working it. 
The banks surrounding Spithead, and extending for miles 
east and west of the anchorage, were equally prolific with 
the inland water of Langston, Emsworth, and Chichester, 
but they are now becoming equally barren. For very many 
years past all the grounds available to the dredger have 
been ruthlessly worked, and everything of the oyster kind, 
from the spat clinging to the stones, brought up in the 
dredge, to the patriarch of unknown age, has been carried 
off, the eatable portion sent to the market, and all small 
stuff carried off to Whitstable and other places, to stock 
private ponds. But this has not been the worst evil the 
oyster has had to contend with in fighting for existence 
on the great shoals of the Horse, the Dean, and others on 
the Isle of Wight shore and off Chichester harbour. About 
ten years back certain portions of Portsmouth harbour and 
the harbour channel were deepened by steam dredging 
machines, and an immense quantity of black mud was con- 
veyed out of the harbour in the contractors' barges and 
discharged on these shoals, the result being, that the greater 
part of the oysters, as well as the spawn of other fish, was 
poisoned, and invaluable fishing grounds converted into a 
barren waste. Thus, what with over-fishing by the fisher- 
men and the poisoning of the banks at the hands of the 
Government, the extensive range of banks outside Lang- 
ston, Emsworth, and Chichester harbours were nearly de- 
nuded of their fish, and the inner waters of the harbours 
with their preserved grounds suffered accordingly. There 
is still, however, abundance of oysters on the outer banks 
to stock them thoroughly, if the waters could only be placed 
under a strict conservancy, and we will take two extreme 
points of the grounds in proof of this assertion. On the 
line of shore which extends about 4,000 yards from the 
west side of Langston harbour's mouth to Southsea Castle, 
it is still possible now for one man to collect on the first 
flow of the tide after a south-east gale, a bushel basketful 
of fine clean oysters. These have been rolled over the 
Horse and Dean Shoals by the scour of the water in the 
gale. The other illustration is, that about seven miles out 
seaward from Southsea beach, there are three small shoals 
lying in a triangular form in 4J fathoms at low water. 
These three shoals have been fished from time immemorial, 
and until the recent scarcity of oysters in the market, the 
dredge would always bring up at least, one half full of 
oysters, the remainder being clean round boulders about 

R 2 



192 Oyster Culture m England. 

the size of a man's fist A fisherman hauling up his dredge 
could tell by the size of the oysters in which part of the 
shoals he was working without looking at his marks. A 
few years since these oysters fetched 3s. per tub, but they 
are now sold at i8s., and the yield per dredge-full has 
therefore lessened naturally from the overworking of the 
shoals, but still the banks fill up again with the fish from 
an inexhaustible source. The collection of spat and oyster- 
lings on public fishing grounds for laying down in private 
ponds for growth and fattening has been carried on at Ems- 
worth and Langston, as in a number of other places on our 
coasts, for many years, but no attempt was made at oyster 
culture proper, until France set us the example. In 1845, 
M. Carbonel read a paper at a meeting of the French 
Academy, in which he urged the necessity of taking steps 
to restock the oyster beds then becoming exhausted. In 
1849, Professor De Quatrefages urged the same thing, and 
the Government ordered M. Costeto report on the subject. 
In 1855, M. Coste's report was received and published, and 
in 1861 a second edition appeared recounting the state in 
which the natural beds had been found and the means taken 
to restock them. In 1863, 4, and 5, M. Coste's method was 
introduced, not altogether successfully at Heme Bay and 
Southend, by means of companies formed for the purpose, 
Mr. Buckland in 1865 expressing an opinion that the system 
of M. Coste, so successful in France, was not practicable in 
English waters owing to the difference in temperature and 
the lesser amount of the Gulf stream in the English than 
in the French waters. In June, 1865, Mr. G. W. Hart, the 
present manager of the South of England Oyster Company 
visited the v/est coast of France, and inspected the oyster 
beds at St. Brieux and He de Re, and other places, and 
came to a conclusion contrary to that of Mr. Buckland. 
The South of England Oyster Company was immediately 
afterwards formed, and it is to the proceedings of the 
company to this date that we wish to draw attention, as 
very few persons will deny that all facts connected with 
oyster culture in this country are of interest, and that our 
knowledge of the subject, which at present is very limited, 
will be best extended by open discussion. 

The company have secured a large space of ground as 
oyster beds for the future, close to the village of Havant 
on the north-west shore of Hayling Island, which will give 
three beds of about forty-six acres in all. The defunct 
Hayling Island railway has cut off this land from the sea, 



Oyster Culhire m England, 19^ 

but sluices have been provided in the railway embankment 
for necessary admission and discharge of water. These 
beds are, however, incomplete. At the opposite extremity of 
Hayling Island, at the entrance of Chichester harbour, the 
company have made their first great experiment in oyster 
culture and their success so far has been most startling, the 
supply of spat in their breeding lake having proved almost 
unlimited, and this too at a time when there is a universal 
failure of spat at Whitstable, Heme Bay, Poole, and other 
places on the English coast. The entire area of the ponds, 
or pares, with which the company have made their first ex- 
periment does not exceed three and a half acres in extent, 
but on this the systems pursued at Lake Fusaro, in Italy, 
and He de Re, in France, have been tried with the great 
success we have stated, and have also been attended by 
some very curious particulars. The plan of operations 
followed by the company's manager was the formation of 
two pares, one on the Italian, and the other on the French 
plan, connecting both by a gutway for the overflow of water 
from one to the other, the water finding admittances at 
spring tides from the entrance to Chichester harbour 
through a sluice in an artificial wall into the Lake Fusaro 
bed, thence overflowing through the gutway to the He de 
Re beds or pares, and overflowing thence to the harbour by 
another properly constructed outlet in the outer walls. 
Near the end of the intermediate gutway, and close to the He 
de Re beds, a pump worked by wind sails throws a portion 
of the water running from the Fusaro bed into a large slate 
tank, which may be utilized as a lobster feeding tank if re- 
quisite, the water flowing thence through slate hatching 
beds in a fish house, and finally escaping, in common with 
the rest, from the gutway into the He de R6 beds. Now 
the distinction between the two systems of Lake Fusaro 
and He de Re, as carried out by the South of England 
Oyster Company at Hayling, is simply this : — I. The lake 
Fusaro bed is one sheet of water, which is, as a general rule 
still water ; the outer waters of the Channel only finding 
admittance during spring tides. 2. The old oysters in- 
tended for spatting are laid down on shingle, with closely- 
wattled hurdles suspended over them, attached to stakes, 
and lying parallel with the bed of the lake. The hurdles 
are the " collectors " of the spat. 

The Isle de Re beds are one sheet of water like that of 
Fusaro pare, and are laid entirely with shingle, but the 
water is constantly running through them, gently, yet 



1 94 * Oyster Ctdture in England. 

never still, like the water in the YMStZXO pare. The " collec- 
tors " of the spat are tiles laid on the oysters and the beds, 
the water in the He de Re being also divided into a num- 
ber of beds, all most carefully formed, and separated each 
from the other by pathways. The depth of water both in 
the Fusaro and He de Re pares is from two to three feet. 

The beds were prepared somewhat later than had been 
intended, so that it was the latter end of April before 50,000 
oysters were laid down on shingle on what we will continue 
to term the Lake Fusaro, and when the right time came 
the hurdles were placed in position over them. The sides 
of all these hurdles nearest the oysters are now covered 
with young oysterlings, the largest of which are fully as 
large as an old sixpence, the smallest the size of a pin- 
head, and the average of the greater number exceeding a 
silver fourpenny piece. These hurdles have since been re- 
moved from the Fusaro to the He de Re beds, the former 
at present thus becoming the breeding and the latter the 
rearing and fattening pares. Since the removal of the 
hurdles the young oysterlings have increased wonderfully 
in size. The removed hurdles have been replaced by "bavins" 
or sticks and brushwood, and the pare is now full of new 
spat. There are two or three remarkable circumstances con- 
nected with the spatting of the oysters in this pare that are 
deserving of notice. It was an unvarying feature of all 
the hurdles that, crowded as they were with spat, where- 
ever a light-coloured part of the wood was exposed — as 
where the hazel twigs were split, or where the bark was 
peeled off in places — there was no spat, while, on the con- 
trary, the darker the exterior of the wattling of the hurdle, 
the thicker lay the spat there. The same with the stones 
and bricks among the shingle on the opposite end of the 
pare to where the old oysters were laid down. All the spat 
found here was found, as a rule, on dark stones, or the dark 
parts only ot the bricks. It was also remarkable that the 
spot in \i\^ pare where this last deposit of spat should only 
exist was away from that portion of the water where the 
oysters were deposited, and where the hurdles were placed 
for the reception of spat. This is explained, however, by 
the fact that, in nine instances out of ten, the wind blows 
from the seaward and over the pond — from the old oyster 
deposit end to the place where the spat was found on the 
stones and the bricks — the spat, in fact, having escaped the 
hurdles, risen to the surface, and then been blown over to 
the opposite shore. 



Oyster Culture in England. 195 

Having thus far examined the pare of the company laid 
down and stocked with old oysters on the Lake Fusaro 
principle, let us turn to the pare laid down and stocked on 
the French principle of the He de Re. 

Here the results are not so decisive, nor can it be said 
so satisfactory, as regards the production of spat alone. 
The area of water is greater than in the Fusaro Lake, is 
carefully divided into ponds, each carefully coated at the 
bottom with shingle, and the water, as we have before ob- 
served, is constantly, but not violently, moving. The beds 
were stocked with 200,000 oysters, and the tiles laid down 
as '' collectors " of the spat. At the present time there is, 
as yet, no spat in any part of these beds worth notice, 
although the number of oysters laid down is exactly four- 
fold that of the other pare, where the spat has been, and 
still continues, so plentiful. There is this important fact, 
however, which must be taken into consideration — the 
oysters in this pare were not laid down until nearly a 
month after those in the Fusaro /<3;r^, and this may pos- 
sibly account for the remarkable difference in the two. 
But there is also one other remarkable condition, which 
must be given its due weight in any consideration of the 
difference in the exhibition of spat in the two pares. The 
pump to which reference has been made, as pumping a 
portion of the water, on its way through the gutway from 
the first pare to the second, lifts this water into a large 
slate tank, whose overflow joins the other water from the 
gutway, and supplies the lie de Re pare. Now, with re- 
gard to the deposit of spat, the main facts for considera- 
tion in the present case are these: — i. The Fusaro pare, 
with its 50,000 oysters, and its generally still water, has 
given, and is still giving, an enormous quantity of spat. 
2. In the running water of the gutway, which connects the 
two pares, the hurdles which have been placed there show 
but very insignificant signs of spat. 3. The same water 
pumped into the large slate tank, and lying there in perfect 
stillness, has deposited millions of oysterlings on the sides 
of the tank, which are flourishing wonderfully. 4. In the 
He de Re beds, or pare, Xhrowgh which all the water passes, 
and where the water is constantly, though gently moving, 
no spat of consequence has been deposited either from the 
water running into it from the Ynsd^ro pare, by the gutway, 
by the pumped overflow of the tank, or from the 200,000 
oysters with which the He de Re is stocked. 

The company are also engaged in preparing a portion of 



196 Krupp's Steel Works at Essen. 

their grounds for breeding lobsters and other molluscs, but 
it is with their endeavours to introduce successfully, oyster 
culture on the Continental plan into this country that this 
notice more particularly deals. As Mr. Frank Buckland 
says in Land and Water, " All must be rejoiced to hear the 
good news ; the success of this experiment in oyster breed- 
ing does the highest credit to the ingenuity of the gentle- 
man who had the planning and superintendence of the 
works." 

The gentleman referred to by Mr. Buckland is Mr. 
George W. Hart, the manager of the company, and we 
can bear witness to his courtesy, and also to the great 
interest which attends a visit at the present time to the 
oyster-farm of the South of England Oyster Company at 
Hayhng. — * The Times.' 



KRUPP'S STEEL WORKS AT ESSEN. 

IN 1849, Herr Krupp offered to the principal German 
powers some fine steel guns, of his manufacture. They 
were, however, not purchased. The Viceroy of Egypt 
bought some, and afterwards, many other governments 
either ordered them from Krupp's factory, or commenced 
manufacturing for themselves. At the great Essen factory, 
some 2,500 rifled breech-loaders have been turned out. Of 
these, about 400 are of 8-inch calibre, or more. The others 
vary from 3-inch to 4j-inch. With works covering some 
400 acres of land, and employing 8,000 men and boys, at 
a cost of some ^^400,000 a year in men's wages, it is sur- 
prising that up to the present time very little has been 
known about this manufactory in England. Not that there 
has been any concealment in the case, since full permission 
to publish in England a description of the whole, has re- 
cently been given to a visitor, from whose able account we 
take the following interesting passages : — 

The ore employed is obtained partly from Krupp's own 
mines at Nassau and near Coblentz, and partly bought. 
The former is spathic, furnishing the well-known spiege- 
leisen ; the latter is red oxide. Coke is employed for 
smelting, being considered as good a fuel as can be used if 



Krupfs Steel Works at Essen. 



197 



carefully selected. The iron is converted into steel by 
puddling ; a small quantity of cemented steel being occa- 
sionally used. A little malleable iron is made by a modi- 
fication of Bessemer's process, but no steel. Mr. Bessemer 
offered his patent to Krupp as I understand, but it was 
then in its infancy, and was not considered so promising as 
to divert the attention of the latter from his own speciality 
— viz., the puddling process. He has not, therefore, carried 
it to such a forward condition as has been attained by some 
of our ironmasters at home. 

Though the spiegeleisen contains so large a proportion 
of manganese, a mere trace is left after puddling, as shown 
by Mr. Abel's analysis given below : 

Carbon combined .. . ... ... ... i*i8 

Silicon ... ... ... ... ... 0*33 

Sulphur ... ... ... ... ... none 

Phosphorus ... ... ... ... 0*02 

Manganese ... ... ... ... trace 

Cobalt and Nickel ... .... ... o"i2 

Copper"^ ... ... ... ... ... 0*30 

Iron (by difference) .... 98*05 



lOO'OO 



The puddling I did not see, but was assured that there 
is no material difference from the process well known in 
Sheffield, though some of the details vary somewhat. The 
metal which is to be worked into guns and other products 
required to stand sudden shock must, of course, be softer 
than for such as have only to resist steady rubbing work, 
and this softness is attained by mixing a certain proportion 
of wrought iron with the steel to be melted for casting. 
Both iron and steel are rolled out into small bars, cut into 
lengths of about six inches, and placed in plumbago 
crucibles, of a shape similar to the "French crucible," con- 
taining from 30 lb. to 60 lb. of metal in each. The smaller 
quantity of the metal is to be soft, as this is more difficult 
to melt and to manage than the hard. 

Though the manufacture of Krupp's crucibles was once 
a valuable secret, and the form of secrecy is still kept up, 
I believe that Mr. Krupp would not now deny the truth of 
Dr. Percy's assertion, that " Those now made by Mr. Ruel, 



* Mr. Pieper, manager of Krupp's works, informed me that 
analysis made at Essen gives copper trace to o*i5. 



198 Krupfs Steel Works at Essen. 

of High Holborn, and by the Patent Plumbago Crucible 
Company at Battersea, are equal to anything yet produced 
abroad." The foundry is a very large building, with 
furnaces capable of heating upwards of 1,200 crucibles at 
once, that number being actually used for some of the 
largest casts. The crucibles are arranged by batches of 
eight to ten in furnaces running the whole length of the 
building, their roofs being on a level with the floor of the 
foundry. The flame travels the whole length to a chimney 
at the end. The arrangement is similar to the one given 
in the second volume of Dr. Percy's " Metallurgy," pp. 830 
to 836, but carried out on a much larger scale. A distinct 
feature at Essen, however, is that the crucibles rest on loose 
iron bars, which also support the fuel, and can be drawn 
out when required ; the use of these will be mentioned 
presently. The heat attained in the furnace is so intense 
as to bring the best Scotch fire-bricks, with which they are 
lined, and the crucibles themselves to a state of incipient 
fusion, the pots, indeed, being only used once. The reser- 
voir and mould are cylinders of cast iron, and into the 
former lead two troughs to conduct the molten metal. The 
mould rests on the bottom of the pit, and is unsupported 
at the sides. The use of the reservoir, which is placed over 
the mould, is only to secure a steady vertical flow of metal 
into the latter. Both have been sometimes lined with clay, 
but usually present a clean surface of cast iron to the 
molten steel. Mr. Piesser assured me that they attach no 
importance to the question of lining. 

The organisation of the workmen is most excellent. 
When a cast is to be made (the one that I saw was of 
sixteen tons, and required about 400 men), those told off 
for the purpose rapidly assemble and fall into their places 
with military precision. They are divided into numerous 
gangs, some in the foundry and some in the cellar below. 
At the right moment, all the crucibles being ready, the 
" engineer " in charge of the cast (who stands near the 
reservoir) gives a word of command, which is repeated 
loudly by the gangs of men above the furthest sets of 
crucibles {i.e., those nearest the corners of the building, the 
cast being in the centre) to the gangs below them. The 
latter draw out all the bars from their portion of the fur- 
nace, except the two upon which each crucible rests, and 
some of the men above rapidly clear away, with iron rods, 
the fuel adhering to the pots. The "puller-out" now 
thrusts down his tongs, seizes his crucible, and heaves it up 



K7 upfs Steel Works at Essen. 1 99 

to the floor of the foundry, assisted by a companion, whose 
tongs, placed under his own, give him the fulcrum needed 
to hoist the weight quite out of the furnace. No teeming 
hole is used, as the pots have already been thoroughly 
cleansed from fuel, and by this means less heat is lost before 
pouring out the metal. Two other men then seize the 
crucible with a double bearer, and carry it to the nearest 
trough, into which they empty it, and immediately throw 
it down a spout into a chamber below the foundry. Were 
the empty pots to be left on the floor, they would soon 
accumulate and interrupt the free circulation which is abso- 
lutely necessary for the management of such quantities of 
molten metal. They are, at any rate, too much weakened 
by the intense heat to be of any further use, and I saw 
some of them even give way as they were being lifted from 
the furnace. No covers are taken off, but the metal is 
poured out through a hole in the upper edge 01 the pot. 
The " commanding engineer " watches his time and gives 
the word to the next set of gangs at such a moment as 
will enable them to be ready with their crucibles just as 
the previous ones are nearly all emptied, without losing any 
heat by over-hurry in poking out the fuel. The molten 
metal must not be permitted to cease flowing in a con- 
tinuous stream through the troughs into the reservoir, and 
thence into the mould, or the cast will be spoilt. The ope- 
ration is carried on in the same manner till all the crucibles, 
from the most remote to the nearest, have discharged their 
contents. The cast is then allowed to cool until it has 
shrunk sufficiently to be turned out of the mould, when it 
is surrounded with hot cinders, and thus kept at a cherry 
heat till wanted for forging. As cool weather is selected 
for the largest castings, while it may not be convenient to 
forge them at the time, it sometimes happens that these 
huge masses lie in their warm beds for as much as three 
months, hot ashes being constantly suppHed from furnaces 
at work. I believe this precaution has not been generally 
adopted in England. It would certainly appear easier to 
let down a large mass of metal to a uniform temperature 
than to attain the same uniformity by raising the heat in 
any manner with which I am acquainted that is suitable to 
castings of many tons weight. Nothing can be more 
animated and picturesque than the scene at a great casting, 
but the endurance of the men seems to be severely tested. 
It has happened that some of them have shaken their 
heads about undergoing so terrible an " ordeal by fire " 



200 Krupfs Steel Works at Essen. 

during hot weather ; but the energy of Mr. Krupp has 
carried all before him, and by extra pay for heavy work, 
and exciting their undoubted esprit de corps, they have been 
brought to face anything, though many of them have 
fainted under the trial, when large castings have necessarily 
been made in hot weather. 

Hammering. 
However elaborate an article is intended to be produced, 
the ingot is cast in a cylindrical or square form, hammered 
out to the rough shape required, and then turned, &c., to 
exact dimensions. Large castings made of irregular con- 
tour would not be homogeneous, and might contain air 
bubbles. When required for manufacture the ingot (if 
such masses as Krupp casts can be called ingots) is placed 
under a steam hammer, of size proportionate to the weight 
of metal required to be drawn out ; and the gun, shaft, or 
whatever it may be, grows to its form by long-continued 
work, being retained at nearly the same temperature (cherry 
red) by frequent heats. This solidity of casting gives 
soundness, and the heavy hammering received by the metal 
increases its density, strength, and elasticity. The con- 
densing effect of the hammering causes an increase of 0'2 
to 0"3 in the specific gravity of the ingot, though it may 
have no holes when first cast. Small castings, such as 
rails, &c., are rolled in mills, exactly similar to ours, except 
that the rollers are cast steel. When the metal has been 
fully worked its breaking strain varies from thirty-six to 
sixty-six tons on the square inch, according as it is soft or 
hard. That best for guns is rather soft and has a strength 
of about forty-four tons, or even less. 

Guns. 
The smaller natures of guns are fashioned from one solid 
piece, those above 8-inch calibre are compound, being 
weighted and strengthened by jacket or rings. The ii- 
inch, for instance, the largest steel gun yet manufactured, 
is cast as a cylinder, weighing thirty-five tons, and of seven 
feet diameter, hammered out to a shape of sufficient strength 
to bear proof charges, being turned down to a thickness 
over the charge of one calibre. The trunnion-ring, which 
is also a cast steel cylinder forged into the form required, 
is then shrunk on, and the breech strengthened by the ad- 
dition of several hoops, also of cast steel, forged as usual, 
to a breadth of lo-inches and a thickness of 6-inches. Two 



Krupfs Steel Works at Essen. 201 

of these huge guns, which are to be about sixteen caKbres 
in length and to weigh twenty-eight tons, are being manu- 
factured for the Russian Government, and will cost 7,000/. 
each. They are to be breech-loaders on Krupp's principle, 
throwing a projectile of 540lb. with a charge of 5olb. of 
prismatic powder, and are intended for the defences of 
Cronstadt. They were when I saw them, in last Septem- 
ber, nearly completed, the rings only remaining to be 
shrunk on and the breech-loading arrangements finished. 
The original design has been considerably modified. A 
15-inch breech-loading gun has since been commenced, 
which will eventually belong to the Russian Government. 
It is to be exhibited in the Paris International Exhibition. 
The projectile will weigh about Qoolb. 

Hammer. 
From the above description it must be manifest that 
hammers of many shapes and sizes are required. They 
actually run from icwt. to 50 tons. One of the most in- 
teresting, of six tons, is in the form of a " schwautz 
hammer," or "Belly Helve," as we euphoniously call it, 
thus saving vertical space ; but instead of a cam being used 
to lift it, a steam cylinder with piston is placed vertically 
under the middle of the lever, so that the helve head rises 
higher than the piston has to go. The largest steam 
hammer weighs 50 tons, and is single-acting with a ten feet 
drop. It cost about 100,000/., of which two-thirds was for 
the bed. Very little depression of the floor was visible when 
I saw it at work, though this enormous weight has been 
thundering down day and night for about four years and a 
half It would seem as if nothing could resist the force of 
such ponderous blows, but a large mass of steel, heated to 
the moderate temperature required for forging, is hardly 
affected by each stroke, and Krupp has obtained the 
necessary concession from the Prussian Government to 
permit him to build a 120-ton hammer, which is to have a 
13 feet drop, but whether single or double acting is not yet, 
I believe, determined. It is estimated to cost 200,000/, 
and as such a sum is not always at the command of a single 
person, there may yet be some delay before we hear that 
this monster is at work. Krupp has not yet undertaken 
the supply of ammunition, carriages, &c., as the Elswick 
Ordnance Company have succeeded in doing ; he will pro- 
bably be largely at work in this department before very 
long, and in the meantime has already supplied the Russian 



202 Importance of Rags. 

Government with many thousand 9-inch and 8-inch elon- 
gated shells, some of them of the finest cutler's steel. The 
8-inch shells contain a bursting charge of 81b. of powder, 
and have pe etrated 4|--inch iron plates without being in- 
jured, but they cost about 16/. each. The Italians have 
had some 6-inch shells. All are hammered, as is everything 
turned out of these works. 

The conclusion to which we are led, examining Krupp's 
works, is, I think, this. 

Whether his steel is the best for all purposes is matter 
for dispute ; whether his steel guns will ever stand the 
large charges which we in England demand is doubtful ; 
but for grandeur of conception and magnificence of manu- 
facture his establishment and its products place him in the 
first rank of engineers. C. B. B. 



IMPORTANCE OF RAGS. 

THE wealth that is brought into existence by manu- 
factures, or reproduced from apparently valueless 
substances by the marvellous transforming power of human 
ingenuity, impelled by human wants, is a subject of surprise, 
even to the thoughtful observer. Enormous quantities of 
refuse matter are transformed into healthful fruits, grains, 
vegetables, and flowers, by the liberation of their gases and 
the dissolution of their salts. Bones discarded by the 
housewife as useless, are wrought into forms of use and 
beauty, but in no instance is the value of articles which 
have outlived one condition of usefulness, and been sub- 
mitted to the recreative power of manufacture, more ap- 
parent than in the change which rags undergo. 

From time immemorial rags have been the symbol of 
poverty, worthlessness, and vileness, and, as such, are re- 
ferred to in the Bible, and in the earliest profane works. 
Their usefulness as a material for paper seems, however, to 
have been discovered several centuries ago. The oldest 
specimen of paper made from linen rags contains a treaty 
of peace between the kings of Aragon and Spain, bearing 
the date of 1178. Raw cotton was, however, used for 
paper making before this time. It is tolerably certain that 
mills for making paper from rags were operated in Spain 
as early as 1085 \vide " Chronology of Paper and Paper 
Making," by J. Munsell.) 

Rags, particularly cotton and linen rags, have been for 



Importance of Rags. 203 

many years one of the housewife's perquisites, and many 
a shining treasure in the kitchen, and many an elegant tea- 
pot on the table, has borne witness to the thrift of the good 
woman in her practice of economical saving. All these 
rag-savings find their way to the paper mill. The price 
has more than quadrupled since the diminution in the 
supply of cotton caused by the war. But the supply of 
this country is wholly inadequate to the demands of the 
manufactures and the public. Once writing paper was not 
very generally used — at least, the people generally required 
but a small portion compared to the quantity they now de- 
mand. It might have been supposed that the increasing 
facilities of travel would have diminished the necessities for 
writing ; but the contrary seems to be the case. Personal 
contact and mutual acquaintance beget new commercial 
alliances, and correspondence is necessary. The rags made 
in this country constitute but a small portion of those used 
by American manufacturers. We imported for the quarter 
of the present year ending June 30th, rags to the value of 
426,766 dols.. In the ten years ending with 1865, the 
amount of rags imported was 209,883,718 pounds. Italy 
furnishes a large proportion of the rags brought into the 
United States. Everybody has heard of the Italian lazza- 
roni, who wear the scantiest dress of the filthiest rags ; yet 
from this unpromising source nearly three-fourths of our 
supply comes. 

Italy is the country of the open palm, and begging and 
rags go together. Begging there, and in other parts of 
southern Europe, is as much a profession as any industrial 
pursuit in this country, and the uniform of rags is more im- 
portant to its successful prosecution than is the Govern- 
ment livery to the soldier. Still, valuable as rags to the 
professional beggar, and important as they may be to 
abject poverty, they are far more important to the world at 
large ; for up to the present time, no other material has 
been found to usurp their place as the basis for paper. 
Their scarcity and constantly enhancing value have stimu- 
lated ingenuity to provide a substitute, but it has not been 
so successful as could have been wished. Straw, wood, 
and other substances have been, and are now, extensively 
used in the manufacture of the coarser papers, but nothing 
equals linen and cotton for the production of the firmer 
and finer qualities. Some of the European Governments, 
for this reason, have prohibited their exportation. 

It is a little singular that advances in knowledge and re- 



I04 Reviews. 

finement — the triumphs of intellect and the spread of in- 
telligence — are so closely dependent upon the contributions 
of ignorance and poverty. Possibly the sheet upon which 
we are now writing, and the page that will bear to our 
thousands ofreaders these printed lines, were once the filthy 
rags that but half concealed the nakedness of a Neapolitan 
beggar or an Egyptian fellah. It is to be hoped that the 
transformation they have .undergone is typical of the im- 
provement which education and the arts are yet to work 
upon the meanest of the race. — The ' Scientific American/ 



REVIEWS. 



The Carboniser. London: John Haddon and Co. 1866 

This invention, of which an account is given in the pam- 
phlet before us, is not a new method, but simply makes 
practical the earliest known means of preserving wood from 
decay, as also of preventing the spread of malaria. Great 
praise is due to the inventor, M. Hugon, inasmuch, as he 
can, by the action of a jet of flame, produce dessiccation in 
a log of wood, by which all the minute living beings which 
are attracted by the air, and therefore penetrate through 
the surfaces of the wood are utterly destroyed. The action 
of the flame also tends to shrink and harden the faces of 
the wood, thus rendering it much less sensible to exterior 
agents. 

There cannot be any doubt that this method of preserv- 
ing will, will, when thoroughly known effect quite a revolu- 
tion in the lasting powers of all wood submitted to its 
processes. 

We give the effects which are produced by the action of 
a jet of flame whose temperature reaches 1,000 to 1,200° 
centigrade, and recommend them to the notice of our 
government, railway companies and all those who in any 
way use large quantities of timber. 

" ist. To a considerable depth the timber is perfectly dessi- 
cated. 

" 2nd. All the minute but perfect and living beings, monad^s 
bacteriums, vibrions, &c., which cause fermentation, and which, 
attracted by the air, penetrate and accumulate, and by a system 
of filtration, work through the surfaces of the wood, are utterly 
destroyed. 

" 3rd. The flame bath deposes on the surfaces of the wood a 



Reviews. 205 

sliglit layer entirely carbonised, which immediately overlies a 
second surface which is merely scorched, that is, which has been 
subjected to enough heat to distil the wood, whose crust is in 
consequence impregnated with the products of this distillation, 
composed principally of creositic and empyreumatic elements. 
These matters are antiseptic, and in every case the superficial 
layer of carbon prevents the progress of the fermenting process. 
" Lastly. The flame shrinks and hardens considerably the faces 
of the wood, and thus renders it infinitely less sensible to exterior 
agents." 

Julius Cmsar : did He cross the Channell By the Rev. 

Scott F. Surtees, Rector of Sprotburgh, Yorkshire. 

London : John Russell Smith. 1866. 
This is an exceedingly interesting pamphlet, upon a sub- 
ject v/hich has always been of a doubtful nature, but the 
doubt hitherto attaching to it is, as Mr. Surtees imagines, 
most satisfactorily cleared away by the publication of his 
ideas. No doubt, our author firmly believes all that 
he has written, but we beg leave to differ with his line of 
argument, and still to think that Julius Caesar did cross the 
Channel, from some point between Boulogne and Calais, 
to some point between Hythe and Deal. 

Mr. Surtees tells us that he " long held the conviction " 
that Julius Caesar did not cross the Channel, and then pro- 
ceeds to prove his views, and winds up with what he sup- 
poses to be a regular clincher, which we give in full : — '' We 
have found our views stand the test of the strictest local 
criticism, and evidence upon evidence, fact upon fact, accu- 
mulate upon us at every turn and point. In the minutest 
details, land and sea, hill and coast, marsh and river, 
Roman camps and Celtic habitations, British scoria, and 
Roman pottery, traditions of living people, and barrows of 
past ages, all bring to bear a mass of corroborative testi- 
mony that is almost overwhelming in its minutiae and 
exactness. We will try and condense it as much as we are 
able. We had fixed upon Cromer as the point where Caesar 
made the land, Sheringham the promontory which Dio 
Cassius says that he rounded ; Weybourne as the shingle 
beach, seven or eight miles distant, where the cliff ended 
and Caesar disembarked. Now the cliffs, up to the very 
edge, are smooth and level ground, and there would be no 
difficulty in the British chariots and horsemen keeping up 
with the ships as they dropped down with the ebb-tide. 
Then the nature of the shore is such that their chariots 
could easily manoeuvre even down to the very water's edge. 
NEW SERIES.— VOL. I. S 



2o6 * Reviews, 

The water is so deep at high tide and the shingle beach 
here so abrupt and shelving, that Caesar's larger ships could 
come close in shore, and it is literally true to the letter 
that his soldiers would have to jump into deep water, 
whilst the smaller galleys could row up to the very bank, 
and come to blows hand to hand with the enemy. The 
spring tide at full moon rises from eighteen to twenty feet, 
which would dash together and cripple his ships ; here in 
the marsh, at the very border of the sea, rises a fit place 
for his camp, a mound of large extent elevated above the 
marshes, and affording under its shelter an anchorage for 
his fleet. This mound, ' Green Barrow Hill ' or ' Grena- 
burh,' lies between Weybourne and Salthouse ; opposite is 
an old Roman causeway running down to it from Kelling, 
with a track direct through the marshes to the hill, and 
with a streamlet of clear fresh water alongside." 

Our Author tells us that some thirty miles of seaboard 
have disappeared, owing to the encroachments of the sea 
since Caesar's time. This is all well and good, but then, 
how does he account for the eighty miles which he says 
Caesar must have sailed, in contradiction to Caesar's " Com- 
mentaries," which mention thirty miles as the length of his 
passage. Why, our Author extricates himself by the fol- 
lowing very ingenious method : — 

" The ' Commentaries ' mention the distance as being 
thirty miles. This we know to be wrong, as thirty miles 
is not the shortest (brevissimum) passage across the 
Channel. Every student of history well knows how names 
and numbers are altered both in history, sacred and se- 
cular, as the transcriber's will or fancy leads him. Caesar, 
no doubt, wrote LXXX., but when the Channel theory was 
broached, the transcribers, knowing that could not be, 
struck out the L. and left the XXX. The Emperor men- 
tions an instance of this kind (p. 94, Vol. II.) as regards 
' the Doubs,' at Besangon, where he says, ' the copyists 
must have omitted an M. before DC.' " 

In concluding our short notice, we must confess that Mr. 
Surtees' theory has a right to be thoroughly ventilated, as 
it is a very important antiquarian doubt, which ought to 
be cleared away, and we do not, as a contemporary has 
said, facetiously, as he supposes, say to Mr. Surtees, 
"don't*' but '^ do'' dive deeper into the subject, and ere 
long we shall have it satisfactorily settled, as to whether 
Caesar did or did not cross the Channel. We would advise 
all who are interested in this question, to at once get this 
pamphlet. 



Reviews. 207 



Boutin Manure: being the Official Report of the Boutin 
Mamire Company, Limited, Offices: 117 and 118 
Leadenhall street. Pp. 29. 

In this report we have the whole process of Boutin 
Manuring laid before us, showing the great amount of 
success which has attended its use. This manure is com- 
posed of due proportions of several soluble salts, which by 
their action on the mineral constituents of the soil, develop 
about the seed certain fertilising principles, which otherwise 
would remain dormant were it not for this stimulating 
action, thereby rendering more assimilative the mineral 
portion of the soil. The action which is thus raised is able 
to renew its fertilising power during a succession of similar 
crops of equal extent from the same land. In proof of 
this latter assertion, M. Boutin has obtained from the same 
soil, during ten years, an uninterrupted series of fine crops 
of grain. 

In France an Official Commission has made experiments 
with this manure, and reported it without reserve, a com- 
plete success. 

Our object in noticing this manure is to bring it to the 
knowledge of our agriculturists, whom we strongly recom- 
mend to make a trial of its wonderful fertilising power in 
their next sowings, and there is not the slightest doubt 
whatever but that they will meet with the same reward as 
M. Boutin, viz., seeing their fields covered with crops such 
as they never before witnessed, this result being obtained 
by simply steeping the grain in this strong chemical manure 
thereby doing away with the present costly system. 



The Pen, — its Construction and Use. — The split pen, now 
universally used by enlightened nations,, is of great antiquity. It 
was used by the Egyptians in writing on the sheets produced from 
the papyrus, from the name of which our word paper is derived. 
It was made from a species of reed, which was prepared by a 
sweating process, induced by burial under fermenting manures, 
causing the reed to acquire hardness and elasticity, and drying 
the pith. These pens ars still in use in the East. Later, the 
quills of the swan, eagle, goose, and crow came into use as pens, 
and those of the goose, especially, are still largely used, notwith- 
standing the introduction of pens of steel, gold, and other metals. 
Goose-quills, when first plucked, are soft and tough, covered within 
and without with a membrane. They are dried in hot sand, 



2o8 Miscellaneous. 

which shrivels the outer skin and the inner pith. They are then 
dipped in a hot sokition of alum, or in diluted nitric acid, which 
hardens them. The processes of manufacture are very simple. 
The blanks are punched from a thin sheet, then the hole which 
marks the termination of the slit is punched ; the device or letter- 
ing is then made by a stamp. Dies give the semi -cylindrical 
curve to the blanks. Grinding perfects the nibs, and gives the 
requisite elasticity. The slitting is done by two cutters, one 
working against the other. Hardening and tempering, with the 
careful assortment of the products of the manufacture, complete 
the work. But there is a certain unyielding rigidity in steel pens 
which prevents them from being universally preferred to the 
goose quill. They manifest also a tendency to adhere to the sur- 
face of the paper, requiring some degree of force to propel them, 
and sometimes piercing the sheet. For these reasons many are 
disinclined to use them. The gold pen, when properly made, 
approaches more nearly to the qualities which have for so long a 
time made the goose quill the favourite as a medium for writing. 
But even the best of the gold pens are by many deemed inferior 
to the quill, and this prejudice, or partiality, induced the manu- 
facture of pens from quills by machinery, which were used in the 
same way the steel or gold pen is used, by being fastened in a 
holder. Gold pens are tipped with iridium, making what are com- 
monly known as " diamond points," The iridium for this pur- 
pose is found in small grains in platinum, slightly alloyed with 
this latter metal. In this form it is exceedingly hard, and well 
adapted to the purpose of the gold pen maker. The gold for pens 
is alloyed with silver to about sixteen carats fineness, rolled into 
thin strips, from which the blanks are struck. The under side of 
the point is notched by a small circular saw, to receive the iridium 
point, which is selected with the aid of a microscope. A flux of 
borax and a blowpipe secure it to its place. The point is 
then ground on a copper wheel with emery. The pen blank is 
next rolled to the requisite thinness by means of rollers especially 
adapted to the purpose, and tempered by blows from a hammer. 
It is then trimmed around the edges, stamped, and formed in a 
powerful press. The slit is next cut through the solid iridium 
point by means of a thin copper wheel, fed with fine emery, and 
a saw extends the aperture along the pen itself The inside edges 
of the sht are smoothed and polished by the same means of rapidly- 
running wheels and emery, and burnishing and hammering, to pro- 
duce the proper degree of elasticity, finish the work. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Hardwicke's Science-Gossip' for October. No. XXII. Hard- 

wicke, Piccadilly. 
The Artizan' for October. Offices: 19 Salisbury street. 
Paper Trade Review.' No. IX— New Series. 97 Newgate st., E.G. 



THE 

TEOHISrOLOaiST: 

A HEOOI^D OF SCIENCE. 

December, 1866. 

AEROLITES. 

BY TOWNSHEND M. HALL, F.G.S. 

METEORIC stones, or aerolites, as they are gene- 
rally called (from two Greek words, aer and lithos, 
signifying " air-stones"), may be defined as solid masses 
consisting principally of pure iron, nickel, and several 
other metals, sometimes containing also an admixture of 
augite, olivine, and hornblende, which, from time to time, 
at irregular intervals, have fallen upon the surface of the 
earth from above. 

Other designations, such as " fire-balls and thunder- 
bolts," have been popularly applied to these celestial 
masses, the former denoting their usual fiery appearance, 
whilst the latter has reference to the extreme suddenness 
of their descent. 

Shooting stars also, although they are not accompanied 
by the fall of any solid matter upon the earth, are gene- 
rally placed in this same category, since they are supposed 
to be aerolites which pass (comparatively speaking) very 
near our earth, and are visible from it by night ; at the 
same time their distance from us, varying as it does from 4 
to 240 miles and upwards, is in most instances too great to 
allow of their being drawn down by the attractive power 
possessed by the earth. Like comets and eclipses, these 
celestial phenomena in former times were universally re- 
garded with feelings of the greatest awe and superstition ; 
and in Eastern countries especially where the fall of a 
meteoric stone was supposed to be the immediate precursor 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. T 



2IO Aerolites 

of some important public event, or national calamity, the 
precise date of each descent was carefully recorded. In 
China, for example, such reports reach back to the year 
644 before our era ; and M. Biot has found in the astrono- 
mical section of some of the most ancient annals of that 
empire sixteen falls of aerolites, recorded as having taken 
place between the years 644 B.C. and 333 after Christ, whilst 
the Greek and Roman authors mention only four such 
occurrences during the same period. Even now, in this age 
of science and universal knowledge, aerolites can scarcely 
be regarded without a certain degree of dread. Indeed, 
four or five cases have occurred in which persons have been 
killed by them ; in another instance, several villages in 
India were set on fire by the fall of a meteoric stone ; and 
it is by no means a pleasant subject for reflection, that such 
a catastrophe might happen anywhere, and at any moment, 
especially when we remember that these stones, although 
not quite incandescent, are always, more or less, in a heated 
state ; and sometimes so hot that even after the lapse of 
six hours they could not be touched with impunity. 

The first fall of meteoric stones on record appears to 
have taken place about the year 654 B.C., when, according 
to a passage in Livy, a shower of stones fell on the Alban 
Hill, not far distant from Rome. The next in chronologi- 
cal order is mentioned by several writers, such as Diogenes 
of Apollonia, Plutarch, and Pliny, and described by them 
as a great stone, the size of two millstones, and equal in 
weight to a full waggon-load. It fell about the year 467 
B.C., at ^gos Potamos, on the Hellespont ; and even up to 
the days of Pliny, four centuries after its fall, it continued 
to be an object of curiosity and speculation. After the 
close of the first century we fail to obtain any account or 
notice of this stone ; but although it has been lost sight of 
for upwards of eighteen hundred years, the eminent Hum- 
boldt says, in one of his works, that notwithstanding all 
previous failures to re-discover it, he does not wholly relin- 
quish the hope that even after such a considerable lapse of 
time, this Thracian meteoric mass, which it would be so 
difficult to destroy, may be found again, especially since 
the region in which it fell has now become so easy of access 
to European travellers. 

The next descent of any particular importance took 
place at Ensisheim in Alsace, where an aerolite fell on 
November 7th, 1492, just at the time when the Emperor 
Maximilian, then King of the Romans, happened to be on 



Aerolites. 211 

the point of engaging with the French army. It was pre- 
served as a rehc in the Cathedral at Ensisheim, until the 
beginning of the French revolution, when it was conveyed 
to the Public Library of Colmar, and it is still preserved 
there among the treasures. 

In later years the shower of aerolites which fell in April, 
1803, at L'Aigle, in Normandy, may well rank as the most 
extraordinary descent upon record. A large fire-ball had 
been observed a few moments previously, in the neighbour- 
hood of Caen and Alengon, where the sky was perfectly 
clear and cloudless, At L'Aigle no appearance of light 
was visible, and the fire-ball assumed instead the form of a 
small black cloud, consisting of vapour, which suddenly 
broke up with a violent explosion, followed several times 
by a peculiar rattling noise. The stones at the time of 
their descent were hot, but not red, and smoked visibly. 
The number which were afterwards collected within an 
elliptical area measuring from six to seven miles in length, 
by three in breadth, has been variously estimated at from 
two to three thousand. They ranged in weight from 2 
drachms up to \j\ lb. The French Government imme- 
diately deputed M. Biot, the celebrated naturalist and phi- 
losopher, to proceed to the spot, for the express purpose of 
collecting the authentic facts concerning a phenomenon 
which, until that time, had almost universally been treated 
as an instance of popular superstition and credulity. His 
conclusive report was the means of putting an end to all 
scepticism on the subject, and since that date the reality — 
not merely the possibility — of such occurrences has no 
longer been contested. 

Leaving out, for the present, innumerable foreign in- 
stances which might be quoted, we must now glance rapidly 
at a few of the most noticeable examples of the fall of 
meteoric stones which have taken place in England. The 
earliest which appears on record descended in Devonshire, 
near Sir George Chudleigh's house at Stretchleigh, in the 
parish of Ermington, about twelve miles from Plymouth. 
The circumstance is thus related by Westcote, one of the 
quaint old Devonshire historians : — 

" In some part of this' manor (Stretchleigh), there fell 
from above — I cannot say from heaven — a stone of twenty- 
three pounds weight, with a great and fearful noise in fall- 
ing; first it was heard like unto thunder, or rather to be 
thought the report of some great ordnance, cannon, or 
culverin ; and as it descended, so did the noise lessen, at 

T 2 



212 Aerolites, 

last when it came to the earth to the height of the report 
of a peternel, or pistol. It was for matter like unto a stone 
singed, or half-burned for lime, but being larger described 
by a richer wit, I will forbear to enlarge on it." 

The " richer wit " here alluded to, was, in all probability, 
the author of a pamphlet published at the time, which 
further describes this aerolite as having fallen on January 
lOth, 1623, in an orchard, near some men who were plant- 
ing trees. It was buried in the ground three feet deep, and 
its dimensions were 3 J feet long, 2 J wide, and \\ thick. 
The pamphlet also states that pieces broken from off it 
were in the possession of many of the neighbouring gentry. 
We may here remark that no specimen of this stone is at 
present known to be in existence, and that although living 
in the county where it fell, we have hitherto failed in 
tracing any of the fragments here referred to. A few years 
later, in August, 1628, several meteoric stones, weighing 
from one to twenty-four pounds, fell at Hatford, in Berk- 
shire ; and in the month of May, 1680, several are said to 
have fallen in the neighbourhood of London. 

The total number of aerolitic descents, which up to this 
present time have been observed to take place in Great 
Britain and Ireland, is twenty, of which four occurred in 
Scotland, and four in Ireland. The largest and most 
noticeable of all these fell on December 13, 1795, near 
Wold Cottage, in the parish of Thwing, East Riding of 
Yorkshire. Its descent was witnessed by two persons ; 
and when the stone was dug up, it was found to have pene- 
trated through no less than eighteen inches of soil and hard 
chalk. It originally weighed about 56 lb., but that portion 
of it preserved in the British Museum is stated in the 
official catalogue to weigh 47 lb. 9 oz. 53 grains — just 
double the weight of the Devonshire aerolite. 

When we come to inquire into the various opinions which 
have been held in different ages respecting the origin of 
aerolites, and the power which causes their descent, we 
must go back to the times of the ancient Greeks, and we 
find that those of their philosophers who had directed their 
attention to the subject had four theories to account for 
this singular phenomenon. Some thought that meteoric 
stones had telluric origin, and resulted from exhalations as- 
cending from the earth becoming condensed to such a de- 
gree as to render them solid. This theory was in after- 
years revived by Kepler, the astronomer, who excluded 
fire-balls and shooting stars from the domain of astronomy ; 



Aerolites. 213 

because, according to his views, they were simply " meteors 
arising from the exhalations of the earth, and blending 
with the higher ether." Others, like Aristotle, considered 
that they were masses of metal raised either by hurricanes, 
or projected by some volcano beyond the limits of the 
earth's attraction, so becoming inflamed and converted, for 
a time, into star-like bodies. Thirdly, a solar origin ; this, 
however, was freely derided by Pliny, and several others, 
amongst whom we may mention Diogenes of Apollonia, 
already alluded to as one of the chroniclers of the aerolite 
of ^gos Potamos. He thus argues : " Stars that are in- 
visible, and consequently have no name, move in space to- 
gether with those that are visible These invisible 

stars frequently fall to the earth and are extinguished, as 
the stony star which fell burning at ^gos Potamos." This 
last opinion, it will be seen, coincides, as far as it goes, 
almost exactly with the most modern views on the subject. 
As some of the Greeks derived the origin of meteorites 
from the sun (probably from the fact of their sometimes 
falling during bright sunshine), so we find, at the end of the 
seventeenth century, it was believed by a great many that 
they fell from the moon. This conjecture appears to have 
been first hazarded by an Italian philosopher, named 
Paolo Maria Terzago, whose attention was specially directed 
to this subject on the occasion of a meteoric stone fall- 
ing at Milan in 1660, and killing a Franciscan monk. 
Olbers, however, was the first to treat this theory in a 
scientific manner, and soon after the fall of an aerolite at 
Sienna, in the year 1794, he began to examine the question 
by aid of the most abstruse hiathematics, and after several 
years' labour he succeeded in showing that, in order to 
reach our earth, a stone would require to start from the 
moon at an initial velocity of 8,292 feet per second ; then 
proceeding downwards with increasing speed, it would 
arrive on the earth with a velocity of 3S,ooo feet per 
second. But as frequent measurements have shown that 
the actual rate of aerolites averages 1 14,000 feet, or about 
2\\ miles per second, they were proved by these curious 
and most elaborate calculations to have come from a far 
greater distance than that of our satellite. It is but fair to 
add that the question of initial velocity, on which the whole 
value of this, so-called, " Ballistic problem " depends, was 
investigated by three other eminent geometricians, Biot, 
Laplace, and Poisson, who during ten or twelve years were 
independently engaged upon this calculation. Biot's esti- 



214 Aerolites. 

mate was 8,282 feet in the second ; Laplace, 7,862 ; and 
Poisson, 7,585, — results all approximating very closely with 
those stated by Olbers. 

We have already observed, at the beginning of this 
paper, that meteoric stones may fall at any moment, but 
observations, extending over many years, have sometimes 
been brought forward to show that, as far as locality is con- 
cerned, all countries are not equally liable to these visita- 
tions. In other words, the large number of aerolites which 
have been known to fall within a certain limited area, has 
been contrasted with the apparent rarity of such 
occurrences beyond these limits. If it could be proved that 
the earth possessed more attractive power in some places 
than in others, this circumstance might be satisfactorily ex- 
plained, but in default of any such evidence, the advocates 
of this theory must rely solely upon statistics, which from 
their very nature require to be taken with a certain amount 
of reserve. Professor Shepard, in Sillimans American 
Journal, has remarked that " the fall of aerolites is confined 
principally to two zones ; the one belonging to America is 
bounded by 33° and 44° north latitude, and is about 25° in 
length. Its direction is more or less from north-east to 
south-west, following the line of the Atlantic coast. Of all 
known occurrences of this phenomenon during the last fifty 
years, 92*8 per cent, have taken place within these limits, 
and mostly in the neighbourhood of the sea. The zone of 
the eastern continent — with the exception that it extends 
ten degrees more to the north — lies between the same de- 
grees of latitude, and follows a similar north-east direction, 
but is more than twice the length of the American zone. 
Of all the observed falls of aerolites, 90*9 per cent, have 
taken place within this area, and were also concentrated in 
that half of the zone which extends along the Atlantic." 

On reference to a map, it will be seen that in the western 
continent, the so-called zone is simply confined to the 
United States — the most densely inhabited portion of 
America. In like manner the eastern zone leaves out the 
whole of desert Africa, Lapland, Finland, the chief part of 
Russia, with an average of thirty-two inhabitants to each 
square mile ; Sweden and Norway, with only seventeen p^r 
mile, whilst it embraces all the well peopled districts of 
central Europe, most of which, like England, are able to 
count between three and four persons to every mile of their 
territory. In fact. Professor Shepard's statement may 
almost be resolved into a plain question of population, for 



Aerolites. 215 

were an aerolite to fall in the midst of a desert, or in a 
thinly-peopled district, it is needless to point out how few 
the chances are of its descent being ever noticed or re- 
corded. That innumerable aerolites do fall without attract- 
ing any attention, is clearly proved by the number of dis- 
coveries, continually taking place, of metallic masses, which 
from their locality and pecuhar chemical composition, could 
only be derived from some extra-terrestrial source. The 
great size also of many of these masses entirely precludes 
the possibility of their having been placed by human 
agency in the positions they have been found to occupy — 
sometimes on the surface ot the earth, but just as frequently 
buried a few feet in the ground. 

Thus the traveller Pallas found, in 1749, at Abakansk, in 
Siberia, the mass of meteoric iron, weighing 1,680 lbs., now 
in the Imperial Museum, at St. Petersburg. Another, 
lying on the plain of Tucuman, near Otumpa, in South 
America, has been estimated, by measurement, to weigh no 
less than 33,600 lb., or about 15 tons ; and one added last 
year to the splendid collection of meteorites in the British 
Museum, weighs rather more than 3J tons. It was found at 
Cranbourne, near Melbourne, and was purchased by a Mr. 
Bruce, with a view to his presenting it to the British 
Museum, when, through some misunderstanding, it was 
discovered that one-half of it had been already promised to 
the Museum at Melbourne. In order, therefore, to save it 
from any such mutilation, the trustees of our National 
Museum acquired and transferred to the authorities of the 
Melbourne collection a smaller mass which had been sent 
in 1862 to the International Exhibition. It weighed about 
3,000 lb., and had been found near Melbourne in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the great meteorite. The latter was then 
forwarded entire to London. In the British Museum may 
also be seen a small fragment of an aerolite, originally 
weighing 191 lb., which from time immemorial had been 
lying at Elbogen, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, and had 
always borne the legendary appellation of " Der verwiinschte 
Burggrafl' or the enchanted Burgrave. The remainder of 
this mass is preserved in the Imperial collection at Vienna. 
In Great Britain only two meteoric masses (not seen to fall) 
have hitherto been discovered ; one was found about forty 
years ago, near Leadhills, in Scotland; the other in 1861, 
at Newstead, in Roxburghshire. 

Several instances have at different times occurred, in 
which stones like aerolites have been found, and prized ac- 



2i6 Aerolites. 

cordingly, until their real nature was demonstrated by the 
aid of chemical analysis. One valuable specimen, found a 
few years ago, was shown to have derived its origin amongst 
the scorice of an iron foundry ; another, picked up in the 
Isle of Wight, turned out to be a nodule of iron pyrites, 
similar in every respect to those which abound in the 
neighbouring chalk cliffs ; and lastly, some aerolites of a 
peculiarly glassy appearance were found shortly after, of 
which it may, perhaps, suffice to say that the scene of this 
discovery was — Birmingham. 

When we come to examine the composition of meteoric 
stones, we find, in various specimens, a great diversity in 
their chemical structure. Iron is the metal most invariably 
present, usually accompanied by a considerable per-centage 
of nickel and cobalt ; also five other metals, chromium, 
copper, molybdenum, manganese, and tin ; but of all these 
iron is that which largely preponderates, forming sometimes 
as much as 96 parts in the 100. Rare instances have, how- 
ever, been recorded where the proportion of iron has sunk 
so low as to form only 2 per cent, and the deficiency thus 
caused has been made up by a larger admixture of some 
earthy mineral, such as augite, hornblende, or olivine. 
Other ingredients, like carbon, sulphur, alumina, &c., are 
also found to enter, in different proportions, into the com- 
position of aerolites ; the total number of chemical elements 
observed in them, up to this present date, being nineteen or 
twenty. It has been well remarked by an able writer, that 
no new substance has hitherto come to us from without ; 
and thus we find that all these nineteen or twenty elements 
are precisely similar to those which are distributed through- 
out the rocks and minerals of our earth ; the essential 
difference between the two classes of compounds — celestial 
and terrestrial — being seen most clearly in the respective 
methods in which the component parts are admixed. 

In the outward appearance of aerolites there is one 
characteristic so constant that, out of the many hundred 
examples that have been recorded, one only (as far as we 
can ascertain) has been wanting in it. We refer to the 
black fused crust or rind with which the surface of meteoric 
stones is covered. It usually extends not more than a few 
tenths of an inch into the substance of the stone, and is 
supposed to result from the extreme rapidity with which 
they descend into the oxygen of our atmosphere, causing 
them to undergo a slight and partial combustion, which, 
however, from the short time necessarily occupied in their 



Aerolites. 217 

descent, has not sufficient time to penetrate beyond the 
surface. On cutting and polishing the stones, if the smooth 
face is treated with nitric acid, it will in many cases be 
found to exhibit lines and angular markings, commonly 
known by the name of " widmannsted figures." These are 
tracings of imperfect crystals, whilst the broad intermediate 
spaces, preserving their polish, point out those portions of 
the stone which contain a larger proportion of nickel than 
the rest of the mass. We may here add that the noise, 
said at times to accompany the fall of aeroHtes, does not 
appear to be a constant characteristic, nor does the cause 
or exact nature of it seem able to be definitely specified. 

In conclusion, we cannot do better than advise those of 
our readers, who desire further information on this subject, 
to take the earliest opportunity — if they have not done so 
already — of paying a visit to the magnificent collection of 
meteoric stones, contained in several glass cases at the end 
of the Mineral Gallery at the British Museum. The cata- 
logue for the year 1856 gave a list of between seventy and 
eighty specimens ; in 1863 this number had increased to 
216, mainly through the energy of the Curator, Mr. Mas- 
kelyne ; and since that date there have been several further 
additions. Chief amongst the continental museums may 
be mentioned the Imperial collection at Vienna, as possess- 
ing a series of specimens, remarkable alike for their size and 
importance. 

Summary of A erolitic Descents which have taken place in 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

England. 

1623. January 10. Ernington, near Plymouth, Devon- 
shire. 

1628. August 9. Hatford, in Berkshire. 

1642. August 4. Woodbridge, in Suffolk. 

1680. May 18. In the neighbourhood of London. 

1725. July 3. Northamptonshire. 

1780. April I. Beeston. 

1 79 1. Menabilly, in Cornwall. 

1795. December 13. Wold Cottage, Thwing, Yorkshire. 

1803. July 4. East Norton, in Leicestershire. 

1806. May 17. Basingstoke, in Hampshire. 

1830. February 15. Launton, near Bicester, Oxfordshire. 

1835. August 4. Aldsworth, near Cirencester, Glouces- 
tershire. 



2 1 8 Beet Sugar and Cane Sugar. 

Scotland. 
1676. In the Orkneys. 

1802. October. In Scotland. 

1804. April 4. High Possil, near Glasgow. 

1830. May 17. Perth. 

Ireland. 
1779. Pettiswood, Co. Westmeath. 

18 10. August. Mooresfoot, Co. Tipperary 

18 1 3. September 10. Adare, Co. Limerick. 
1844. April 29. Killeter, near Castle Derg, Co. 

Tyrone. 

In addition to these, two meteoric stones have been found 
in Scotland, viz. : 

Found, 1820 — 30. Leadhills, Lanarkshire. 
„ 1 861 Newstead, Roxburghshire. 

Popular Science Review. 



BEET SUGAR AND CANE SUGAR. 

THE astonishing progress made in late years by beet- 
root sugar is beginning to excite the greatest appre- 
hension in the sugar-growing colonies. It is of the greatest 
interest to consider the different points that are likely to 
cause the preponderance of the cane or of the beet. In 
the first place, the sugar-cane is a denizen of the tropics, 
where the condition of the weather at any given time can 
be counted upon with certainty. The beet, on the other 
hand, grows in the temperate zone, where, although the 
inhabitants neither suffer from excessive heat nor excessive 
cold, the weather is almost always unsettled and more or 
less uncertain. The beet, which is affected by too much 
rain or by too little, by unseasonable heat, by unexpected 
cold, or by too little or too much sunlight, is particularly 
uncertain in its growth, and the remarkable fluctuations in 
the crops during the last few years sufficiently establish 
this point. In 1859-60 the beet crop amounted to 438,000 
tons; in 1860-61 it amounted to only 366,826 tons; in 
1861-62 it again rose to 404,411 tons; and in 1862-63 to 
450,000 tons. The season 1863-64 was a bad one, and the 
return sank to 385,741 tons, from which it again rose in 
1864-65 to 475,000 tons. This season it will probably 



Beet Sugar and Cane Sugar. 2 1 9 

amount to close on 600,000 tons. It must be. remembered 
in considering these very great fluctuations in returns, that, 
notwithstanding the extraordinary variation in yield, the 
breadth of land sown has steadily increased year by year, 
and that even the present season (the largest known) has 
been a favourable one only in France, while in Germany 
the weather was decidedly unfavourable, and in Russia so 
much so as to cause a failure of the crop. Although the 
beet crops will probably continue to increase, and although 
in a generally favourable season much heavier returns may 
be looked for, there is certainly some comfort for cane 
planters in the fact of the great uncertainty of the Euro- 
pean plant. The beet owes its rapid spread over the Con- 
tinent, in great measure, to its indirect use in agriculture. 
It gives a basis for the rotation of crops ; its leaves and 
refuse are useful for cattle-feeding and for manure. But, 
on the other hand, the indirect uses of the cane have never 
been tried, and its refuse, although full of saccharine mat- 
ter, far from being made useful, is burnt. There is another 
advantage possessed by the beet in its being produced in 
the very countries where the sugar is wanted — thus saving 
the costly freight from the tropics. This certainly applies 
to countries in the interior of Europe ; but countries having 
a seaboard, and which have to draw their supplies from the 
interior or from other European kingdoms, can frequently 
import sugar at nearly as cheap a rate as they can trans- 
port it. For instance, the latest quotations of freight from 
Mauritius to England is 30J. per ton, while to get sugar 
even from the north of France to London costs 2^s. per 
ton ; or, in other words, the carriage of sugar from Mauri- 
tius to England is only }^d. per cwt. dearer than from France 
to England. Thus, as far as freight is concerned, there is 
little fear, while the English market remains open, of cane 
sugar being shut out from consumption. It must, however, 
be expected, if the present state of things continues, that 
in a very few years the Continent will draw its supplies 
entirely from the beet, and also, that although England has 
as yet made no sugar from it, that the beetroot grows and 
thrives from John o' Groat's to the Land's End, and that 
a little more success on the Continent will cause the manu- 
facture of native sugar to be introduced here. It remains 
to be seen whether cane sugar can recover the ground lost; 
but there can be little doubt, had proper use been made of 
their advantages, that the colonial planters would not have 
been so far behind in the race as they are at present. The 



2 20 The Science of Mnemonics. ' 

scale of duties meant to protect certain colonies against 
the effect of their ignorance and wastefulness, had the 
effect of lowering the standard of sugar making all through 
the tropics. Instead of trying to make the finest possible 
sugar, the planter tried to make the worst, and the waste- 
ful process that had existed in only a portion of the colonies 
became general. In the meantime the ablest chemists, 
engineers, and agriculturists, were silently studying the 
constitution of the beetroot. Every invention that could 
increase the saccharine yield of the root, facilitate its work- 
ing, and improve the quality of the sugar, was eagerly 
applied ; the yield of sugar from a given quantity of beet- 
root has been doubled in ten years, and white sugar can 
now be made in France at the first operation as cheaply as 
brown. Should such progress induce cane planters to 
despair ? On the contrary, it should stimulate them to 
exertion. Surely if the cane contain twice as much 
saccharine matter as the beet ; if it be far more easily 
worked ; if its growth can be more confidently relied on ; 
if its molasses be a saleable article, which is not the case 
with the beet surely we say that, far from despair, the feel- 
ing that should animate the planters should be that of hope 
that the proper appliances may yet rescue their industry 
from ruin. Every year that passes shows more indisputably 
the necessity for improving cultivation, for improving 
machinery, and for making the best instead of the worst 
sugar ; and if cane planters will take advantage of their 
opportunity, they may yet retrieve their position. — Traverss 
Circular, 



THE SCIENCE OF MNEMONICS. 

BY WILLIAM STOKES, 

Teacher of Memory, Royal Polytechnic Institution. 

THE resurrection of arts and sciences would be an 
interesting subject for a scientific essay. Without 
allusion to Mnemonics, such a paper would be incomplete. 
The fact that " whatever man has done man can do " seems 
to have been forgotten in respect to the Art of Memory, 
and century after century reference has been made to the 



The Science of Mnemonics. 221 

mnemonical Achievements of the ancients. As though they 
either possessed abihty which was pecuHarly their own, or as 
though they had means of aid at their command of which 
Modern Mnemonists were destitute. We have no just 
reason, however, to presume either the one or the other. 
One thing must be evident, that it is wiser by far to avail 
ourselves of the known aids within our reach, than to 
vainly speculate upon, and to lament the loss of, appliances 
which probably never existed. 

It may be asked are there any " known aids " to memory .-^ 
is there any "Science of Mnemonics.-*" If things are tobe- 
regarded as " known," only when they are in ordinary use 
with "the million," and if a science is only to be regarded 
as "a science" when it is popularly recognised 1 we may 
reply that there are no '' known aids," and that there is no 
" Science of Mnemonics." But a fact, though little known, 
is nevertheless a fact, and a " science," which is a combina- 
tion of facts, although it may not be recognised, is none 
the less a science ! As far as evidence is concerned. Mne- 
monics is a fully established science, but in the matter of 
popularity it is a science which has to be estabhshed. The 
recognition, or non-recognition of truth, will neither 
enhance nor lessen its value in the estimation of those who 
love truth simply for its own sake ; but it would not be 
difficult to find some who think truth must be error unless 
it is popular. To such, the large share of attention at pre- 
sent being bestowed upon Mnemonics, may render the 
subject somewhat attractive, or at least endurable. It is 
much to be regretted, that the popularity of Mnemonics 
has not been equal to its simplicity and utility. 

Who can justly estimate the value of a good memory } 
Who can trace the ultimate results of one instance of for- 
getfulness t As surely as the muscles of the human body 
can be strengthened by gymnastics, so surely can the 
memory be strengthened by Mnemonics. As surely as we 
may obtain a cork leg or an artificial arm, so surely may 
we, in case of impairment or loss, obtain an artificial 
memory, and, with a much closer resemblance to Nature's 
endowment, than in the case of the artificial limb. 

As a good system of gymnastics develops all the mem- 
bers of the body, so a good system of Mnemonics develops 
all the powers of the mind. 

Mnemonics is based upon association, and (if a little 
self-quotation may be pardoned), to speak in proper phraseo- 
logy, there are four kinds of memory — tongue, ear, eye, and 



2 2 2 The Science of Mnemonics. 

brain memory. The method of learning generally employed 
is repeating, depending almost entirely upon the tongue and 
the ear for accuracy ; the eye (or the mind's eye) and the 
reasoning faculties having little or nothing to do with it. 
The result in many cases must be forgetfulness, which may 
be avoided by Mnemonic visual or reflective memory. 

Perfection of association is that which secures the united 
and harmonious action of the greatest number of powers 
which can be brought into use for the object desired. We 
may fail to remember, from want of articulating, or from 
inattention to our articulation, but more frequently forget- 
fulness arises from not PICTURING — IMPERFECTLY PICTUR- 
ING, or incorrectly PICTURING. Intellectual association 
is mainly dependent upon the mind's eye. Impressions 
may be made variously, but sometimes thus : — The tongue 
gives an utterance which is conveyed to the ear ; the ear- 
received utterance produces a mental picture, which is re- 
ceived by the eye, and the impression on the eye awakens 
reflection — a mental comment, or remark, or action of the 
intellect. It often strangely happens that the mental re- 
mark which we make upon a thing is better remembered 
than the thing itself. Hence, the importance of reflection, 
or intellectual action, as an aid to Memory. (See diagram.) 

Symbolization is a branch of the Mnemonical Art, and 
though its application may seem formidable, or often im- 
practicable, to those who are not acquainted with it, it is far 
too valuable to be passed by here without notice. Many 
people seem singularly devoid of symbolizing power, yet 
their uncouth or imperfect mental representations may be 
comprehended by the^nselves, and may be useful to tJiem- 
selves, although not communicable to others. 

Experience will soon show that it is often easier to think 
of a part instead of a whole, and to think of the concrete 
instead of the abstract ; thus, if St. Paul's Cathedral were 
mentioned, it would be easier to think simply of the upper 
part of it, as a symbol, than to try to bring to mind its 
whole exterior and interior, and the upper part alone would 
suggest St. Paul's quite as well as the thought of the entire 
building ; and suppose we wanted to teach a child that the 
name of the architect of St. Paul's was Wren, the symbol 
of the name, a wren, would be more easily remembered 
than the mere ntterance of the name. The straw in the 
wren's beak, the symbol of its being in the act of building, 
would be more easily remembered by the child than the 
word architect, yet would be in effect the same. Test this, 



The Science of Mnemonics. 



223 



if you doubt its power. Tell a number of small children 
the simple fact that St. Paul's Cathedral was erected by 




the architect Wren, and the majority of them probably will 
soon forget that which you have said. Then convey the 
fact symbolically, as given, and if the symbol is not more 
powerful than the ordinary verbal statement, it will be 
strange. 

Now should this picture seem to make 

Associations slender, 
Just use the last word of this rhyme, 

Which strong the link may (w) ren^^x ! 

Impressions made thus to minds that are awake to this 
mode of action, are very quick and enduring. Availing 



2 24 Medicinal Properties of Thistle Oil 

myself of the knowledge of this fact, I am certain that 
thousands who read this will, through this illustration, 
have my name inseparably connected with the objects 
used. Thus, while apparently I have been merely illustra- 
ting the application of a principle in fixing a fact, I have 
simultaneously, to thousands of minds, rendered St. Paul's 
Cathedral — that fane of Fame, to be associated with which 
so many celebrities have aspired in vain— a stupendous 
monument to the '' Stokes, of Memory, and, in time to 
come, to the Memory of Stokes !" 




(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON THE MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF 
THISTLE-OIL, OR OIL EXTRACTED FROM 
THE SEED OF THE ARGEMONE MEXICANA, 

BY E. BONAVIA, M.D. 

Civil Assistant-Surgeon, Lucknow. 

BABOO Kanny Loll Dey, in his paper about indigenous 
drugs, published in the 'Indian Medical Gazette' 
(No. 7, of 1st July last, page 197), has given a faint idea of 
the medicinal properties of the oil of A rgevione MexicanUy 
Linn, (called in Bengal She-al Kanta, and in Upper India 
KarwdJt). He was not aware that a number of experi- 
ments have been made in Oudh, which prove it to be a 



Medicinal Properties of Thistle Oil. 225 

much more useful oil than for the mere purposes of burn- 
ing. 

Some time ago I read in Simmonds's ' Commercial Pro- 
ducts of the Vegetable Kingdom/ page 626, that in " Nevis 
(one of the Caribbean Islands), the oil of Argemone Mexi- 
cana, called ' thistle-oil^ is sold in one-ounce phials at a 
quarter of a dollar each (that is, about 8 annas an ounce). 
The usual dose for dry belly-ache is 30 drops upon a lump 
of sugar, and its effect is perfectly magical, relieWng pain 
instantaneously, throwing the patient into a profound and 
refreshing sleep, and, in a few hours relieving the bowels 
gently of their contents. This oil seems fitted to compete 
in utility with the far more costly and less agreeable oil of 
croton." Mr. Simmonds further states that "Dr. Hamilton, 
of Plymouth, recently brought under the notice of the pro- 
fession the medical properties of the prickly poppy, or 
Mexican thistle {Argenione Mexicand)!' 

Knowing that this plant grows plentifully all about 
Lucknow, and in fact, in most parts of India, I determined 
to make some experiments with the oil of its seed, in order 
to ascertain whether the oil from the East Indian plant 
had the same effects as that of the West Indies. I got a 
quantity of seed collected, and had the oil extracted. I 
tried it in various cases of colic accompanied with constipa- 
tion. It often gave relief and moved the bowels, but these 
effects are not always produced. Sometimes, too, a second 
dose is required. I understood that in Upper India natives 
were in the habit of using it for an affection of the skin 
which they call dad. I tried the oil externally in all the 
dads which came under my notice, and I cannot remember 
one in which the itchiness was not removed, and the affec- 
tion cured. The dad is a skin affection which appears about 
the waist, where the " dhotee "* is tightly bound, and 
occurs mostly among Hindoos. The oil is rubbed twice or 
thrice a day on the affected part. A short time ago a 
patient came into my hospital with a pustular eruption all 
around his waist, and patches of it on his right thigh. It 
was very painful and troublesome. I got the seed of this 
plant pounded and mixed with a little flour and water, and 
made into a soft paste. This was plastered all over the 
pustular eruption ; it had a very good effect. In about a 



* Cotton cloth with which natives cover the middle part of their 
bodies. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I, U 



2 26 Medicinal Properties of Thistle Oil. 

week the man was quite well, and all the pustules had 
healed and left a clean skin. 

In May, 1865, I addressed the Chief Commissioner of 
Oudh, suggesting- that this oil should be tried in the various 
dispensaries of Oudh. I furnished them with the oil, and 
the following is the result of some of the experiments : — 

Dr. Whishaw, of Fyzabad, and Dr. Jamieson, of Hurdui, 
reported that it acted as a mild purgative. The former 
stated that it would be a useful addition to the Pharma- 
copoeia ; the latter stated that he used it instead of castor- 
oil, and it had the advantage of not being half so nasty to 
swallow. 

From Pertabgurh it was reported that the thistle-oil had 
been tried in the dispensary of that district, on 90 patients, 
said to have been suffering from colic. In 73 of the number 
it was successful, in 17 cases it was not. 

From Roy Bareilly, Dr. Baines Reid reported that " it 
had been given in cases of colic, in doses varying from 30 
drops to 2 drachms, repeated if necessary. The smaller 
dose was generally successful, quickly relieving the pain 
and acting mildly on the bowels ; but it sometim.es causes 
purging and vomiting." " In my own practice," he says, 
" among Europeans, I have not been successful in its use. 
On three occasions, when given as a purgative in doses of 
20 drops, it caused violent vomiting with long-continued 
nausea. The native doctor has used it successfully in cases 
of itch, but unfortunately not by itself. The oil made in 
the jail at Roy Bareilly appears similar in its properties, 
and has been given with the like results. 

" From my experience of the oil, it seems sometimes to 
have great power in relieving colic ; but it is very uncertain 
in its effects." 

Dr. Selons reporeed from Sultanpore — " I have had 
several opportunities of trying the thistle-oil, and in my 
opinion it is an excellent remedy in colic. 

" In one case, which occurred in my own compound, one 
dose of half a drachm allayed the pain and caused action 
of the bowels ; in others, two doses have been required ; 
but in all, the medicine appeared to exercise some influence 
beyond that of a mere purgative, as the pain was in all cases 
alleviated by its administration before the bowels acted. 

" I am inclined to consider it a valuable addition to the 
indigenous Pharmacopoeia." 

Dr. Condon reported from Baraitch that " it was tried 
in only three or four cases, and in some it did no good at 



Medicinal Properties of Thistle Oil 227 

all ; In others it did afford some relief. It was more ex- 
tensively used as an application to some skin diseases, as 
* scabies ' or ' itch/ and in some forms of ' psoriasis ;" and 
its beneficial effect was very marked in all. 

" I am of opinion/' he says, " that its utility in colic is 
doubtful ; but as an application in skin diseases, there can 
be no doubt whatever of its being a valuable remedial 
agent." 

The same medical officer reported from Gondah that " it 
was used internally in four cases of colic, in each of which 
it gave relief ;" "but/' he states "the number is too small 
for me to form an opinion of its merits/' He tried it in 
skin diseases very extensively, and found that it was an 
excellent remedy, rarely failing to afford relief; he further 
states that there can be no question as to its utility in some 
skin diseases, more especially that kind of " psoriasis " 
which is so common among natives, and also in "scabies." 
I sent a large tin of the oil to Dr. Wilkie, then Deputy-In- 
spector-General of Hospitals, Meerut Circle, for trial in his 
dispensaries. He soon after left Meerut for the lower 
provinces, and I have not heard what the result has been. 

Dr. O'Shaughnessy, in his ' Bengal Dispensatory,' under 
^x\aqXq Argemoiie Mexicanay states that "he subjected the 
seeds to numerous experiments, and has never found them 
to show any emetic or narcotic influence ; they contain a 
bland oil, resembling that of poppy oil, and which can be 
used in ounce doses without producing any purgative 
effect." 

The accounts given by the different individuals who 
tried it are conflicting, but, upon the whole, they are 
favourable. Its great usefulness in skin diseases I don't 
think can be doubted. There is discrepancy in results of 
trials made with the oil used internally for colic. I think 
this can be easily accounted for. All oils are changed 
more or less by keeping, and it is quite possible that the 
differences in the result originated in one case in being 
kept more exposed to the air than in another. The newly- 
pressed oil may give results different from those when a 
long time has elapsed after the seeds have been pressed. 
Differences of climate and soil may undoubtedly produce 
a change in the properties of a plant. No one doubts 
that all the varieties of Nicotiana Tabacitm descended 
from the same stock, but no two kinds agree exactly in 
their properties ; some have more, some have less of the 
narcotic principle. So it may be with the plant under 

U 2 



2 28 On the North Atlantic Telegraph. 

-consideration. We all call it A rgcnione Mexicaiia, but the 
one that grows in Mexico may have different properties 
from the one that grows in the West Indies, in Bengal, or 
the North of India. 

I think it is well deserving of more extensive trials. If 
we find it of use, its value will be enhanced by the extent 
of country over which it spontaneously grows. I think if 
separate trials be made with fresh seed and old seed, with 
fresh oil and old oil, we may arrive at some conclusive 
results regarding the properties of each. I am now making 
trials with the fresh pounded seed mixed up with a little 
flour and water. I use it as a poultice for indolent ulcers 
and skin diseases. At some future period I shall give the 
result of my experiments. 

Baboo Kanny Loll Dey states that the oil is of a pale 
yellow colour. Certainly, the oil which I had extracted in 
Lucknow was of a very different colour, it had a marked 
reddish-brown tinge, resembling somewhat that of the dark 
coloured cod-liver oil. It became much paler by keeping. 
The cost of producing the. oil in Lucknow is as follows : — 

Collecting seed, from 2 to 4 pice per seer. 

Pressing a maund of seed (40 seers) by the native pro- 
cess, I rupee and 4 annas. 

A maund of seed gives 8 seers of oil. 

So that the oil costs about 3 rupees and 2 annas for 8 
seers, or less than 8 annas a seer. The Nevis thistle-oil 
must be valuable indeed, to fetch about 8 annas an ounce. 

2\st July, 1866, 

P.S. — With reference to the change of properties of oils 
by keeping, I have often heard natives say that when 
castor-oil is newly extracted, they sometimes make use of 
it for cooking purposes. It is bland and very different 
from the same oil kept for some days. — Indiaii Medical 
Gazette, August, 1866. 



ON THE NORTH ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. 

BY H. HOLMES, 

THE magnitude and serious nature of the transmitting 
difficulties existing in all long unbroken sea lines, has 
led to the construction c f what is known as the Russian- 
American line — a land line of telegraph intended to reach 



On the North Atla7itic Tele£^raph. 229 

New York from St. Petersburgh by wires through Siberia 
and on to San Francisco, with a short sea section across 
Behren's Straits, a total distance of about 12,000 miles. 
This Russian- American line is already far advanced towards 
completion ; but by far the most important line of tele- 
graphic communication between England and America is 
that to be immediately carried into effect via Scotland, the 
Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and the coast of Labra- 
dor, and known as the North Atlantic Telegraph. A glance 
at the map in the direction pointed out will at once show 
that convenient natural landing stations exist, breaking up 
the cable into four short lengths or sections, instead of the 
necessitous employment of one continuous length, as be- 
tween Ireland and Newfoundland. It will also be found 
that the aggregate lengths of these sections is within a very 
few miles the same as that of the Anglo-American cable. 
Not only will this subdivision of the cable reduce mechani- 
cal risks in submerging, but, what is of far more importance, 
the retardation offered to the passage of the current through 
the several short sections is almost as nothing when com- 
pared with that of the unbroken length of 2,000 miles. 
Speed of transmission is obtained, and by that means a 
reduced tariff for public transmissions over the wire ; in- 
deed, such will be the advantages gained in this respect 
that the present rate by the Anglo-American line of 20s. 
per word, will be charged on the new route at 2s. 6d., or 
even a less sum. In examining more closely the nature of 
this intended Northern line, it will be found that the lengths 
of the several sections of cable between England and 
America are as follows : — Scotland to the Faroe Isles, 250 
miles ; Faroe to Iceland, 240 miles ; Iceland to Greenland, 
750 miles ; Greenland to Labrador, 540 miles; or in round 
numbers about 1,780 miles. The several lengths of cable 
will be connected together by special land lines through 
the Faroes (twenty-seven miles), and in Iceland (280 miles), 
and a length of about 600 miles of land wire to be erected 
in Labrador, will complete the circuit with the existing 
American system on to New York. The average depth of 
the ocean between Scotland and the Faroe Isles is only 
150 fathoms, the greatest depth 683 fathoms. Between 
the Faroes and Iceland 250 fathoms, with about the same 
maximum depth. Between Iceland and Julianshaad, the 
intended landing place of the cable in Greenland, the 
greatest depth is 1,550 fathoms, and between Greenland 
and Labrador rather over 2,000 fathoms. These lengths of 



2 30 Trade of the Island of Crete, 

cable and depths of ocean are both not only navigable, but 
practicable, and no difficulties in the working exists that 
are not already known by reference to the practical work- 
ing of existing cables under the conditions of similar lengths 
and depths. As regards the presence of ice, it must be re- 
membered that it is only at certain seasons of the year that 
the south-west coast of Greenland is closed by the ice, at 
other times this ice breaks up, and the coast is accessible 
to the Danish and other trading vessels frequenting the 
port and harbour of Julianshaad, the proposed station and 
landing place of the cables, and at such times the cables, 
will be laid. Reference to the depth of the soundings up 
the Julianshaad fjiord will at once indicate the security of 
the shore ends of the cables from interference from ice, 
when submerged. The landing places of the cable in Iceland 
are likewise in no way liable to be disturbed by ice of such 
a nature as to cause damage to the cable ; and on the 
Labrador coast, the risk of injury to the cable cannot be 
considered greater than that to which the Anglo-American 
shore ends are exposed in the vicinity of Newfoundland 
Bank. In stating these facts, it must be remembered that 
the officers of Her Majesty's Government in the ' Bulldog,' 
in i860, accompanied by the 'Fox,' screw steamer, made 
surveys of the intervening seas and landing places, charts of 
which were published by the Admiralty. 



TRADE OF THE ISLAND OF CRETE. 

AT the present time, when attention is being attracted 
to Crete, owing to the Revolution there, the follow- 
ing, concerning its Trade and Commerce, may not prove 
unacceptable to our readers : — 

As no other custom-houses, except those at Canea, 
Candia, and Retimo, are established on the Island, and all 
ships having goods to load or discharge, are consequently 
required to call at either of these three ports, in order to 
obtain permits and enter their manifests, the following 
general observations, compiled by Mr. Consul Dickson, at 
Canea, Mr. L. A. Colocherino, Consular Agent at Candia, 
and Mr. Colocherino, Consular Agent at Retimo, will fur- 
nish some idea of the navigation and commerce of the 
whole Island of Crete during the past year : — 



Trade of the Island of Crete, 



231 



District of Canea. 

Shipping and Navigation. — The total number of British 
ships that entered amount to seven; all from England, with 
cargoes consisting principally of coals and soda ash, valued 
altogether at ;^9,093, and having a total burthen of 1,824 
tons. The total number of their crews was 74. All these 
vessels cleared in ballast — namely, four for Constantinople, 
two for Zante, and one for Smyrna. The following is a 
statement of foreign ships entered and cleared, not in- 
cluding those engaged in the coasting trade: — Entered, 
429 vessels ; total value of cargoes, ^190,907 ; cleared, 470 
vessels; total value of cargoes, ;^i 60,400. 

The Austrian Lloyds steamers, plying as they do weekly 
between Syria, Canea, Retimo, and Candia, and vice versd, 
also carry on a coasting trade. The goods thus conveyed 
between the intermediate ports of this Island are chiefly 
native produce, and the amount thereof is trifling. 

The town of Canea is chiefly dependent upon 4 Italian, 
and a few Maltese boats, for its daily supply of fresh fish. 

All these shipping returns have been obtained from official 
sources. 

The value of the following articles of importation and 
exportation have been calculated, according to current 
market prices, and their quantities estimated approxi- 
mately by local merchants. 

Imports. — The imports amounted to ;^ 1 8 8, 3 70, and con- 
sisted of wheat, flour, barley, beans, sugar, coflee, rice, 
butter, codfish, and herrings, tobacco, calicoes, and T cloths, 
cotton twist, bullock hides, soda, ash, natron, jute-sacks 
(from Dundee), timber, hardware, rope of all kinds, &c. 

The following goods were received from England and 
Malta :— 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 

Piastres £ 

461,400 = 4,083 

40,000 354 

27,000 239 

30,000 265 


Soda Ash 
Jute Sacks 

Rice 

Miscellaneous ... 

Total ... 


cwt. 

No. 

bags 


6,840 

5,000 

150 


... 


558400=4,941 



232 Trade of the Island of Crete. 

Under the head miscellaneous are comprised T cotton 
cloths, cotton twist, herrings and codfish, dry salteries, and 
a few other manufactures. 

Exports. — The exports are soap, wrought silk, cocoons 
and silkworm eggs, oranges, and lemons, chesnuts, bees- 
wax, cheese, linseed, lambskins, &c., valued at a total of 
;^I50,3I5. Nearly the whole of these articles were ex- 
ported to Greece, and different parts of Turkey and Egypt. 

It will be remarked that olive-oil — the staple production 
of the Island — does not appear in the return, except under 
the name of soap, into which most of the oil has been con- 
verted. This circumstance is due mainly to the prevaihng 
high prices of soap in Egypt and at Constantinople. 

Rate of Exchange. — The rate of exchange has not ' fluc- 
tuated, remaining fixed at 113 piastres per £ sterling. 
Bills on England have been in steady demand, and nego- 
tiable always at par. 

Banks. — There are no banks in the Island. If a branch 
establishment were fixed at Canea in connection with some 
large banking firm at Constantinople, such an enterprise 
would materially benefit local trade, and at the same time 
alleviate the pressure caused by the present high rates of 
interest. Ten, and twelve per cent, is the interest usually 
levied on mortgage. 

Agricidttire. — The average agricultural produce of the 
Island of Crete during 1865, may be estimated as follows : — 

Olive Oil tuns 7,500 



bushels 200,000 

„ 300,000 

„ 250,000 

100,000 



Wheat 

Barley 

Oats 

Beans and Vetches 

On the whole, the corn harvest cannot be reckoned a 
plentiful one. Large quantities of olives, after having well 
ripened, have been washed away and otherwise damaged 
by the heavy and continued rains during the beginning of 
winter. 

Cocoojts and Silkworm Eggs. — In regard to cocoons and 
silkworm eggs, an unusually great number of persons came 
here from Syria early in the year to purchase cocoons, and 
convey the eggs to their own country. This caused the 
price of silk to advance to an unprecedentedly high price ; 
for whereas, in ordinary years the price never exceeded 
140 piastres per oke, as much as 400 to 450 piastres were 
paid during the year. 



Trade of the Island of Crete. 233 

Seventeen okes of cocoons produce one oke (about 
2j lbs.) of eggs. 

The quality of the silk of this Island is considered equal 
to that of Adrianople. The small manufactory established 
here in 1850 for reeling silk in the Italian way has for 
many years ceased to work. A good crop does not ex- 
ceed 30,000 lbs. 

P^iblic Works. — It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to state 
that railways and telegraphs did not exist on the Island, 
and that even the bare hope of such modern appliances 
being introduced under the present administrative system 
is very distant. The state of the roads and bridges in 
general (if the few now practicable be even deserving the 
appellation) is deplorable, and ought to rouse the serious 
attention of the Government to remedying so crying an evil. 

While the Governor-General, Ismail Pasha, is deserving 
of great credit for the encouragement his Excellency is 
giving to agriculture, distributing, as he has done, thousands 
of young olive and mulberry plants among the peasantry 
gratis, in addition to other benefits conferred on local hor- 
ticulture, the obstructions to the transport of yearly in- 
creasing produce, and to an extended means of internal 
communication, have been sadly overlooked. 

District of Candia. 

The chief articles of British manufacture imported to 
the port of Candia were cotton cloths, iron, soda ash, jute 
sacks, Indian rice, pepper, indigo, tin in boxes, alum, 
crockery, &c. These have been mostly conveyed by the 
Austrian Lloyds steamers from Syria, where they lay in 
transit. A quantity of such goods has also been imported 
through Smyrna and Constantinople. 

In addition to the Lloyds boats, a Greek company had 
started a line of steamers in April last, plying between 
Syra and Candia. These having proved too large, and 
unable safely to enter the small harbour of Candia, and, 
on the other hand, too costly, were soon afterwards aban- 
doned. 

The total number of all ships which have arrived and 
departed from this port during 1865, exclusive of boats 
carrying on the coast trade, is as follows : — 

E7itered. — 548 vessels, the total value of the cargoes 
being ;^i2i,7oo. Cleared. — 587 vessels, the total value of 
the cargoes being i^86,8oo. 



234 Trade of the Island of Crete. 

The total value of the imports was £i2\,'joo, against 
;£"i 13,261. in 1863, and 155,300 in i860. 

The exports amounted altogether to ;£"86,8oo, against 
;^I25,504 in i860. 

The trade of this province has been much depressed by 
the partial failure last year of the grain and olive crops. 
The latter only yielded 3,000,000 okes of oil, being about 
one-fourth of a good harvest in the whole Candia district. 

The crop of carobs was altogether a plentiful one, about 
40,000 cwt. were exported from this port last year. 

The prices averaged 3s. 6d. and 4s. per cwt., free of all 
charges on board. 

The grape has been nearly all blighted by a heavy storm 
occurring in the early part of September. 

A large quantity of silk cocoons, and equal to two-thirds 
the entire crop, was converted into eggs, pursuant to con- 
stant orders from Syria. 

Fresh cocoons fetched from 3s. 6d. to 4s. per lb. ; spun 
silk from i8s. to ;^i per lb. 

Olive oil costs, free on board, ^47 up to £^ i per tun ; 
native soap, 38s. per cwt. 

District of Retimo. 

The port of Retimo is yearly getting filled up with sand, 
and only very small vessels can now load or discharge. If 
properly cleaned there would be a depth of from ten to 
twelve feet. 

Last year the crop of oil almost entirely failed, having 
only produced 30,000 mistata (333 tuns). All this quantity 
has been made up into soap. 

A good crop of oil in the whole district of Retimo is 
estimated at some 500,000 mistata (5,208 tuns). 

Next to olive oil, carobs and valonea rank as staple pro- 
ducts of the district. 

The yield of the first was 30,000 kintals (33,000 cwt.), 
that of the latter, 40,000 kintals (44,000 cwt.) The price 
of carobs averaged 18 piastres per kintal (3s. 2d. per cwt) ; 
valonea was sold at 50 and 60 piastres per kintal (8s. 11 d. 
and 9s. lod. per cwt) 

The total number of ships entered at this port in 1865, 
was loi vessels, total value of cargoes being ^43,778. 113 
vessels cleared out with total cargoes, valued at ;^94,649. 



235 



ON THE TREATMENT OF MELTED CAST IRON, 
AND ITS CONVERSION INTO IRON AND 
STEEL BY THE PNEUMATIC PROCESS. 

BY R. MUSHET. 

IN the year 1815, the late Mr. David Mushet, took out 
a patent for the manufacture of refined iron, direct 
from the blast furnace. For this purpose, he erected a 
small blast furnace thirty feet high, blown by means of 
three tuyeres, with a pressure of blast about 3J pounds 
per square inch. These tuyeres were arranged so as to dip 
down upon the surface of the melted iron in the hearth of 
the furnace, and when the hearth was full, or nearly full, 
the tuyeres were partially below the surface level of the 
melted iron. There was no difficulty experienced in keep- 
ing the melted iron in a liquid state in the middle of the 
hearth, but round the sides the refined iron chilled and 
formed what is technically termed "scull," and this 
rendered it very difficult, and sometimes impossible to tap 
the furnace, and run off the portion of the metal which re- 
tained its fluidity when the tapping took place, the metal 
issued from the furnace intensely heated, and throwing off 
the most brilliant semtillations. The temperature of the 
metal, like that of ordinary refined iron, was far lighter 
than that of pig iron under the regular working of a blast 
furnace. The pigs of metal obtained were perfectly solid, 
showing, when broken, a dense white steely grain. They 
were so strong as to bend before they broke, and occasion- 
ally they could not be broken at all, though struck by the 
heaviest sledges, wielded by the most powerful men. The 
metal was, in fact, crude cast steel, and when annealed, was 
susceptible of being forged at a low heat to some extent. 
The defect m this process was that, as in the refinery, the 
waste of metal was excessive, owing to the surface action 
of the blast upon the melted iron for a prolonged period. 
The difficulty of keeping the hearth open, and of tapping, 
arose merely from the small eye of the furnace and earth, 
and weakness of the blast. The iron was, however, decar- 
bonized so as to be in the condition of crude cast steel, but 
too highly oxygenated to be forged into bars of commercial 
value. The experiment I have described, was, I believe, 
the first practical step taken in the development of the 
Pneumatic process, though it was certainly not undertaken 



236 Treatmenc of Melted Cast Iron 

with any idea of producing either malleable iron or steel 
by that process, but simply a highly decarbonized refined 
metal. About the year 1850, I made experiments with some 
very highly blown refined iron from the Parkend Iron- 
works, in the Forest of Dean, and found that when alloyed 
with manganese, this refined metal could be forged into 
sound bars of very hard steel, too hard for any practical 
purpose, but, nevertheless, solid and free from seams or 
flaws, indicating if the iron could be sufficiently decar- 
bonized whilst in the melted state, steel of marketable 
quahty might be obtained by simply adding some metal- 
lic manganese to the decarbonized metal. In the Autumn 
of 1856, Mr. Henry Bessemer read a paper at a meeting of 
the British Association at Cheltenham, which, whilst it 
filled the scientific as well as the practical world with 
astonishment, did not in the least surprise me, except, in 
the one circumstance of its being possible to maintain a 
tuyere beneath a heavy column of melted cast iron. That, 
indeed, appeared to me most surprising, as I was well 
aware of the highly destructive action of the iron slag 
which is generated by the action of atmospheric air upon 
melted cast iron. However, what I considered impossible 
had actually been accomplished by Mr. Bessemer, and the 
first great advance towards rendering steel as cheap as iron 
had been inaugurated by that gentleman. Mr. Bessemer's 
process consisted in forcing air through melted cast iron by 
means of tuyeres situated beneath the surface of the 
melted iron. When melted cast iron is subjected to this 
process, the silicon contained in the iron is first combined 
with the oxygen of the blast and thrown to the surface as 
a light frothy slag. Next, the carbon of the melted iron 
enters into combustion, and lastly, the iron itself is at- 
tacked and consumed with the development of an intense 
temperature, sufficient to keep the iron, though freed from 
carbon, in a perfectly liquid state. When the silicon and 
the carbon have been nearly or wholly eliminated from the 
cast iron operated upon, the product obtained is either 
crude cast steel or iron, according to the decarbonization 
arrived at. Ingots cast from this metal are more or less 
unsound, and when forged they frequently crack or break 
off, owing to their red shortness, and are wholly unfit for 
the requirements of commerce. Moreover, whenever the 
melted cast iron operated upon contains sulphur and phos- 
phorous to any notable extent, the decarbonized iron is 
found to be so crude and brittle that it cannot be forged at 



by the Pneumatic Process. 237 

all, and is, in fact, less valuable than pig iron from which it 
has been made. Hence, only the purest cake pig iron of 
Great Britain is at present suited for Mr. Bessemer's pro- 
cess, and this is comprised in the Hematite pig iron, the 
Weardale Spathose iron, on the Forest of Dean pig iron, 
and the Blanavon and Pontypool Welsh brands, the two 
latter, however, being far inferior to the other brands for 
the Pneumatic process. Mr. Bessemer naturally inferred 
that he should be able to produce both cast steel and iron 
by his process alone, and it by no means detracts from his 
merits that he happened to overlook the fact that iron ex- 
posed in the melted state, to the action of oxygen becomes 
as it were, debased. Some persons term it " burnt iron," 
but I call it " oxygenated iron," and oxygenated iron can 
never of itself constitute a commercially valuable article. 
This oxygenation can be prevented when a metal is pre- 
sent whose affinity for oxygen is greater than the affinity 
of iron for oxygen, and it can be remedied when such a 
metal is subsequently added to the oxygenated iron. When 
Mr. Bessemer read his paper, I foresaw all the difficulties 
he would have to encounter from the oxygenation of the 
iron, and I knew that the remedy was simple and attain- 
able, provided a suitable metal could be found at such a 
cost and in such quantities as would render its use 
practicable on the large scale. Out of several metals 
possessed of the requisite properties, I selected the 
metal Manganese, as found abwtdantly in the Spiegel- 
Elisen or Spathose pig iron of Rheinish Prussia, and com- 
bined therein with carbon and iron, the iron forming a con- 
venient vehicle, by means of which I could introduce the 
metallic manganese into melted decarbonized cast-iron 
treated by Mr. Bessemer's process. My first experiment 
Avas with some Bessemer metal prepared at the Victoria 
Ironworks from hematite pig iron. The experiment was 
made in small crucibles containing only a few ounces, the 
Bessemer metal being melted in one crucible and the 
Spiegel-Eisen in another, the melted contents of the cruci- 
bles were then mixed, and a small ingot cast. This ingot 
was forged into a bar of excellent cast steel, which was 
doubled, and welded, and made into a chisel, and was found 
for all practical purposes to be cast steel of average quality. 
I then extended the scale of my experiments, and operated 
with steal melting pots, each containing from forty to fifty 
pounds of Bessemer metal, and melting the Spiegel-Eisen 
in smaller crucibles. The most complete success resulted 



238 Treatment of Melted Cast Iron 

from these experiments, and Mr. S. H. Blackwell having 
subsequently supplied me with a small blowing engine, 
capable of maintaining a blast of ten pounds pressure per 
square inch, I operated upon quantities of melted cast iron 
of from 500 lbs. to 800 lbs., and with a similar success, the 
Bessemer metal being wholly freed from unsoundness, red- 
shortness, and other defects which had precluded its being 
forged or rolled into a marketable product. The British 
pig iron that I found best suited for the joint processes of 
Mr. Bessemer and myself, were the Lancashire and Cum- 
berland hematite iron, the Weardale Spathose iron, and the 
Forest of Dean pig iron ; of foreign brands, the Indian 
charcoal pig, and some manganesic pig iron from Sweden 
gave the best results, though not so satisfactory as those 
obtained when hematite coke pig iron was employed. 
Much remains to be done to extend the use of the pneu- 
matic or Bessemer process to the ordinary brands of pig 
iron at present considered to be unfit for this purpose. I 
am, I believe, in possession of the requisite knowledge to 
accomplish all this, and I am only waiting the opportunity 
to do so, whenever the Titanic Steel Company, with whom 
I am associated, shall consider that the proper time has 
arrived for them to erect a suitable Bessemer apparatus at 
their works. The means are, I believe, as simple and effica- 
cious as is the addition of Spiegel-Eisen, now universally 
employed by all Mr. Bessemer's licences in England, and 
the resulting advantages will be proportionally great. In 
Sweden the Bessemer process has been carried out by 
operating on certain brands of Swedish pig iron, containing 
a considerable alloy of metallic manganese. The result is 
that, with the subsequent addition of a little of the same 
manganesic pig iron in lieu of Spiegal-Eisen, a workable 
steel is produced of moderate quality, but too seamy and 
unsound to be of much value for tools, and not nearly so 
tough and strong as the Bessemer steel made in this coun- 
try by our own coke pig irons. I have recently experi- 
mented carefully upon this Swedish steel, and find it quite 
unsuited for the market, and most irregular in quality. It 
can never enter into competition with our English Bessemer 
steel. In treating melted cast iron by the pneumatic or 
Bessemer process, the simplest plan is to deprive the iron 
of the whole of its silicon and carbon. In this case the ad- 
dition of a grain weight of Spiegel-Eisen, or of any similar 
metallic compound of iron and manganese containing car- 
bon to a grain weight of decarbonized iron, will insure re- 



by the Pneumatic Process. 239 

suits of tolerable uniformity as to the hardness or temper 
of the steel produced. The effect of adding Spiegel-Eisen 
to Bessemer metal is as follows: — The metallic manganese 
by its superior affinity to oxygen, deoxygenates the decar- 
bonized metal, and renders it sound and free from red- 
shortness. The carbon of the Spiegel-Eisen steelifies the 
mixture, and improves it when stiff or hard metal is re- 
quired. The iron of the Spiegel-Eisen adds to the weight 
of the charge, and may therefore be considered as a gain to 
nearly the amount of its weight. The silicon which is found 
in Spiegel-Eisen has the effect of reducing the boiling or 
agitation of the pneumatized metal, when poured into 
moulds, and is therefore beneficial, and is not present to any 
injurious extent in Spiegel-Eisen. The hardness or temper 
of the Bessemer steel may be increased at pleasure by in- 
creasing the dose of Spiegel-Eisen. When Spiegel-Eisen is 
added to Bessemer metal containing sulphur and the pneu- 
matic blast is turned on so as to eliminate the carbon and 
manganese of the Spiegel-Eisen, a portion of the sulphur of 
the pneumatised iron is carried off by the manganese, and 
thus by repeated additions of Spiegel-Eisen, and subsequent 
elimination of its manganese, pneumatised cast iron may 
be wholly desulphurised. In a similar manner Bessemer 
metal containing phosphorus may be de-phosphorised by 
employing Titanic pig iron in repeated doses, to eliminate 
the phosphorus, and when both sulphur and phosphorus 
are present, both may be eliminated by repeated additions 
of Spiegel-Eisen and Titanic pig iron, the pneumatic blast 
being turned on after each such addition made to the cast 
iron. The pneumatic process of Mr. Bessemer, in conjunc- 
tion with my Spiegel-Eisen, is producing a revolution in the 
engineering world, and in all the departments of art depen- 
dent upon engineering, to an extent almost incredible, and 
the magnitude of its ultimate effects, it is impossible fully to 
forsee or calculate upon. Mr. Bessemer's name will be re- 
membered in connection with this, the greatest metallurgical 
invention, the world has ever seen, and I venture to hope 
that I may not be wholly forgotten as having supplied the 
link which was wanting to render Mr. Bessemer's process 
what it now is. As I had had much experience in matters 
relating to the steel manufactury, it was not surprising that 
I should at once have been able to devise the remedy for 
the single defect which marred the success of the pneuma- 
tic process at the outset. 



240 



BOUSSINGAULT'S RESEARCHES ON THE 
ACTION OF FOLIAGE. 

A full abstract of the first part of these investigations 
communicated to the French Academy of Sciences, 
is given in the Comptes Rendus, vol Ix., No. 18 (May, 
1865). Theodore Saussure had long ago ascertained that, 
while plants prosper and decompose carbonic acid gas in 
an atmosphere containing as much as one-twelfth or even 
one-eighth part of that gas, they promptly perish in un- 
mixed carbonic acid, apparently without decomposing any 
of it. Boussingault made his experiments in a better form 
upon leaves only, avoiding all complication of the action 
of the roots or other parts of the plant. His results are: — 

1. That leaves exposed to sunshine in pure carbonic 
acid do not decompose this gas at all, or only with extreme 
slowness. 

2. But in a mixture with atmospheric air, they decom- 
pose carbonic acid rapidly. The oxygen of the §.tmo- 
spheric air, however, appears to play no part. 

2. Leaves decompose carbonic acid in sunshine as 
readily when this gas is mixed with nitrogen or with 
hydrogen. 

Although this decomposition of carbonic acid by green 
foliage must be a case of dis-sociation, — a separation of 
carbon from oxygen, — yet Boussingault recognises an 
analogy here with an opposite phenomenon — viz., with 
the slow combustion of phosphorus at the ordinary tempe- 
rature. Phosphorus in pure oxygen emits no light, does 
not sensibly undergo combustion, but does so in a mixture 
of oxygen with atmospheric air, or with nitrogen, hydrogen, 
or carbonic acid. The analogy may even be carried 
further ; for, while a stick of phosphorus is not phospho- 
rescent in pure oxygen at ordinary or increased pressure, 
it becomes so in rarified oxygen. And Boussingault 
equally ascertained that leaves which exerted no sensible 
action upon pure carbonic acid at ordinary pressure, 
decomposed it, with the liberation of oxygen gas, under 
diminished pressure : that is, rarefaction and mixture with 
an inert gas act alike in mechanically separating the 
atoms, whether of carbonic acid as in the one case, or of 
oxygen as in the other, so as to determine the action 
either of combination or of dissociation. 



Researches on the Action of Foliage. 241 

In a continuation of these investigations {Comptes 
Rciidics, vol. Ixi., Sept. 25, 1865), Boussingault shows that 
carbonic oxide, whether pure or diluted, is not decom- 
posable by foliage, and that this inertness of green foliage 
upon carbonic oxide goes to confirm the opinion main- 
tained in his Economie Rjcrale, that leaves simultaneously 
decompose carbonic acid and water, C02,H0 = C0, H, O ; 
the O2 being liberated, CO,H expresses the relation under 
which carbon is united with the elements of water in 
cellulose, starch, sugar, etc. — i.e., in the important prin- 
ciples elaborated by the leaves, the composition of which 
is represented by carbon and water. He goes on to prove 
that a leaf which has been decomposing carbonic acid and 
water all day long is capable of doing the same work 
the next day, if not allowed to dry, but the losing of a 
certain amount of water annihilates this faculty, and 
irremediably destroys the life of the cells of a leaf, 
vegetable life in this state being far less tenacious than 
that of some of the lower animals {Tardigrades, Notipes, 
Sec), which bear wonderful desiccation. 

The third instalment of the investigation is given in 
Nos. 16 and 17 of the same volume (Oct. 16 and 23, 1865). 
It appears that detached leaves, kept in shade for many 
days, with the cut end of the petiole in water to prevent 
dessication, preserve the power of decomposing carbonic 
acid whenever brought into sunshine. But for this they 
must be kept in an atmosphere containing a supply of 
oxygen ; without this they soon die, as Boussingault thinks 
from asphyxia. The oxygen in darkness is slowly trans- 
formed into carbonic acid, through an operation which is 
presumed to go on continually, whether in light or dark- 
ness, and to answer to respiration. Of course a healthy 
and active leaf decomposes far more carbonic acid in the 
light than it forms in darkness. In eighteen experiments, 
with Oleander-leaves exposed to the sun from eight A.M. 
to five P.M., in an atmosphere rich in carbonic acid, a 
square metre of foliage decomposed on the average over a 
litre of carbonic acid per hour, while in darkness only tU of 
a litre of carbonic acid was produced per hour. In air which 
contains oxygen and carbonic acid, leaves will go on indefi- 
nitely producing oxygen in the presence of carbonic acid 
and carbonic acid in the presence of oxygen. But the 
latter, though relatively small in amount, seems to be 
necessary to the preservation of their vitality. In hydro- 
gen, carburetted hydrogen or nitrogen, as well as in pure 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. X 



242 Researches on the Action of Foliage. 

carbonic acid, they soon lose their decomposing power, 
and die from the impossibiHty of respiration — i.e., are 
asphyxiated. 

Leaves confined in a hmited portion of atmospheric or 
other air over mercury, lose the power of decomposing 
carbonic acid ; and the experiments pretty clearly show 
that they lose it through the deleterious action of the 
vapour of mercury. It is thought remarkable that the 
leaf does not under these circumstances at all lose the 
power of transforming oxygen into carbonic acid ; but 
that is what we should expect, for the carbonic acid so 
evolved (whether its evolution be called respiration or not) 
must be a product of decomposition of the leafs contents 
or substance. 

We owe to Boussingault and his assistant, Lewy, the 
idea of determining the composition of the air contained 
in a fertile soil, and the fact that this air in a strongly- 
manured soil contains a very large percentage of carbonic 
acid. Boussingault has now devised an experiment by 
which the air contained in the branch of an Oleander in 
full vegetation was extracted. It proved to be nitrogen 
88-OI per cent, oxygen 6-64, carbonic acid 5*35 per cent, 
— being about the composition of the air from a well- 
manured soil. This carbonic acid carried into the leaves 
with the sap, and also that which they may absorb directly 
from the atmosphere, decomposed along with water under 
sunlight, must be the source of the glucose (CjjHj^OjJ 
which it is the principal function of foliage to produce. 
This glucose, in fixing or abandoning the elements of 
water, becomes sugar, starch, cellulose, or other hydrates 
of carbon, which in whatever part of the plant accumu- 
lated or deposited, and however transformed or re-trans- 
formed, must always have originated from carbonic acid 
and water in the green part of plants. In closing his 
present paper with some illustrations of this now familiar 
view, Boussingault announces that his more recent experi- 
ments will enable him to demonstrate the direct formation 
of saccharine matter by the green parts of vegetables 
exposed to the light. — Amer. jfozcrn. Set. and Arts. 



243 
NEWCHWANG MOUNTAIN SILK. 

BY MR. CONSUL THOMAS TAYLOR MEADOWS. 

THERE are two crops of the mountain cocoon, a ^'chun " 
or spring crop, and a " tsew " or autumn crop. The 
latter is collected in the last half of September and October, 
and the cocoons are brought to market during this latter 
month. At this period the silk growers pick out the best 
of the cocoons for the production in spring of the butterfly 
and worm for the spring crop. They are preserved in baskets, 
which are hung up in the Chinese dwelling rooms. These 
almost always face the south, thus opposing a blank back 
wall to the cold northerly winds prevalent in winter, and 
getting from their southerly windows the full advantage of 
the sun in that season, when, during nine days out of ten, 
there is a clear blue sky. Besides this, the dwelling rooms are 
partially heated by the warmth emanating from the surface of 
the kang, a brick bench which occupies about one-third of the 
room, which serves as a sleeping place at night, as seat, &c., 
during the day, and inside which is a winding flue, with an 
aperture at one end, in which a fire of millet stalks is occa- 
sionally lighted. In spite of all this, however, the tem- 
perature of a Chinese dwelling in the mountain silk district 
is, during the greater part of the winter, considerably below 
the freezing point. The worm, being indigenous, could 
doubtless stand the cold of the winter's nights, in its cocoon 
on the bushes on which it forms these latter; but, apart 
from theft, destruction by wild animals, insects, &c., it is 
probable that in nights of unusual severity only the strongest 
and best inclosed might escape perishing from cold. 

The natural heat of spring suffices to bring the chrysalis 
out of the cocoon in the butterfly shape. The butterflies 
then couple, and in about four or five days after impregna- 
tion the female lays eggs. They are laid on native paper 
spread on mats, tables, &c. In about five or six days from 
each of these eggs is produced, a small worm of about the 
size of a black ant, and which is black in colour. This is 
about the time when the buds on the oak bushes have 
begun to make their appearance. This must be in the last 
half of April. The young leaves are forced by twigs, being 
cut off from the bushes and placed in water, in pools of the 
mountain streams, or in tubs in houses. From these the 
young tender leaves are taken, and are scattered over the 
paper, as the worms appear from the eggs. The worms 

X 2 



244 Neivchwang Mountain Silk. 

are thus nourished for some days, when they are transferred 
to the youngest, most tender-leaved, oak bushes on tlie hill 
slopes. They are then about an inch in length, but are 
still black in colour. The transfer of the whole does not 
take place in one or two days. There is during the whole 
existence of the animal in its worm stage, a difference of 
eight or ten days in the backwardness or forwardness of 
individuals. After some days the worm has its first sleep 
or torpor, at the close of which it changes its skin, and re- 
appears green in colour and larger in size. It has in all 
four of these sleeps or torpors, each of which lasts about 
two days. It changes its skin and becomes larger after each 
torpor, but retains after the first the same bright green 
colour. For its next, or fifth sleep, it prepares by spinning 
itself into a cocoon, in which it assumes the chrysalis shape, 
then bursts out as a butterfly and lays eggs, from which 
the small black worms are produced, when the processes 
just described are gone through again. These processes 
are, in the spring season, more rapidly performed than the 
similar processes in the autumn. The silk growers told 
me that those of spring required about sixty days, those of 
autumn about a hundred. In each season, as fast as the 
worms consume the leaves on one bush, they are removed 
by the attendant silk cultivators to another, the youngest 
bushes being used first. 

I was in some of the silk villeys from the 29th August 
to the 1 2th September, and had an opportunity of obser- 
ving the autumnal worms in their last stages. The most 
advanced began weaving their cocoons around them 
on the 2nd September, but at this time a large proportion 
of the worms were still in the stage between the third and 
fourth sleeps, while others, w^hich had cast their skins for 
the last time, were feeding hard, in preparation of the work 
of cocoon spinning. On the 12th September fully one- 
half were inclosed in, or busy with their cocoons, while the 
most backward had all changed their skins for the fourth 
time. 

Just before spinning its cocoon, it is a bright green- 
bodied grub or caterpillar of 3J to 4 inches in length, with 
a light brown head. On its pale brown face, there are six 
or eight small black specks. Its body has twelve joints. 
On eight of these, it has on each a pair of claws, five pairs 
of what I shall call back claws on the hinder part of the 
body, and three pairs of front claws on the forward part. 
The hindermost, or tail joint, has a pair of the back claws ; 



Newchwang Mountain Silk. 245 

then there are two joints without claws ; then come four 
joints, each with a pair of the back claws (one on each side) ; 
ihen come two joints without claws, and then the three 
foremost joints, each with a pair of the front claws. The 
five pairs of back claws are less developed as claws than 
the front ones, being, to outward appearance, of the same 
soft green matter that the body is composed of, and merely 
tipped with a small piece of hard substance of the same 
light brown colour as the head. The three pairs of front 
claws are, on the other hand, curved, and are entirely com- 
posed of the hard light brown substance. The five pairs of 
back claws serve as feet, by means of which the animal 
holds on to the twig or stem part of the leaf, v/hile the front 
claws serve as hands, by means of which it twists round the 
edge of the leaf to its mouth. When the grub is in one of 
its torpid periods, it holds on to the twig solely by means 
of the five pairs of back claws, the foremost five joints 
(three with claws and two without) being altogether de- 
tached from the twig, in the air. A little above the claws 
on each side there is, on each joint or segment, a bright 
blue speck, out of which two or three hairs grow. A little 
above those blue specks there is on each side, down the last 
or tailmost nine joints, a brownish streak, which two streaks 
widen and join together as a brown band on the tail joint. 
On the eighth and ninth of the joints, counting from the 
tail end, there are on this brown streak two silvery or white- 
metallic coloured spots on each side. The brown band does 
not extend to the foremost three joints ; on the other hand, 
each of these joints has two blue specks on each side, one 
above or higher up than the other. The animal is thickest 
about the second and third joints, counting from the head, 
and tapers off somewhat toward the tail. 

When the worm begins to make its cocoon, it selects 
two or more oak leaves more or less facing each other, and 
lower than the tv/ig from which they proceed. These 
leaves it joins together by a network of silk thread, which 
thread keeps issuing from its mouth as it moves its head 
from the one leaf to the other. It holds on, in the mean- 
time, by its back claws to the twig. When the leaves are 
sufficiently joined to form a sort of cup or basket under 
the twig to which it is holding, it loosens its hold and 
drops into the receptacle it has thus formed. The hinder- 
most seven joints of the body are then, with the tail joints 
slightly curled in, drawn together, and, remaining in a state 
of total inaction, serve, I presume, merely as a store from 



246 Newchwang Mountain Silk. 

which the silk thread matter is drawn. The work of 
further self-inclosure the animal does with its head and the 
foremost five joints of the body. It first quite surrounds 
itself with the loose flossy-like silk which forms the outer 
portion of the cocoons as they come to market, and through 
which its green body remains for a time visible. It then 
gradually forms the dense, hardish, skin-like substance, 
which constitutes the inner portion of the cocoon. On 
opening a cocoon which had been receutly formed, and was 
to outward appearance quite finished, I found inside a 
complete green worm curled up in the way I have de- 
scribed as to its hind part, and with the fore part in the 
condition in which it is when the animal is in one of its 
sleeps on the bush. After a while the fore part began to 
move, and the animal to spin silk, which it attached at 
each turn of its head to the surface of a table on which I 
had placed it. It seemed to be labouring to increase the 
thickness of its cocoon, being doubtless roused to the 
necessity of so doing by the feel of the open air to which 
it was again exposed. I judged that if the cocoon had not 
been opened, the animal would, after a sleep in it, have 
proceeded to thicken the inner surface by further thread 
spinning, and have gone on so doing till its bulk was 
sufficiently decreased for its turning into the chrysalis 
shape. 

The worm is fed on three kinds of oak bushes, called 
small " tsing-kang-lew," large " tsing-kang-lew," and " hoo- 
po-lo." The only difference between the small and the 
large tsing-kang-lew seemed to me to lie in the acorn cup, 
that of the former being smaller and also smoother outside 
than that of the latter. As for the hoo-po-lo oak, its leaves 
are much larger and darker than those of the large and 
small tsing-kang-lew. Its acorns are also much larger, 
and, what at once marks the difference, the cup, instead of 
a hard exterior rendered more or less rough by small, hard 
protuberances, is covered with longish feathery filaments, 
which give the cup the appearance of a small fur cap. 

Another bush, on the leaves of which the worm is fed, 
is called " tseen-tso-tsze." It is not an oak ; its leaves 
have, when newly plucked, a faint but distinct and agreeable 
perfume. They are long and narrow, blunt-oval shaped at 
the stem, and tapering to a point at the outer end. 
The best silk is produced by using the leaves of the tseen- 
tso-tsze, which exists, however, only in small quantities ; 
the next quality is produced by using the leaves of the 



Coal in Spain. 247 

large and small tsing-kang-lew ; the lowest quality by 
using the hoo-po-lo. 

The yield of the spring crop is said to be much less than 
that of the autumn crop, 1,000 cocoons of the former 
giving no more than 500 of the latter. But the quality is 
said to be greatly superior, finer, whiter in itself, and more 
capable of taking dyes ; but black, with various shades of 
reddish-brown or purple, seem to be the only dyes that 
either kind will take. 

The chrysalids which are not kept for breeding, are used 
by the Chinese as an article of food. 

The mountain silk remains as yet the one article which 
this district is likely to furnish to England. 



COAL IN SPAIN. 



ALTHOUGH considerable amounts of English capital 
has been (sometimes profitably) invested in other 
mining throughout Spain, very little attention has been 
given to her coal fields. Coal formations are formed in 
Andalusia, at Belmez, and Espiel, at San Francisco del 
Monte, and Adannaz in the province of Cordova ; and 
between Guadalcanal and San Nicola del Puerto, near the 
River Briar, and also at Villaneuva del Rio, in the province 
of Seville. 

The Belmez and Espiel district is the principal coal-field 
in Andalusia, and second only in Spain to the extensive 
coal measures of Asturias. It extends from the villages 
of Penavoya to Villahesta, a distance of about forty miles, 
and has an average breadth of about six. The coal is 
generally of good quality, and the seams, though very 
irregular, are of unusual thickness. The strata are 
frequently dislocated and contorted, owing to posterior 
upheavals, and in some places protrude in an almost 
vertical position, allowing, where this takes place of their 
being worked with but little trouble or cost. Some years 
ago all the coal that was here produced was obtained from 
the surface, and the quality was very serviceable. The 
mine most in repute is the " Terrible," owned by a French 
company; it is extensively and judiciously worked, and 



248 Coal i7i Spain. 

several miles of galleries have already been cut. It is 
ready to supply a large demand, when the railways which 
are being constructed, and which are hereafter to be con- 
structed, will connect this isolated place with the principal 
trunk lines in Spain. There are other mines at Belmez 
and Espiel, owned by the " Fusion-Carbonifera," and other 
Spanish companies, and by private persons, but all of 
them are either for the moment abandoned, or are very 
indifferently managed ; and for their ultimate possession 
numerous and complicated lawsuits are pending. But 
thus the less coal is taken away from them in the mean- 
time ; and the only outlets for the little they put out are 
an iron foundry, several copper and lead-smelting works, 
and a few neighbouring mills worked by steam-power 
established in the vicinity. The coal cannot be conveyed 
conveniently to any great distance, as the country is 
rough and hilly, and no regular roads, which could carry 
winter traffic, have as yet been made. The price at these 
mines for coal fit for furnaces and engines is from 13s. to 
17s. per ton, but the cost of carriage to the Pechoro iron- 
works for instance (distant from Penarvoya about sixty 
miles), is upwards of 40s. per ton, its cost thus amounting 
at these works to 53s. to 57s. per ton. This high price 
naturally prevents any great consumption, and it is 
employed, owing to its good quality, only for special 
purposes. 

The strips of carboniferous formations at San Francisco 
del Monte, and at Adamaz, quite near Cordova, have 
never been properly examined or explored, as far as I 
know. The coal formation of Guadalcanal begins near 
Bafia, in Estremadura, and extends to the village of San 
Nicholas del Puerto, a distance of about sixty miles ; its 
greatest breadth being about fifteen miles. This large 
coal district is scarcely known even in Spain, and has 
never been thoroughly examined by competent geological 
surveyors. A pit here and there has been sunk, near 
where the coal-seams protrude ; and bituminous shale and 
coal of inferior quality have been met with a few feet from 
the surface. At Fuente del Arco a small quantity of coal 
is extracted for the supply of a steam-engine established 
at a short distance. These unimportant and impotent 
attempts at real mining do harm to the coal-fields, and 
bring discredit on those of them that are worth careful 
working. 

There are indications of coal near the River Biar, a 



Coal in Spain, 249 

tributary of the Guadalquivir, but neither has this district 
ever been well explored, nor has any scientific boring been 
attempted. According to several French engineers who 
have visited this spot, the formation where traces of coal 
deposits have been met with, belong to the triassic epoch. 
The coal-field of Villanuero, which is of limited extent, 
covering a surface of scarcely a square mile, lies in silurian 
rocks, and is overlayed by the tertiary formation, under 
which it dips in a southerly direction, and extends perhaps 
beneath the Guadalquivir (see map of Spain). This field 
has been worked for a long time by the " Compania del 
Guadalquivir," and by other companies, but without much 
judgment. Numerous pits have been sunk of about nine 
feet in diameter, to a depth of from fifteen to twenty-five 
fathoms. The coal at the bottom has been raised by 
manual labour alone, the pitmen working the seam only 
as far as they thought it safe — without propping the 
galleries ; and then abandoning the shaft to dig another 
one whenever they considered there was an immediate risk 
of the ground above giving way. 

The consequences of this absurd manner of working 
these mines is that a great portion of the first seam of 
coal is much deteriorated, and is of more difficult exten- 
sion than if nothing had been done. The place is curious 
to look at, being completely riddled with these shafts and 
pits, and it is positively dangerous to go across the ground, 
even during daylight. 

At present a large portion of this property is being held 
by, or for, M. Pereire, of the French Credit Mobilier. 
Proper machinery is being established, and the works are 
beginning to be carried on upon scientific principles. 

These mines are about twenty miles from Seville, and 
the Merida Railway will connect them with the Cordova 
line at Treina. The seams are of no great thickness, but 
five (seams) are known to exist, only one of which has 
been worked in the imperfect manner described, the second 
has scarcely been touched at all. The annual yields of the 
Villanuero mines has been from 5,000 to 15,000 tons Eng- 
lish, but M. Pereire's mines (" Minas de la Reunion ") will 
soon be in a position to supply much larger quantities. 

The other coal deposits of Spain are, Pola de Lena and 
Mieres, in Asturias ; Val de Sabero, in Leon ; Guardo and 
Muneca, in Palencia ; San Juan de las Abaderos, in Cata- 
lonia ; and Hinaressos, in Cuenca. The rest, as far as 
known, are of minor importance. 



250 



AN INQUIRY INTO VEGETABLE FIBRES 
AVAILABLE FOR TEXTILE FABRICS. 

BY H. SHERWOOD. 

Continued from page 150 

IN addition to fibres which have been noticed, there are 
also others which have been supposed to be suitable 
for textile fabrics : we allude expressly to Mudar fibre, and 
Sisal hemp. Mudar especially has been highly spoken of. 
It is of Indian growth, and, in its uncleansed state possesses 
enormous strength, which fits it well for cordage. But it 
appears to possess very few of the properties which are 
necessary in a fibre to be used for textile fabrics. It is 
built up of tender (though not brittle) and excessively fine 
cells into which it is with difiiculty separated. These are 
not more than a quarter of an inch in length, and are less 
brilliant than those of pine-apple fibre. When the rough 
fibre is cleansed from loose vegetable matter, it looses much 
of its strength, and breaks short and dead. It separates 
sufficiently to admit of its being spun into heavy yarns, 
suitable for such purposes as sailcloths, ducks, &c., but 
would never be a favourite fibre for even these uses. Its 
utility, whichhas been so much lauded, appears exaggerated. 
This arises probably from the fibre having been examined 
and proved only in the raw state. It possesses in a marked 
degree, the peculiarity of colouring to a bright primrose, 
under the action of soaps and alkalis, even when much 
cleansed. It seems admirably adapted for all felting pur- 
poses, and would produce, under proper modes of reducing 
to pulp, papers of the finest and highest descriptions. To these 
modes we may afterwards revert. The fibre can doubtless 
be obtained at a suitable price for this use. Regarding the 
plant in a three-fold light, as a producer of a fine silky 
down of a useful length, of a true gutta-percha, and of an 
excellent paper fibre, there is probably abundant scope 
for its special cultivation with profit. 

Agave Americana, or Sisal heinp. — This fibre possesses 
great strength, is well adapted for rope making, being similar 
to Manilla. It can be divided in a similar manner to pine- 
apple fibre, though not to so great a degree. It has been used 
in a similar manner for making a kind of muslin ; but to be 
used for any description of goods spun into yarns is impos- 
sible, through not possessing properties which fit it for 
spinning. It appears most adapted as a substitute for 



Vegetable Fibres Available, etc. 251 

bristles in brush making, for which purpose it is now em- 
ployed in a limited degree. If not obtained white from the 
unfermented leaf, the brown colour acquired is very dark, 
and difficult to bleach off. Most of the Aloe tribe possess 
similar properties ; the Yuccas approximate nearer in 
their structure to pine-apple fibre. 

Neilgherry Nettle. — This being an Urtica should have 
been noticed after China grass, to which it is, in some re- 
spects, similar. The fibre is brilliant and strong, easily sepa- 
rated, regular in fineness ; from six to twenty-eight inches 
in length ; of good natural whiteness, similar in fineness to 
the coarsest mohair, much twisted , generally flattened at 
the root end. The last peculiarity is a detect, otherwise 
it is a fibre perfectly adapted for spinning with coarse 
combing wools. It seems to be especially applicable for 
fabrics where bright stiffness is the quality desired. It 
dyes in a similar manner to China grass, but does not pos- 
sess equal brilliance, or strength, or whiteness. If it were 
found on the market it would immediately take a position 
as a combing fibre, probably second only to China grass. 
It is reported to be obtainable in abundance, but the plant 
is a formidable one to manipulate. 

Other fibres exist suitable for combing, of w^hich it is 
difficult to obtain fair samples in Europe, to report fully 
upon. One especially has passed under the writer's notice, 
of remarkable fineness, six to ten inches in length, admira- 
bly adapted for a silk substitute ; and, at this juncture of 
dear silk, if found in commerce, would bear a high value. 
Many varieties exist of the fibres mentioned in this Inquiry 
which would be of great value for special uses if brought 
systematically on the market. Others not commercially 
known to the manufacturers of Great Britain, but very de- 
sirable for some uses, are obtainable in large quantities at 
the price of the expense of getting. 

But, with the apathy which presses so heavily on all new 
commercial matters, how are our manufacturers to be sup- 
plied with all these fibres at moderate prices } The private 
merchant will only twice in a century furnish the market 
with material for which he has never been asked, and of 
which perhaps the very existence is unknown to the private 
manufacturer. But, supposing the first to have been fur- 
nished, and an unflattering reception received, (the only re- 
ception an unknown or untested material could possibly 
obtain), is it likely that he will have spirit enough to have a 
second cargo coming forward to fully establish its value } 



252 Vegetable Fibres A vailable for 

Again, the price asked for this new gold-mine of a fibre 
(probably the only feature which could raise spirit enough to 
import it at all) will be a fabulous one ; one, two, or three hun- 
dred per cent above value, which raises another insuperable 
barrier against it becoming a regular import ; whereas, 
the simple cost, plus a moderate profit, would enable 
the material to be consumed for some rough uses, 
whilst skill is perfecting its processes by which to prepare it 
for its finer uses. If in the future Britain sustains her posi- 
tion as the great manufacturer of the world, and increases 
her wealth thereby, as heretofore, it must be by marching 
in advance and by seizing the opportunities which the 
varied produce of her empire of all climes brings her so 
lavishly. But one is led to ask whether the true British 
spirit and pride of originality which called into exist- 
ence our most important manufacturers and the re- 
sulting wealth have not died out, when prominently 
are seen only effeminated home investments ; — hotel 
keeping, money broking, buying up established businesses, 
at ten years purchase of profits, to be left to ofiicials to pay 
dividends from capital ; whilst the elements of wealth — 
wealth moderate at first, but steadily and surely growing 
to the enormous and gigantic — lie rotting within gunshot 
of our ports, in other climes. The present day may be one 
when men cannot wait to see whether the crop be cockle 
or barley, or, if faintly discerned, cannot afford to wait until 
it grows ; but such is not the spirit which has elevated 
Britain's commerce or her people's wealth. If a portion of 
the surplus capital of England, instead of being expended 
on undertakings of the " Gottup Hotel Company" class for 
the benefit of office holders, were directed towards pro- 
ducing useful fibres in our colonies and dependencies, it 
would produce a high remuneration to its owners of a stable 
character yearly increasing. Against this it is urged 
that these products are best brought into the market 
by colonists or natives upon the demand becoming known. 
But it is found in practice that demand is 7iil until the pro- 
duce is offered on the market at such a price as will permit 
its use. Further, a v/illingness on the part of colonial 
merchants to supply pioduce ordered in advance does not 
meet the case : nor will the growers or collectors make 
arrangements for crops for which they cannot ensure a 
regular demand ; and besides, the manufacturer cannot 
give out his orders for raw materials to be supplied to him 
at perhaps two years hence. If new or little used materials 



Textile Fabrics. 253 

come on the market in reliable quantities, it must be by 
other means than by ordinary merchants or growers. 
Again, it is generally found that when supplied solely from 
these sources, the quality and condition of the fibres cannot 
be relied upon. To expect otherwise would be as unrea- 
soning as to rely upon small producers for our cotton, our 
teas and sugars, or our copper and iron. The particular 
varieties of plants and the preparation of the fibres into the 
state best adapted for our uses, are matters which cannot 
be expected to be satisfactorily attended to by small pro- 
ducers, especially as the preparation of the fibres is gene- 
rally greatly assisted by suitable machinery. Further, the 
adapting of fibres to new, though most natural uses, cannot 
be developed fully by private individuals. These diffi- 
culties all point to the necessity for organization, with con- 
siderable capital, both for growing the fibres, bringing them 
into a good marketable state, and for showing the way at 
home by manufacturing some of them. The progress at 
first would be slow, as is naturally the case where growth of 
crops is in question, but the difficulties are by no means 
great. It is yearly more and more proved that crops pro- 
duced in one country are producible with equal success in 
many others spread over the world which enjoy a similar 
climate. For those fibres which require to be specially culti- 
vated we have in Africa, in Australia, and in the West Indies, 
close to the seaboard, all the requirements for their easy 
and profitable cultivation. 

It has been further objected that the state of manufacture 
is not sufficiently advanced to warrant this employment of 
capital. This in no sense is the case : — The consumption 
of some would quickly become large if they could be ob- 
tained in a reliable state at fair prices. Their manufacture 
cannot satisfactorily be perfected, when every sample ob- 
tained varies from the preceding one. There is besides no 
inducement to bring forward improved processes, which 
contain the substance of a completely successful treatment, 
when it is known that the prices of raw material forbid any 
treatment at all. The material to treat is the first con- 
sideration — given that, satisfactory treatment (using the 
term in an absolute sense), will rapidly follow. Many facts, 
localities, &c., could be pointed out, which would warrant 
the production of some of those fibres on the largest scale : 
and certainly, a fibre plantation is as warrantable an under- 
taking as a mine in South America, or a tea garden in 
India. 



2 54 Stipply of Fish in Great Britain. 

In a succeeding number we propose to examine the 

modes and processes employed at present for treating these 

fibres and how far they are adapted for bringing them into 

their best obtainable state. 

Foots Cray Paper Mills, S.E. 
Nov. 26, 1866. 



WHETHER THE SUPPLY OF FISH FROM THE 
SEA FISHERIES OF GREAT BRITAIN IS IN- 
CREASING, STATIONARY, OR DIMINISHING } 

THOUGH there has been much conflicting evidence 
on this point, we have no difficulty in coming to the 
conclusion that, on the coasts of Great Britain, the supply 
of fxsh is increasing, and that it admits of progressive 
increase. It fluctuates according to the locality and the 
season of the year. In the autumn of 1863 the north-east 
coast of England yielded a meagre in-shore fishing ; while 
in the following year we found on the east coast of 
Scotland the haddock fishing had been one of the best 
ever known ; and at the time that the in-shore fishing was 
unproductive in 1863, that carried on by the decked 
vessels further to sea was yielding an abundant supply. 

The evidence, where strongest in favour of a gradual 
decline in the yield of fish, was nearly always accompanied 
by statements showing a progressive increase in the 
number of men and boats engaged in the fishing ; and 
not only have these numbers uniformly increased, but 
there has also been an increase in the length of each 
fishing line and the number of hooks upon it, in the 
length and depth of the nets, and in the size and sea-going 
qualities of the boats. The machinery for fishing has 
been increased in efficiency, while in proportion to that 
efficiency the cost of working it is actually diminished. 

With the exception of the statistics of the Northern 
Herring Fishery, collected by the Scotch Fishery Board, 
there are no means of ascertaining, even approximately, 
the annual yields of fish on the coasts of the United 
Kingdom. The only facts we have been able to obtain 
are returns of the fish traffic on several of the great lines 
of railway which the fish is transported from the fishing 
ports to the markets. This return shows, in 1863, an 



Supply of Fish in Great Britain, 255 

increase of ii per cent over that of 1862, and in 1864 of 
12 per cent, over that of 1863. It is particularly interest- 
ing as bearing uponj-the alleged falling off of the take 
of fish on the Easte n Coast of England, where, instead 
of a decline, there is shown to be an annual increase 
exceeding 10,000 tons. 

The progressive state of the sea fisheries on the coasts 
of Great Britain, as shown by the increase in the number 
and size of boats at each fishing station, and the more 
improved fishing gear of every description is clearly 
brought out in every part of the evidence. The apparent 
decline on the coast of Ireland seems to be due to other 
causes than any decrease of fish. 

There is, likewise, abundant proof of the continued pro- 
ductiveness of the nearest and most frequented fishing- 
grounds. The principal London salesmen concurred in 
their testimony, to that efi'ect. Not only are the fishing 
vessels constantly being increased in number, but the take 
of each vessel is increasing, and from the speedier means 
of transport, the quality of the fish is improving. On the 
western part of the Dogger Bank, it is not uncommon for 
a single trawl-vessel to take, in a three hours' trawl, from 
two to three tons' weight of fish, and a smack-owner men- 
tioned a recent case, in which five of his vessels caught 
seventeen tons of fish in one night. Similar testimony is 
borne to the prolific character of the fishing-banks off 
Scarborough, Flamborough Head, Grimsby, and the Coast 
of Norfolk. In the English Channel, the famous fishing- 
ground of Rye Bay, which has for a long period of years 
been constantly trawled over by both English and French 
fishermen, was stated to have yielded more fish during 
1863 than in any previous year. In some of the bays on 
the South Coast, signs of over-fishing have been alleged 
to exist, but in the deep sea, the well-known trawling- 
grounds are constantly fished over with daily returning 
success. 

One of the principal sources of the supply of food from 
the sea, is the herring-fishery. The statistics of the Scotch 
herring-trade show the quantities of the cured fish only. 
During the last twenty-five years, there has been no great 
fluctuation in the annual cure; but as the cure of 1862 was 
the greatest in the whole of that period, there can clearly 
be no permanent falling off in the take of herrings. 

There is no record of the vast quantities of herrings 
taken along the shores of the East Coast of England, 



256 The Metropolitan Railway. 

where the shoals are encountered, and followed by fleets of 
fishing vessels, pushing out from every port on the first 
sign of the welcome harvest. The evidence we have taken 
shows that the same fluctuations which are exhibited by 
the Scotch returns are felt on the English Coast, but there 
is no indication of decline. At Scarborough, during the 
past three years, there seems to have been a marked and 
progressive increase. So plentiful are the herrings there, 
sometimes, that 700 to 800 tons are said to be sent thence, 
into the interior of the country, by railway, in a single 
day. From Lowestoft, vast quantities are distributed, in a 
fresh state, among the manufacturings town during the 
period of the fishery, Birmingham and Manchester taking 
the largest share. At Yarmouth, where from 3,000 to 
4,000 men are engaged in the Autumn fishery, the take of 
1862 and 1863 was better than had been known for twenty 
years. Nor is the benefit confined to our country. The 
French boats follow the herring on the British Coasts in 
large and increasing numbers, and the Dutch herrings,, 
which are so much prized in the continental markets, are 
most caught within sight of the English shores. 
(To be continued in our next.) 



THE METROPOLITAN RAILWAY. 
To the Editor of the TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — A short time since I was coming from Hammer- 
smith to London by the Underground Railway. I entered 
a third-class, having seen a man enter also with a large 
sheet of bricks and mortar under his arm. This sheet 
was about three or four feet in length, and perhaps two and 
a-half in width, and about half an inch to an inch in 
thickness ; one side was smooth, and the other altogether 
as rough. It was exceeding hard, as that of stone, both 
the bricks and mortar equally the same. The rough side 
had the appearance of being snapped off by some instru- 
ment. 

The man informed me that this layer or sheet had sepa- 
rated itself from the wall inside one of the tunnels. 

I write this, hoping some of your numerous readers who 
have been accustomed to engineering, may be able to 
explain the cause. 

I am, &c., M.D. 



257 
REVIEW. 



The Surrey Hills ; A Guide to the Cater ham Railway and 
its Vicinity. With Map. Second, and Revised Edition. 
London: John Russell Smith. 1866. 

This little work contains a full account of Caterham and 
its neighbourhood, showing how advantageous it is as a 
place of residence, owing to its great salubrity, and the rapid 
connection which it has with London by means of the 
Caterham Railway. This book also gives interesting his- 
torical notes on the several villages which surround the 
town of Caterham. Those who wish for quietude, in addi- 
tion to healthiness of locality, would do well to locate at 
Caterham, or one of the many adjacent picturesque villages. 
For a full account of the Surrey Hills, we must refer our 
readers to the book itself 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Poisonous Black Spider. — We have received 
the following account of a poisonous black spider, which 
has of late years made its appearance in Russia. We are 
indebted for the information to a traveller, who passed the 
greater part of last year in the province of Berdiansk. 
The appearance of this insect amongst the wheat at 
harvest time, created for a few days a panic among the 
labouring classes, and, indeed, one of so threatening a 
character, that wages rose to double their ordinary rate, 
and it was with difficulty that the labourers could be 
induced to work. More than 300 persons were bitten by 
this venomous insect, but only three cases are reported to 
have proved fatal, and these deaths, it is supposed, are not 
to be attributed solely to the bite of the spider. Fortu- 
nately, this visitation was restricted to one part of the 
town lands, otherwise the consequences might have been 
very serious. The bite of this insect was indicated by a 
hard, white spot. The first symptoms experienced were 
alternate violent heat and cold, shortness of breath, bor- 
dering on suffocation, and increased pulsation of the heart, 

NEW SERIES.— VOL. I. Y 



258 Miscellaneous, 

and pains in the chest and back, then weakness in the legs, 
and dizziness in the head. After a few hours these sym- 
ptoms diminished, and in two days the patient was able to 
resume his work. The general remedy employed was to 
cup the poisoned part, and liberally wash it with cold 
water. Some cauterised the place, but this remedy was 
not so efficacious, and it created besides a fresh wound. 
The first time this spider was seen at Berdiansk, was in 
1864, but a very few persons were bitten by it. Last year, 
however, it increased to a most alarming extent. It was 
remarked that the spider was very active in killing locusts, 
on which it seemed principally to feed, and it was only 
when disturbed that it stung persons. The majority of 
the persons bitten did not know the cause of their illness, 
and it was only the same symptoms in each case that 
proved it to be the sting of the spider. This poisonous 
insect has again visited Russia this year, but we understand 
it has done but little mischief. 

Port Natal. — The rise of Port Natal shows a very rapid pro- 
gress as regards all that Europeans look forward to, when leaving 
their native land. In Natal, will be found every convenience and 
necessary comfort which the exigencies of civilised life call for. 
In this thriving colony we see public control and authority, 
churches and colleges, railways and electric telegraphs, books 
and newspapers, music and theatres, and indeed, all that a civi- 
lized community expect to have, down even to steeple-chases and 
horse races ; when we find all these adjuncts to the enjoyment of 
life, which enable the immigrant from Europe to hardly distinguish 
the difference between his native country and the land of his adop- 
tion, we must confess that the severity of competition in all classes 
of professions and trades in Great Britain will induce a vast num- 
ber of enterprising men to make Natal the goal of their ambition 
in the colonial world. As the Editor of the ' Natal Almanack and 
Register' has said, in the 1865 edition, "Now that Natal is be- 
coming vastly more satisfactory as a place to reside and enjoy 
life in, and that its pecuniary inducements are growing strong 
enough, there will be no lack of fresh faces in the colony." And 
so say we, in fact, if the resources of Natal were more fully 
brought to the notice of the British emigrant classes, there cannot 
be any doubt but that it would be chosen by them in preference 
to the many other parts of the globe to which Englishmen now 
direct their steps. 

Straw Papers. — The first attempts to make paper from straw 
go back to the beginning of this century, as is provd by the patent 
taken out by Sequin. The process consisted in subjecting the 
materiau to the action of a lye made of a mixture of lime and 
soda or potassa until the substance was softened enough to be 



Miscellaneous. 259 

crushed between the fingers. After washing, followed by tutura- 
tion, the stuff was converted into paper. The numerous patents 
taken out with the same object, are based upon analogous prin- 
ciples. Schinz managed to make packing paper of considerable 
strength, by mixing 50 per cent, of coarse rags with straw pulp, 
prepared in the following manner: — 220 lbs. 'avoir.' of wheat 
straw, finely chopped, and 176 lbs. of quicklime were placed in a 
caldron with a sufficient amount of water to form a pulp. The 
mixture was stirred, and poured into a second boiler every day for 
a fortnight. This material was then reduced to pulp, and mixed 
with the rag pulp in the beating, engine. The product obtained 
was half-sized, of a yellowish tinge, and great strength. Straw 
contains a yellow colouring matter, which is, more or less, com- 
municated to the paper, unless subjected to a succession of boil- 
ings and bleachings, with gaseous or liquid chlorine. In this case 
the waste of material is very much increased. The majority of 
manufacturers who employ straw, are satisfied with subjecting it 
to maceration with lime, and succeed in making common wrap- 
ping paper, for which there is a considerable demand at present. 
If, however, we wish to make common printing paper, such as 
newspaper, &c., of straw pulp, it is indispensable to bleach with 
repeated chlorine, and acid baths. The mixture is then made in 
the proportion of : — 

25 to 40 per cent, of straw pulp. 
75 to 60 „ „ rag pulp. 
The manufacture is thus only profitable in localities where 
chemicals are at a low price. We have seen very handsome 
papers made in England, 80 to 90 per cent, of straw, but it 
remains to be seen whether the profits will render the process 
practicable. The nature of the straw and the composition of the 
soil in which it is grown, are not unimportant matters to the paper 
maker. The hardness of straws proceeds from the quantity of 
silica interspersed throughout their substance, and forming an 
obstacle to their conversion into paper, by binding together the 
fibrous parts of the stalk. The straw to be chosen is that of 
wheat, as being the most tender. This fact is in accordance with 
chemical analysis, which gives the following proportions of sifica 
contained in the three principal cereals of our soil : — 
I St. Wheat straw, 4*3 per cent, of sifica. 

2nd. Rye „ 6-3 „ „ „ 

3rd. Barley „ 6-9 „ „ 
The knots of graminious plants in general are injected with a 
much greater quantity of silica than the intermediate parts, and 
should therefore be carefully removed when the straw is to be 
converted into white paper pulp. Among other straws which 
have been tried we will mention maize, which gives a naturally 
sized paper of great strength, and which at one time very much 
excited pubHc attention. Maize stalks unbleached, only boiled 



26o Miscellaneous. 

with lye and added to rag pulp, are suitable for making packing 
paper. The product possesses a certain tenacity not offered by 
that of other straws. This substance may then answer very well 
in countries where it grows in sufficient quantities to allow of its 
employment in the arts. In some paper-mills, and especially 
that of Cusset, attempts have been made to convert into paper 
the inferior qualities of hay produced in marshy soils. The pro- 
duct obtained was of a dingy green tinge, and had little consis- 
tency. It may, however, answer common printing paper. The 
composition adopted for the pulp was : — 

50-0 parts of hay. 

12-5 „ tarred rope. 

12-5 „ Hnen and woollen. 

25-0 „ cottons. 



100*0 
Boihng hay in lye is an easy operation, and the unbleached 
pulp may be used for wrapping papers. The paper made of this 
material is more supple than that obtained from straw. A Swedish 
newspaper has been printed for several years past upon paper 
made with horse dung. By washing, all the soluble parts are 
carried off and used for manure, and the parts of the hay which 
have not been assimilated by the organism of the animal, having 
undergone a previous bleaching by means of the gastric and other 
juices, require a smaller proportion of chemical agents to effect 
their transformation into pulp. — ' Paper Trade Revtew.' 

Tramways at Sydney. — A select committee, appointed by the 
colonial parHament to inquire into the tramway in Pitt street, 
Sydney, completed their inquiry shortly before the end of last 
session, and it appears to be proved that the tramway is of no 
practical use as a means of increasing the traffic of the Govern- 
ment railways. At no time since its construction has it been used 
for the removal of country produce of any kind, or merchandize, 
for the interior, nor does it appear to be regarded as a great con- 
venience to the general body of railway passengers, though it is 
held in value on this account by the suburban residents of the 
line, who daily come into the city to attend to business. The 
rails, as at present laid down, are objected to as dangerous to 
ordinary carriages crossing over them. It is admitted, on the 
other hand, that the tramway has been of much service to the 
Government in removing railway stock from the wharf and the 
railway station. The committee have stated that the rails will be 
finally taken up at the end of the present year. — " Journal of the 
Society of Arts." 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

' Hardwicke's Science Gossip" for November. No. XXIII. 
'The Artizan' for November. 



THE 

TECHNOLOaiST: 

A RECOUD OF SCIElSrCE. 
January, 1867. 

PRACTICAL PAPER MAKING. 

No. I. — Sizing in the Pulp. 

THE improvements to be introduced into the French 
method of sizing, in order at least to equal that 
which is practised in Holland, had from 1806 excited the 
solicitude of the " Societe d'Encouragement," which as early 
as that year offered a prize of three thousand francs. The 
essays received in this competition, not having satisfied the 
conditions required, although the government had doubled 
the prize, and the reunion of Holland to France, having 
given hopes that we might obtain an easy knowledge of 
the processes in use among our neighbours, induced the 
society, upon the advice of its committee on chemical arts, 
to withdraw the offer of this prize, and charge a necessary 
commission with the work of making the special researches 
for the attainment of this object. 

MM. DArcet and Merimee were the commissioners ap- 
pointed, and were for five years successively engaged in this 
important labour. They obtained precious results not 
merely in regard to sizing after the paper is made, but also 
with reference to sizing in the pulp, that is to say, at the 
time of making the paper. It was in 18 15 that M. Meri- 
mee made a report in the name of the commission, in which 
after having set forth the advantages they had obtained, 
the commission proposed to keep its processes secret, and 
communicate them only to those manufacturers who might 
wish to try these processes, and who should engage them- 
selves to communicate to the society. This proposition was 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. L Z 



262 Practical Paper- Making. 

accepted, and it was decided that these instructions should 
not be published in the transactions, until after our own 
manufacturers should have an opportunity of reaping the 
advantages of the newprocess, and the inventors should judge 
that it had been carried to perfection by practice. 

The hopes of this society were disappointed, and the in- 
terest it had taken in the advancement of our manufactures 
was not appreciated. Notwithstanding the engagements, 
taken by all, only three manufacturers fulfilled their pro- 
mise. M. Eli Montgolfier acknowledged the receipt of the 
communication, and announced that he had tried the ex- 
periment and found the result satisfactory ; but that the 
process seemed to him more expensive than the one he was 
accustomed to employ, and, therefore, would be difficult to 
adopt. 

At the Exhibition of 18 19 there appeared paper from the 
mills of MM. Odent and Grevenich, who had each sepa- 
rately taken the same engagement as M. Eli Montgolfier, 
in receiving the instructions. The first was the only one who 
acknowledged the receipt, or rendered an account of his ex- 
periments. For some time, the paper furnished by him to 
the Administration of Letteries was sized in the new way ; 
but, as he only worked with fermented pulp, his paper was 
too soft, and the Administration obliged him to size with 
gelatine. 

M. Canson, to whom the same process was communi- 
cated, endeavoured to modify it, and took out a patent 
to insure himself a monopoly of the method he employs, at 
his beautiful paper mills at Vidalon les Annonay. This pro- 
cess is, at the present day, well known to all, and we will 
speak of it further on. 

We should probably have been longer in being able to 
fix upon the substances suited to sizing in the pulp, had 
not chance thrown into the hands of M. Braconnot, in Sep- 
tember 1826, a leaf of paper made in the department of 
Tosgos and sized in the pulp. This learned chemist ana- 
lyzed this leaf, and from his analysis deduced the following 
process for forming a size to be mixed in the vat, in order 
to size the pulp as soon as manufactured. This analysis is 
described in the 33rd volume of the Annates de CImnie et 
de Phisique, page 39. 

" To a hundred parts of dry pulp, properly diluted with 
water, add a boiling and perfectly homogeneous solution of 
eight parts of flour, first mixed with a small amount of 
caustic potassa, to render the solution m.ore perfect. To 



Practical Paper- Making. 263 

this now add one part of white soap, previously dis- 
solved in hot water. At the same time heat half a part 
of gallipot* with a sufficient quantity of a solution of potassa, 
rendered caustic by lime to dissolve this resin entirely, and 
after having mixed the whole, it only remains to pour in a 
solution of one part of alum." 

The compound resulting from the intimate union of the 
above named materials was applied by M. Braconnot to 
brown paper, in only thin coatings, and the paper was per- 
fectly sized. '' It seems," adds this learned man, " that in 
introducing fat and resinous matters into the pulp, the prin- 
cipal object is, as it were, to fix and agglutinate the size, in 
order to prevent it from being expelled by pressure." 

This is, then, the discovery of the materials employed in 
sizing paper in the pulp, due to the power of science put 
in practice by so learned a man as M. Braconnot, to whom 
it will insure an undying reputation. 

Several manufacturers tried this process without success ; 
but doubtless they operated upon fermented pulp, and the 
failure is only to be attributed to the persons themselves 
who made the attempt. 

The same is true of the receipt of M. Canson. It answers 
very well in his mills, but was without success in those of a 
manufacturer I was visiting in the month of September, 
1828, and with whom I should have made it succeed if I had 
been able to stay longer with him, or if the mill had been 
working during my sojourn in the city where it was situated. 

It is important to understand in brief the work of the 
commission of the " Societe d'Encouragement," a report of 
which is contained in their transactions. 

The " Societe d'Encouragement " had received, about 
twenty-four years ago, specimens of paper made in Ger- 
many, and sized, the one with resinous soap, the other with 
starch. They were but feebly sized, which was due to the 
fact that in German mills, as in ours, the rags are fermented. 
This long maceration, carried as far as putrid fermen- 
tation, deprives the rags of their gluten, and the pulp then 
requires a great quantity of starch ; but in that case the 
leaves, on being withdrawn from the press, cannot be 
separated without peeling. The commissioners knew of 
these processes, and it occurred to them to unite the two. 
They believed that the addition of resinous soap would 

* Gallipot is a very clear, yellowish-white pine resin of French 
origin. — Tr. 

Z 2 



264 Pi^actical Pape7'- Making . 

permit them to employ a larger proportion of starch, with- 
out thereby increasing the adhesiveness of the leaves. 
Taking the practice of the Chinese as a starting point, they 
were in the hopes of success. Experience confirmed their 
conjectures ; but, as they were operating with fermented 
pulp, the paper, although impermeable, had not enough 
stiffness to make the sizing appear satisfactory. The com- 
missioners thought that the process would not succeed 
completely with any but unfermented pulp. The follow- 
ing was their method of operating : — 

When the trituration was complete, and the pulp had 
arrived at that point when it only remained to add the 
blueing, they poured into the rag-engine two buckets of a 
size, miade of starch and alum. When the mixture was 
complete, they gradually added a solution of resinous soap, 
made with subcarbonate of soda instead of the caustic 
potassa, used by Braconnot. This soap was added in 
sufficient quantities to dissolve the alum. The action of 
the cylinder produced a great deal of foam, which disap- 
peared on the addition of a tumblerful of oil. 

With a view to giving greater stiffness to the paper, they 
-added clarified animal size. The paper peeled somewhat, 
after being pressed without the felts ; but this evil was 
remedied by pouring into the rag-engine a small amount 
of a solution of white soap, and the leaves could then be 
stripped off without peeHng at all. Animal size did not 
seem to them to be necessary, nor is it employed by M. 
Canson, as will be seen hereafter. 

It appears to us important to describe the manner in 
which the commissioners prepared their resinous soap. To 
a solution of subcarbonate of soda they added resin, until 
it refused to combine any farther. They at once dissolved 
this soap in hot .water and poured it into a barrel ; the un- 
combined resin precipitated, and the solution gelatinized 
on cooling. By this precaution they made themselves sure 
of using an exact mixture of alumina, resin, and starch, 
which they then precipitated around the molecules of the 
pulp, as equably as possible. 

The commissioners think that it would be better to treat 
the pulp first with alum, and then to mix a little caustic 
soda with the water in which the starch is dissolved, on ac- 
count of the property, recognized as belonging to caustic 
alkalies, of converting the starchy particles at once into 
size. The succeeding boiling renders the size still more 
fluid. The soap is now added, and when the materials are 



Practical -Paper- Makmg. 265 

very intimately united, they are gradually poured upon the 
previously aluminated pulp, until complete saturation is ob- 
tained, v/hich is indicated by test paper. Lastly, a solution 
of white soap is poured into the vat, and if this should 
occasion bubbles during the motions of the vatman in 
forming the paper, they may be made to disappear by the 
addition of a little oil, or still better, of an oleaginous 
emulsion. Nut or poppy oil should be preferred, on account 
of their drying qualities. 

Although they succeeded in making size v/ith wheat 
flour, yet the commissioners advise the use of rice flour, 
in imitation of the Chinese, The proportions should vary 
and be regulated by the quality of the pulp which may 
contain more or less gluten. Experiments on a small scale, 
which any intelligent manufacturer may make without 
difficulty, will establish the proportions to be employed. 

In employing this process, we are not able to azure the 
paper with Prussian blue, as that substance is decomposed 
by the alkali of the soap. Cobalt blue should be used, and 
dissolved with the starch when the size Is prepared, as in 
this manner, being closely blended with the dressing, it is 
lighter, and does not fall to the lower surface of the leaf, 
as occurs in the case of English paper. 

Moreover, cobalt blue, which is employed in Holland 
and in England, is a more brilhant and a faster colour than 
Prussian blue. 

M. D'Arcet, being at Cusset in the paper-mill of M. 
Bujon, at the time of the publication of M. Braconnot's dis- 
covery, successfully repeated the experim.ent at that place ; 
but not finding the paper sufficiently sized, concluded after 
a comparative examination of the shade produced with 
iodine, that the proportion of starch required to be in- 
creased and advised the adoption of the following :— - 
lOO'OO parts of dried pulp, 
I2-00 „ starch, 
I "00 „ resin, dissolved in 
0*50 „ subcarbonate of soda, 
3 1 5 '00 „ water. 

The water was first boiled, and the soap, the resin, and 
the soda added. The boiling was continued until the com- 
bination of these materials was complete, and the starch, 
previously mixed with cold water, poured in. The whole 
was then boiled, until It became as transparent, as very 
fluid, freshly-made soap. 

This composition was poured, warm, into the rag-engine, 



266 On the Wines of Spain. 

and the action of the cylinder, in a very short time, pro- 
duced an intimate union of the whole. 

The pulp, which was made from fermented rags, was 
already alkaline before the addition was made, and after 
being thus mixed became very much more so. A solution 
of alum was added, until the presence of an alkali was no 
longer indicated by test-paper. After being carried to the 
vat, however, the pulp still indicated some trace of alkali, 
and it was therefore saturated by the addition of a little 
alum. This was repeated after the manufacture of each 
post of paper, so as to render the product slightly acid. 

With a hundred kilogrammes (220'47 ^bs. avoir.) of pulp 
thus prepared, five posts of paper were made, of which 
the sizing was at first slight, but became successively 
stronger, so that the last post was very well sized. An 
examination of the water in the vat explained this progress 
in the strength of the size ; for while the water which ran 
ofi* from the paper was clear, that in the vat was milky, and 
iodine coloured it a handsome blue, proving that it con- 
tained starch. Thus, each time that the fresh supply of 
pulp was placed in the vat, the proportion of starch was 
augmented by that remaining in the water. This milky 
water was filtered, and very soon choked up the filtering 
paper, which was found to have become sized. 

The illuminators are obliged to size their papers upon 
applying colours. — Paper Trade Review. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE WINES OF SPAIN. 

THE character of the Southern Spaniard is very im- 
pressionable. When the wine which grows is dear, 
there are no bounds to his pretensions ; when the price is 
low, there are no bounds to his depression. Recently, the 
latter order of things prevailed ; but as we have no fear of a 
rival to genuine sherry ever being discovered, so we have no 
doubt that the market will, in time, recover itself. The 
only thing that could permanently injure the sherry trade 
would be a change in the taste of the consumers. If the 
English acquire a taste for French, Hungarian, or Greek 
wines, the consumption of sherry may be sensibly dimi- 



On the Wines of Spain. 267 

nished. But the leading shippers here, are alive to this 
danger, and it may be asserted that, on the whole, larger 
parcels of superior wine are now sent to London than was 
the case eight or ten years ago." 

Amontillado is always produced by causes which are 
at present unknown. If Amontillado could be manufactured 
by selecting and mixing, we should all make it just now 
instead of sherry, seeing that the former commands so 
much higher a price in the market. Around Jeres the 
grape is not gathered earlier to make Amontillado, as Mr. 
Redding states, nor would such a course have the desired 
effect. Nor is Amontillado an unbranded wine. It is im- 
possible to judge, with any degree of certainty, what will 
be the character of the wine until sometime after it is 
taken fiom the lees. At the time of taking it from the 
lees, every butt is invariably fortified by the addition of a 
small quantity of spirit, and in this respect the Amontillado 
is treated like the sherry. 

The Mosto, or Must, of this year is of varied charac- 
ter : we have seen it of first-rate, and also of very indifferent 
mark ; on the whole it is probably fair as regards quality. 
In quantity the vintage of 1865, though slightly larger 
than that of 1864, is still far from being an average one. 
Some shippers have made abatements in the prices of their 
lowest marks, but there is still prospect of alteration in 
their quotations for high class sherries, which are as scarce 
in Jeres as is usual. The demand for genuine old wine is 
subject to few fluctuations, and is always fully equal to the 
supply. It is thought that the sort of crisis through which 
the sherry wine trade passed during 1865 will be of advan- 
tage rather than otherwise. The growers of wine have 
been rendered more reasonable, and their claims have been 
checked, and a more healthy atmosphere introduced into 
the regular business. 

The lowest class of sherry (as of everything else) finds 
its way to America ; a large amount of it also goes to 
Hamburgh, and, of late, to France, where the worthy 
Parisian drinks it under the name of " Vin de Madere." 
Some very inferior wine is sent from London to Australia, 
and a vast amount of bad sherry is distributed among the 
provincial towns in England. It is surprising how con- 
tentedly a country inn-keeper buys the wretched stuff from 
his " wine merchant," and pays for it. 

There were some disagreeable and rather serious mani- 
festations of ill-will exhibited last autumn towards the 



268 On the Wines of Spam. 

foreign wine merchants in the Jeres district. For some 
time previous to the year 1863, the general wine market in 
Spain had been often in an excited state. The oidium, had 
reduced the vintage by one-half, and while the demand for 
good sherry steadily increased, the supply in England as 
steadily diminished, and so prices went up continually. 
This state of things reached its climax in 1863-4. The 
importers in England, fearing further advances, were buying 
far beyond their immediate wants, and the district of J^res 
was incapable by itself of producing half the quantity of 
wine called for. The genuine produce of Jeres was sold at 
fabulous prices, and the holders became every day more 
exacting in their terms. In order to execute the orders 
which poured in upon them, the shippers were compelled 
to seek for white wines in the Sevilla, Cordova, Montilla, 
and Mogner districts. Though far from rivalling in body 
and aroma the produce of the Jeres soils, these wines met 
with a market in England and elsewhere on account of 
their comparative cheapness. The growers of these (said) 
districts finding the demand for their wines largely increas- 
ing, soon began to imitate the exactions of the Jeres vine- 
yard proprietors, and prices went up with extraordinary 
rapidity. Certain speculators calculating upon the conti- 
nuance of the then state of the sherry market, entered into 
contracts for the purchase of the future produce of the 
vineyards in the Seville and other districts, and advanced 
money to the proprietors. New cellars were built, and new 
vineyards were planted in all directions, and Jeres was 
threatened with an inundation of low white wines. 

The natural consequences of the high price of wines was 
an augmentation in the value of all kinds of property, and 
a great increase in the wages of the working classes. 
Instead of 3s. sterling a-day, cellarmen were now demand- 
ing and getting 4s. and 4s. 4d. The wages of the coopers 
and of the labourers of the vineyards were advanced in the 
same proportion. Jeres was to all appearances prosperous 
beyond all precedent, and became intoxicated with its 
prosperity — " waxed fat, and kicked." Few persons saved 
any money (especially among the labouring classes). The 
newly-acquired wealth was squandered in newly-acquired 
wants ; and of the small number who did lay by, the 
majority invested their money in vineyards and other pro- 
perty whose value depended in a great measure upon the 
continuance of the then state of the wine market. 

That this state of things could not last was patent to all 



y as sab us hit. 269 

sensible people, and especially to those persons who had 
immediate relations with England. The leading shippers 
saw with uneasiness that the annual importations into 
England far exceeded the annual consumption, and fearing 
lest the fall in prices, which they saw to be inevitable, 
should deprive them of half their capital, they purchased 
only for their immediate and unavoidable wantS. Those 
of them also who had a really good connection in England 
were desirous of bringing down prices for another reason. 
They foresaw that the excessive demands of the growers 
and " holders " in Jeres would certainly check the ordinary 
demand for sherry wine in England, and thus permanently 
injure the business, and they determined to set their faces 
against all further claims. One leading house actually 
limited the orders it would receive for high-priced wines to 
a certain number of butts per month. 

The fall in prices came at last, and with startling 
rapidity. The monthly shipments of wine diminished to 
an unprecedented extent. The cellars of the merchants in 
England were full, and therefore, few orders came to Jeres. 
Against 38,720 butts (shipped /r^;;^ Jeres alone) in 1863, 
and 30,941 butts in 1864, only 30,431 butts were cleared 
for export in 1865. Estimating the average value of the 
butt only at ^35, this would show a diminution of value of 
exports from Jeres in 1865 of between ^250,000 and ;^300,ooo 
sterling ; in other words, a reduction of the wine merchants 
income for that year to that large extent. This diminution 
in the shipments immediately and inordinately depressed 
the Jeres market ; in 1864 " musto," sold for 230 p^sos ; in 
1865 it found few purchasers at 100 pesos. Old wines, in- 
deed, remained firm because there were, comparatively 
speaking, scarcely any old wines in Jeres. 



JASSABUSHIT. 

BY M. C. COOKE. 

FROM time to time strange products make their appear- 
ance in small quantities in our markets, are looked at, 
marvelled over, and, remaining unsold, because unknown, 
are consigned to oblivion. In most instances these little 
consignments are sent to try the market, and producing 
no good results are never heard of again. This is much 



2 70 y assabtishit. 

to be regretted, because some good things are occasionally 
lost to our commerce through ignorance of their value. 
Some years since, the " Mishmee teeta," a tonic much 
esteemed in India, came under a barbarous name, and 
probably rotted at the docks, for we never heard of its 
meeting a purchaser. In a similar manner the capsules of 
a kind oT Gardenia, in good repute for dyeing silks in 
China was, over and over again, offered for sale, and then 
appeared no more. Then, again, the " Cassareep," which 
forms the basis of so many sauces in the northern portion 
of South America, could find no purchaser, but was at last 
committed to the bosom of old Father Thames. Those 
who have watched our commercial sales for a few years 
will be able to augment this list considerably ; in fact, 
many other like instances are still within our own recol- 
lection, but it is not our present purpose to enumerate the 
cases of past failures whilst recording a new one. 

At the present moment a parcel of "unknown" produce, 
called " Jassabushit," from Japan, is offered for sale as a 
dye-stuff, but what it is, or what is its value, all seem alike 
ignorant, who look at it, and shake their heads. It is 
doubtful whether chemical dyes have not almost elbowed 
all, except the very best and nearly indispensable dye- 
stuffs, out of the market, and opposed a barrier to the 
introduction of new ones. 

The " Jassabushit " has very little to recommend it, not 
even in appearance ; and, although we cannot prophesy of 
its introduction as a permanent trade product, a little more 
definite information respecting it may not be unacceptable. 
The parcel consists of the female catkins, resembhng small 
cones, and are almost the counterpart, on an enlarged 
scale, of our own "alder-berries." They are, indeed, the 
catkins of an alder, but four times the size of those pro- 
duced by the common alder, having a diameter of at least 
an inch, and being from an inch to an inch and a-half in 
length. They are probably the fruit of Alnus japonica 
(Thunb.), which, together with Alnus ghitinisa (Willd.), 
and Alnus firma (Zoll,), are common Japanese plants. In 
his " Flora Japonica," Thunberg gives Jasia as the native 
name of the common alder, but of Jasia-bushit there is no 
mention. His remarks, though brief, inform us of the use 
of alder catkins for dyeing black in Japan. " Coni hujus 
ad nigrum tingendum adhibentur, eumque in finem vul- 
gares exhibentur venales siccati " (Fl. Jap., p. "]€). It has 
long been known that alder-berries may be used in dyeing 



Supply of Fish in Great Britain. 271 

a black, and are employed in rural districts for that pur- 
pose ; but while we possess so many and better substances 
alike applicable, and plenty of alder-berries for the trouble 
of gathering them, it is not likely that we shall receive 
many samples of Jasia-biishit from Japan, unless it can 
be shown that the larger cones have an increased tinctorial 
value. 



WHETHER THE SUPPLY OF FISH FROM THE 
SEA FISHERIES OF GREAT BRITAIN IS IN- 
CREASING, STATIONARY, OR DIMINISHING ? 

Continued from page 256. 

THE returns from Howth give the particulars of the 
herring fishery there, which, within the last six or 
eight years, has grown from a small and uncertain business 
to a gross produce which last year realized upwards of 
94,000/. Further up St. George's Channel, the Manx boats 
continue to be successful, and in Loch Fyne, in the Firth of 
Clyde, vast hauls are occasionally taken. At certain times, 
indeed the sea is really teeming with this fish, and the 
state of the weather, or the restrictions enforced by capri- 
cious legislation, are often the only causes of a temporary 
failure in the catch. 

The pilchard fishery, though limited to the coasts of 
Cornwall and Devon, is a source of great profit there, 
and continues a yield equal, on the average, to that of 
any former cycle of years. The price to the consumer 
does not appear to have increased. 

The shrimp fishery is becoming of some magnitude, and 
is very profitable to the fishermen. It is annually increas- 
ing in productiveness, not only on the same fishing grounds, 
but by the fishermen removing to new and untried grounds, 
for the produce of which railways have rendered markets 
accessible. 

There can be no better test of the supply of any commo- 
dity than the price it fetches through a series of years. In 
examining this part of the question, it is necessary to con- 
sider the vast increase of the range of consumers of fresh 
fish which has taken place, within recent years, by the ex- 
tension of railway communication from the fishing ports to 
all the important towns in the kingdom. There is not now 



272 Supply of Fish i?i Great Britain. 

a considerable town in any part of this country which has 
not a regular supply of fresh fish. Year by year the more 
remote fishing stations are being reached by the railway. 
The immediate effect of this is to increase the price in the 
fishing towns and neighbourhoods which had previously the 
command of the supply, — while any general rise of price is, 
on the other hand, checked by nev/ fishing stations being 
brought within the range of supply. It has thus been found, 
that the new demand, arising from railway access to the 
central parts of the country, is to a great extent met by 
supplies from fishing ports which were formerly compara- 
tively isolated. The result is a greater equality of price, 
and no material advance in the cost of the coarser kinds of 
fish which are most abundant, and are most consumed by 
the less wealthy class of the people. 

Plaice has not, at any time from 1856, up to the present 
time, been lower than during the last three years, and, on 
the whole, there seems to have been no marked alteration 
of price. The case has been very different at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. Every kind of fish there, with the exception of 
lobsters and crabs, has doubled its price in the course of the 
last ten years. The reason is obvious. The dwellers on the 
sea coast have now no longer a monopoly of the supply of 
the fish caught on their shores. They must share it with 
the great towns of the interior, to which railway facilities 
are every year affording readier and cheaper access, and 
with which the telegraph places the fish-dealers in constant 
communication. The inhabitants of Newcastle, while de- 
ploring the yearly increasing cost of their fish, have this 
consolation, that the highest price they have ever yet been 
called on to pay is considerably lower than the lowest price 
in Manchester, during any part of the period under review. 

A very important element of the question concerning the 
supply of a nutritious article of food is the price of the 
finest kinds jof fish, when compared with that of the more 
common descriptions which, from their abundance and 
moderate price, are naturally extensively consumed among 
the less wealthy classes of the people. The largest pro- 
portion of this description of fish consists of herrings and 
sprats. The statistics of the Scotch herring fishery, prove 
satisfactorily that, taking periods of five years, there is a 
steadily progressive increase of supply. The sprat fishery 
is of greatly less importance, and fluctuates considerably, 
but shows no sign of over-fishing, or permanent decrease. 

On the east coast of England, and in the London fish 



Supply of Fish in Great Britain. 273 

market, the trade divide the fish into two classes, "prime " 
and "offal." The "prime" comprise, sole, turbot, brill, and 
cod. The " offal " are chiefly haddock, plaice, and whiting. 
The term " offal " seems to have been introduced at a time 
when the demand for fish, and the means of carrying it to 
market were much more limited than at present ; and when 
it was, therefore, often found necessary to throw overboard 
much of the less valuable description, which could not bear 
the cost of transport. The use of the word " offal " is con- 
tinued to the present day, but it may now be held to signify 
the more plentiful andlov/er priced class offish which finds 
its way in great abundance to the large towns. There has 
been little increase in the price of plaice, but haddocks, 
which, in former times, were often thrown overboard when 
the take was great, are now used in two ways, either fresh, 
or smoked, and for the latter purpose have been in great 
demand at an increased price. The proportion of "prime " and 
"offal" fish caught by the trawl varies considerably, but may 
be taken, on the average, at one-fourth of the " prime " to 
three-fourths of the *' offal." Of " prime " fish, sole seems 
to be the general favourite. It is held in highest estimation 
by the greatest number of persons, and is more eaten in 
London than any other kind of " prime " fish ; and during* 
the summer, a considerable supply is sent daily from the 
London market to Paris. 

On the whole, there has certainly been a gradual increase 
in the price of fish ; but during ten years it has not greatly 
nor suddenly increased. If we compare it with the yearly 
increasing scarcity of butcher's meat, it would seem that 
the supply of fish keeps better up to the demand. Nor 
will this be a matter of surprise when some consideration 
is bestowed on the subject. The endeavour to increase 
the supply of meat is attended at every step with increasing 
cost. More labour must be bestowed, higher rents, rates, 
and wages, must all be paid, before a limited surface of 
land can be made to add to its productiveness. But the 
fisherman has neither rent nor rates to pay for the rich field 
which he cultivates, and he can man and work a larger 
fishing vessel, and a greater sweep of fishing gear at a 
smaller cost in relation to the produce. 

(To be continued.) 



Q 



274 



MODE OF REARING CATTLE IN SPAIN. 

BY DON JOSE DE PRADO Y GUILLEN. 

(Translated by Mr. Consul Graham-Dunlop.) 
UR system of cattle-rearing may be reduced to two 



fundamental principles : — first, the open air system at 
all hours and seasons, and secondly, the double system, 
viz., half the year housed, the other half in the open pas- 
tures. Constant stabHng of cattle is never practised, not 
even in Gallicia, where they stall much more than here in 
Andalusia. The large herds of cows destined for breeding 
are kept (in the south of Spain) on the first system, open 
air pasturing at all times. These animals never enter sta- 
bles or places of shelter, they live continually in the pas- 
ture grounds, which are uncultivated meadows and hill 
sides, covering a vast extent of country. They feed on the 
herbage and plants which are the natural produce of the 
earth, and their food thus depends on the seasons, on the 
scarcity or abundance of the pasture, and on the fertility or 
barrenness of the soil they are on. Nothing is provided 
for them by man, either in winter or summer. If there be 
enough for them to graze on, they live, if not, they die. 
These cattle have no dwellings or artificial places of shelter, 
they endure the rigour and the variations of the seasons 
entirely in the open air. They are exposed to cold, frost, 
and snow, and (in summer) to a burning sun, with no other 
protection than what a bush, tree, or rock can afford them. 
During the autumn, winter, and spring months, they are 
generally kept in the pasture grounds of the Sierras, on brows 
and spurs of the mountains, because these pasture grounds 
are more sheltered than those on the coast or table land. 
In the summer they go to the wide unfenced stubble lands 
of the plains and Vegus, near the coast, and wherever there 
is table land, if good watering places, especially running 
streams and rivers, are also found near. During the heats 
of summer they are most liable to common cattle ailments, 
and the cowherds require to be doubly careful in this season 
of the year. They make the cattle feed during the night, 
and early in the morning turn them into a species of fold or 
rough pen, where the animals lie down and chew the cud, 
and rest till about nine or ten A.M., at which- hour they are 
allowed again to pasture. During the greatest heat of the 
day (twelve to four) they are never driven or allowed to go 
for food, to a great distance ; in July, August, and Septem- 



Mode of Rearing Cattle in Spain. 275 

ber, this would be attended with risk of spleen-congestion, 
sometimes very fatal in summer. During the other season 
there is no danger of this kind, and the only care taken is 
that they go from one district of pasturage to another, as 
plenty or scarcity dictate. This is a rude system, and al- 
though, at first sight it appears economical, is not so, but is 
expensive, and sometimes prejudicial, to the cattle. Its 
only advantage is, that no outlay of money is involved, ex- 
cept the cowherd's wages, and the rent (or value) of the 
pasture grounds. Its difficulties and disadvantages are : — 
first, this system can only answer in the least inhabited 
parts of Andalusia, where, from want of labourers, there is 
of necessity a wide extent of uncultivated land, and secondly, 
by it the cattle are often obliged to endure great priva- 
tions and want of food during drought and scanty seasons ; 
they fall away in health, become weak and consumptive, 
i.e., easily overpowered with any trifling malady (or acci- 
dent), and sometimes die in great numbers, the owner thus 
suffering loss from want of precaution in procuring other 
food besides natural pasture. During the winter, also, the 
storms of wind and snow kill many valuable cattle ; besides 
this, by this system the cows are not prolific, and they 
breed irregularly. The increase therefore is small (in com- 
parison with that obtained by other systems), and it is 
calculated that only one-third part of the cows in a herd 
calve during the year. Thus, the total number of heads of 
cattle produced under this (open air) system, is far from 
what could be expected. These cows are not employed in 
any other way, and never work, nor are they milked for 
yield of milk or butter, &c. ; but it is also to be acknow- 
ledged, that, unless in the height of summer, and very 
depth of winter, these herds seem to suffer little from occa- 
sional disease, or ordinary sickness. The system gives them 
a sort of hardihood and power of resisting privations. (I 
may almost call it abstemiousness, or 'Spanish sobriedad), 
which frequently stands them in good stead. It is a neces- 
sary consequence of the want or the sparseness of popula- 
tion in Spain, a fact too little considered by all Spaniards. 
To a certain extent this open air system is followed in 
the Castiles, La Mancha, Aragon, Navarre, &c., whilst in 
the Asturias, Gallicia, and part of Catalonia, where land 
and landed property is much divided and sub-divided, and 
where the climate is sometimes very cold, this system would 
not do at all, and is not practised. Were it modified and 
improved in the south of Spain it might retain some of its 



2 76 Mode of Rearing Cattle in Spain. 

crude and natural advantages, but, alas, we Andalusians 
are devoted to our primitive and accustomed routine, and 
thus we are punished, and cannot boast half the fine herds 
of cattle, and of pastoral v/ealth, which we might do if we 
were wiser. 

We now come to the second system of rearing and treat- 
ing cattle throughout Spain — viz., part of the year housed, 
and part in open pastures. 

During winter, and indeed from the first days of autumn, 
the cattle intended for exportation or for work, are always 
housed at night in their sheds or semi-open stalls. In 
Gallicia they are regularly stabled whenever it is cold. In 
Andalusia the peasants obstinately adhere to making these 
cow houses or sheds far too open. The animals derive cer- 
tainly some shelter from the rigour of the atmosphere ; but 
their food gets wet with rain, and often they refuse to eat it 
in consequence, and thus become ill and weak, and liable 
to disease. The peasants are stupid and obstinate about 
this, and give as their reason, that if there is a shelter im- 
mediately above the cattle (afforded by a roof) the sides 
cannot admit too much air. It is singular how they per- 
sist in this view. 

In the middle of Spain, and in the northern provinces, 
the houses for cattle are, on the whole, well and carefully 
built, with windows and openings for air ; but the animals 
never suffer from the rain or snow beating upon them or 
their food. These cattle are often worked, and they are 
much more attended to than the semi-wild herds in our 
beautiful province. It is supposed to improve the northern 
cattle (intended for exportation) to make them labour regu- 
larly and moderately at the plough and with the cart. 

In the spring the cattle in most districts of Spain leave off 
going into the houses or sheds, and live and feed on the 
uncultivated portions of the large farms ; a third portion of 
which is sold every year, the other two-thirds remain un- 
cultivated or " fallow," and there the oxen intended for 
labour (and the market, &c., &c.) graze. This rotation sys- 
tem, as regards " fallowing," is pursued with considerable 
regularity throughout Spain. After the harvests are reaped, 
the stubble lands, on which grow also some herbage and 
green weeds, afford abundant pasture, and the cattle graze 
these districts very advantageously. They produce largely 
the wheat grass, triticum repens, which is considered nutri- 
tritious and wholesome. This second system (mixed) of 
treating our cattle keeps them more directly under the 



Mode of Rearing Cattle in Spain. 277 

management of the man underwhosecaretheyare. Andthus 
it is only when there is abundance of food in the fields that 
they are not supplied with it in their stalls. The cattle 
thus brought up are, of course, many fewer in number than 
under the first detailed system ; they suffer fewer privations 
and are much finer looking ; but most of the cattle in Spain 
are born under the wilder system of perpetual open air pas- 
ture. I think that the second system is brought to most 
perfection in the provinces in Gallicia and the Asturias. 
There they are also housed carefully during the heats of 
summer so as to avoid distress from flies and insects. The 
cattle are cleaned carefully, and groomed ; and are also 
clothed during the rigourous nights of cold winter. They 
are more prolific than in Andalusia ; their milk is more 
abundant and nourishing, and their flesh is esteemed even 
in England, and at Madrid.^ 

Experiments made occasionally to cross the Spanish 
breed of cattle with the Durham, have not hitherto been 
successful. But, in my opinion, improvements in obtaining 
a variety of breeds of cattle are greatly to be desired. 

Rinderpest in Spain. — The dreadful cattle plague which 
is ravaging England and Germany has not attacked the 
large herds of these animals in Spain. It never has done 
so in its present rinderpest form, for on consulting the nu- 
merous essays of our old Spanish veterinary surgeons, we 
find that though intimately acquainted with all the Spanish 
cattle diseases, they do not either directly or indirectly tell 
of it, showing that they did not know it ; but our modern 
veterinary authors have given good translations from Ger- 
man and Russian medical works on the subject, therefore, 
we quite understand what it is, and can safely assert that 
the rinderpest has never yet been seen in any part of the 
Iberian peninsula. The cattle epidemics, which have raged 
sometime from 1709 till now, have all assumed quite a dif- 
ferent character, and the absence of the present cattle 
plague from Spain is thus a most interesting subject and 
question, — why has it never visited us } 

I fully believe that the chief reason is, that we rarely, 
and in very small numbers, import any foreign cattle into 
Spain. There is comparatively little beef eaten through- 
out the country ; more is produced than is consumed. Our 
exportation, especially from the north and Gallicia, is con- 
siderable, and in truth, our cattle importation is nil. The 

No " artificial " food, such as boiled roots or oil-cakes, is ever 
given to cattle in Spain. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. A A 



27B Mode of Rearing Cattle in Spain. 

Gallicia and Asturias cattle find their way to France and 
to England, but none come thence to us. I fully believe 
that, from the power of contagion which is so strong in the 
real rinderpest, if one ox, with any trace of that disease on 
him, had been imported into Spain, and had come into 
contact with cattle of this country, the epidemic would 
have spread, just as happened at Padua, in Italy, in 171 1, 
from a diseased ox (coming from Dalmatia), being intro- 
duced into the stalls of Count Borromeo, and thus causing 
the fearful murrain which at that time almost ruined the 
pastoral wealth of the north of Italy. We are in hopes 
that the peculiar topographic character and configuration 
of our country may stand in the way of the production of 
the disease in Spain. Up to this time this, in addition to 
non-importation of cattle, has been in our favour, and if we 
compare the local condition of the places where, according 
to the opinion of most veterinary writers, the rinderpest is 
spontaneously produced {i.e., in the morasses and lagoons 
of Tartary and some parts of Central Europe), with the 
position and circumstances of our country, we shall find 
them to be- in direct opposition to each other. Many 
medical writers have traced cholera-morbus to the fetid 
and poisonous effluvia from the swamps and sunderbunds 
of the Ganges, and thus we veterinary students are con- 
strained to accuse the wide marshes of Russia, Poland, and 
Hungary, of being the birthplace of rinderpest. All the 
contagious cattle diseases known since 1709, have either 
spread from that focus of infection, or been similar to the 
maladies often prevailing there. The Governments and 
people of the rest of Europe should carefully direct their 
attention to this fact, and so much the more because 
hitherto it has seemed that the present disease is far more 
easy to prevent and keep off than to cure.- Were the 
disease to break out in Spain, isolation of suspected cattle, 
and careful separation of healthy, suspected, and diseased 
::attle would be the first means that we should adopt ; but 
the cattle of the three different categories ought to be kept 
at a distance from each other, not only separated. I am 
at present doubtful of the success of any means of cure, if 
the rinderpest takes strong hold of an animal, that is, dur- 
ing the first period of its breaking out. In fact, we should 
try to treat it here as endemic, epidemic, and highly con- 
tagious, all at once, and at first we should certainly, in any 
locality, deal with it as incurable, and try to stamp it out. 
If it continued and spread, we should be guided by circum- 
stances, and by its greater or weaker virulence. 



279 



ELECTRIC FISHES. 

THERE are some remarkable instances of the genera- 
tion of electricity in living animals, to whom the 
power seems principally to be given as a means of defence. 
Of these animals, the Torpedo Rata appears to have been 
noticed at a very early period, since we find a description 
of its properties in the writings of Pliny, Appian, and 
others. It inhabits the Mediterranean and North seas ; its 
weight when fully grown, is about eighteen or twenty 
pounds. 

Each electrical organ is about 5 inches long and about 3 
inches broad at the anterior end, and J an inch at the pos- 
terior extremity. Each organ consists wholly of perpendi- 
cular columns reaching from the upper to the under surface 
of the body, and varying in their lengths according to the 
thickness of the parts of the body where they are placed. 
The longest column is about ij inch, the shortest about J 
of an inch and their diameter about 2-ioths of an inch. The 
figures of the columns are irregular hexagons or pentagons, 
and sometimes have the appearance of being quadrangular 
or cylindrical. The number of columns in the fish exa- 
mined by John Hunter, was 470 in each organ; but in a 
very large fish, 4J feet long and weighing 73 pounds, the 
number was 1,182 in each organ. The number of parti- 
tions in a column I inch long was 150. 

The Torpedo must be irritated to cause it to give a 
shock, in the delivery of which it moves its pectoral fins 
convulsively ; the shock is felt on touching the fish with a 
single finger, and it can give a long series of shocks with 
great rapidity. When the Torpedo is placed on a metallic 
plate, so that the plate touches the inferior surface of the 
organs, the hand that supports the plate never feels any 
shock ; though another insulated person may excite the 
animal, and the convulsive movement of the pectoral fins 
may denote the strongest and most reiterated discharges. 
Direct contact with the electrical organs of the fish is in- 
dispensably necessary for the reception of the shock, but 
the Torpedo has not the power of directing its electrical 
discharge through any particular object. 

By passing the discharge from a Torpedo through a 
spiral of copper wire enclosing a steel needle, the needle 
becomes magnetised in such a manner as to show the 
direction of the current to be from the back to the under 

A A 2 



28o Electric Fishes. 

part of the belly. Heating and chemical effects have like- 
wise been obtained. According to the experiments of 
Matteucci : — i. All the dorsal parts of the electrical organ 
2S^ positive \.o "^W^iXQ ventral i^'^xX.?,. 2. Those points of the 
organ on the dorsal face which are about the nerve which 
penetrate this organ are /^j'/VzW relatively to other points 
of the same dorsal face. 3. Those points of the organ on 
the ventral face are negative relatively to other points of 
the same ventral face. 

The Gymnotus. —This electrical fish is a native of the 
warmer regions of America and Africa. There are several 
species of the Gymnotus, but only one is electrical. In 
general aspect it very much resembles an eel — the body is 
smooth, and without scales (a peculiarity of all electrical 
fishes). The electric organs consist of alternations of dif- 
ferent substances, and are most abundantly supplied by 
nerves ; their too frequent use is succeeded by debility and 
death. The electric organs may be removed without injury 
to the fish. 

These organs form more than one-third of the whole fish. 
The two electrical organs are separated at the upper part 
by the muscles of the back, at the lower part by the middle 
partition, and by the air bag at the middle part. 

The electrical organs consist of two parts — viz., flat par- 
titions or septa, and thin plates or membranes intersecting 
them transversely. The septa are thin parallel membranes 
stretching in the direction of the fish's length, and as broad 
as the semi-diameter of the animal's body. They vary in 
length, some of them being as long as the whole body. 
The very thin plates which intersect the septa have their 
breadth equal to the distance between any two septa. 
There is a regular series of these plates, from one end of 
any two septa to the other end, 240 of them occupying a 
single inch. 

The electric organ of the Gymnotus depends entirely on 
its will. It does not keep its organs always charged, and 
it can direct its action towards the point where it feels it- 
self most strongly irritated. When two persons hold hands, 
and one touches the fish with his free hand, the shock is 
commonly felt by both at once. Occasionally, however, in 
the most severe shocks, the person who comes into imme- 
diate contact with the fish alone receives it. 

A fine specimen of this remarkable fish was for some 
time, in possession of the proprietors of the late Gallery of 
Practical Science in Adelaide street, and was made the 



Electric Fishes. 281 

subject of some interesting experiments by Faraday {Ex, 
Researches, 15th series, 1838). This fish was 40 inches long. 
It remained in a healthy and vigorous condition till March, 
1842, when it died from the effects of a rupture of a blood- 
vessel. 

1. The Shock. — This was very powerful when one hand 
was placed on the body near the head, and the other near 
the tail. It was like that of a large Leyden battery 
charged to a low degree ; and great as was the force of a 
single discharge, the fish was able to give a double and 
even a triple shock with scarcely a sensible interval of time. 
From some comparative experiments, Faraday thought it 
may be concluded that a single medium discharge of the 
fish was at least equal to that of a Leyden battery of 
fifteen jars, containing 3,500 square inches of glass coated 
on both sides, and charged to the highest degree. 

2. The Spark. — Through the upper cap of a glass globe 
a copper wire was passed, a slip of gold leaf being attached 
to its extremity ; a similar wire terminating in a brass ball 
within the globe was passed through the lower cap. The 
gold leaf and brass ball were brought into all but actual 
contact, the fish being provoked to discharge through the 
wires, the gold leaf was attracted to the ball, and a spark 
passed. 

3. Che^nical Decomposition. — Polar decomposition of 
iodine of potassium was obtained by moistening three or 
four folds of paper in the solution, and placing them between 
a platinum plate and the end of a platinum wire, connected 
respectively with two saddle conductors grasping the body 
of the fish. The middle of the fish was found to be negative 
to the anterior parts, and positive to parts towards the tail. 

4. Magnetic Ejfects, — By causing the fish to send powerful 
discharges through an instrument of no great delicacy, a 
deflection of the needle amounting to 30^^ was produced ; 
the deflection was constantly in a given direction, the 
electric current being always from the anterior parts of the 
animal, through the galvanometer wire to the posterior 
parts. When a little helix, containing 22 feet of silked 
wire wound on a quill, was put into the circuit, and an an- 
nealed steel needle placed in the helix, the needle became 
a magnet and the direction of its polarity in every case 
indicated a current from the anterior to the posterior parts 
of the Gymnotus through the conductors used. 

When a number of persons all dip their hands at the 
same time into the water in the vessel in which the Gym- 



282 Copper Mines. 

notus is confined, they all receive a shock of greater or less 
tensity when the fish discharges, proving that all the con- 
ducting matter round the fish is filled at the moment with 
eirculating electric power, resembling generally in disposi- 
tion the magnetic curves of a magnot The Gymnotus 
feeds on other fish, which it kills by giving them a shock ; 
this it does by forming a coil round the fish, so that it should 
represent a diameter across it. Living, as the Gymnotus 
does, in the midst of such a good conductor as water, it 
seems at first surprising that it can sensibly electrify any- 
thing ; but, in fact, it is the very conducting power of the 
water which favours and increases the shock by moistening 
the skin of the animal through which the Gymnotus dis- 
charges its battery. 

The Silurus electricus. — This fish is found in the Senegal, 
the Niger, and the Nile, It is about 20 inches long. The 
shock is distinctly felt when it is laid on one hand, and 
touched by a metallic rod held in the other. Its electrical 
organs are much less complicated than those of other 
electrical fishes. Other known electrical fishes are the 
Tetraodon electricus, found in the Canary Islands, and the 
Trichiarus eleetricus, which inhabits the Indian Seas ; 
several others have been met with, but not hitherto accu- 
rately described. — Students Text-book of Electricity, 



COPPER MINES.— No. I. 



FEW books of a popular character have been%ritten 
upon mining ; so that persons have rarely the means 
of acquiring any information as to the nature of mines, the 
modes by which ores are extracted from the earth, or the 
preparations which they undergo prior to their being 
brought to a state of use. The most superficial knowledge 
of these things would have deterred many from specula- 
tions, which experience has proved they ought to have 
avoided ; and to which they were lured by a phantom en- 
gendered by their cupidity and magnified by their igno- 
rance. 

Every one knows that the metallic substances chiefly 
in use are gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and tin. Of these, 
the two former have never been found in any parts of 
Great Britain in sufficient quantities to warrant a con- 



Copper Mmes. ' 283 

• 
tinuance of operation ; although in the county of Wicklow, 
enough pure gold was discovered about a century ago, to 
induce Government to expend no small sum in ascertain- 
ing the probability of its being extracted to advantage ; 
and the writer of this statement has seen a piece of native 
gold from Wicklow, as large as half a walnut, but the mine 
was closed after being worked a few years, during which it 
is said that the profit was not equal to the expense of opera- 
tion. 

Of silver perhaps, no mine has been yet discovered in 
this country where that mineral exists in a pure state ; it 
is frequently found mixed with other metals, in no incon- 
siderable proportion, though not in sufficient quantity to 
justify its being separated by the furnace. 

Copper is found in Ireland, North Wales, Staffordshire 
and Cornwall, and is associated with rocks of different 
kinds, as also with clay state. 

As the grain or layer of all rocks run east and west, so 
the veins of copper are always found to run in the same 
direction ; except where the uniformity of the earth has 
been destroyed by volcanic convulsion, or other disruption, 
occasioning transverse fissures, or turning the direction of 
the stratum. These interruptions are of a very partial 
nature, when compared to the great extent to which the 
veins of mineral are believed to run, supposing their course 
could be pursued ; but it generally happens that either a 
mountain, a bog, a river, or an arm of the sea, is found to 
intervene, and preclude the continuance of research. 

The veins of copper differ so much, that it would be im- 
possible to mention any dimension which could be adopted 
as an average of their width or thickness. A vein at its 
commencement, is often no thicker than the blade of an 
ordinary knife ; but upon being pursued it is found to in- 
crease, sometimes gradually, sometimes suddenly in size, 
until it swells to a width of several feet, and not unfre- 
quently as much as forty or fifty feet. A vein of magni- 
tude is called a lode, or leading vein, from which minor ones 
diverge at different intervals and angles, but having more 
or less the same direction ; and it is observable that the 
course of mineral veins is seldom uniform for any con- 
tinuance. They vary as they proceed as well in quality 
and richness as in bulk, exhibiting ore occasionally in beds 
(or, as they are termed, bunches), without which the excava- 
tion would be frequently not v/orth pursuing ; for the chief 
expense of mining, consists in the removal of the stone, 



284 Copper Mines. 

or other hard substance, in which the minerals are cm- 
bedded, and which varies in proportion to the density of 
such surrounding matter, Sometimes, a miner considers 
himself remunerated by working at \os. per fathom, or six 
feet, or even less, whilst the almost incredible sum of ^400 
has been known to be paid for working through an exceed- 
ingly hard stone the same distance ; and it is obvious, that, 
unless the substance surrounding the ore be occasionally re- 
moved, the operations in the mine could not be prolonged, 
because the ore would not continue within reach. And it 
not unfrequently happens, that, prior to the abandonment 
of a mine, or where the labourers are paid not in proportion 
to their labour, but in proportion to the quantity of ore 
they extract, this is actually the case. Succeeding adven- 
turers have then the unprofitable work of extracting stone, 
at a great outlay before such mine can be again rendered 
in a proper working condition. 

In mining districts, the existence of copper is often pre- 
sumed from some accidental circumstance ; such, as when 
in the digging of a trench, or the removing of stone, some 
fragment is observed to exhibit verdigris or other coppery 
indication, generally very slightly, but enough to stimulate 
an adventurous person to pursue it. In some places, the 
same mineral is denoted by a green appearance on the 
surface of rock or stone, sufficient to tempt a partial exca- 
vation by way of experiment. But indications, though oc- 
casionally very extensive, are not unfrequently very delu- 
sive ; for a small portion of bland oxide of copper is capable 
of tinging a large surface of ground. 

Symptoms of copper often occur in situations ill-adapted 
for experiment, such as the middle of a perpendicular cliff, 
or on the sea-shore, near low water mark. In such event, 
it is usual to examine the ground attentively, eastward or 
westward, v/ith a view of finding some other indication in 
the direction in which the vein may be supposed to run. 
If such indication should be met with, it will be, probably, in 
a situation where the same objection would not be offered 
against excavating, in which case, a shaft is sunk accord- 
ingly and, if no such indication should occur, it is then the 
usual practice to fix upon some spot which appears most 
eligible in point of locality, and (as far as supposition can 
go), upon the same stratum for the sinking of a shaft by 
way of experiment. All these points are left to the discre- 
tion of the person to whom the mining operations are con- 
fided, and who is called a captain ; of which species of 



Petroleum and other Gils as a Fuel. 285 

agent there are, in large mines generally three or four at 
least; of whom, those whose attention is confined to the 
workings in the mine, are called " underground captains," 
and those to whom dev^olve the highest duties of experi- 
mental research upon the surface, are termed *' grass cap- 
tains." 

The sinking of a shaft is effected by making an aperture 
in the ground about six feet across, and as near square as 
may be, which the miner continues to sink, in the daily and 
hourly expectation of arriving at the vein whose supposed 
existence had tempted the excavation. If he should be 
fortunate enough to find it a reasonable and proper depth, 
it then remains to be considered in what manner it ought 
to be treated ; in other words, whether its appearances are 
sufficiently promising to justify further toil and expense, 
and if they do, whether it ought to be worked to the east 
or to the west, &c. 

If, on the other hand, he should not succeed in striking 
upon the point he had been in quest of (after arriving at a 
depth at which it is reasonable to suppose the ore ought to 
be met with), it then remains to be considered, whether the 
shaft has not been sunk too much to the north or too much 
to the south, so as to have missed the vein ; and in such 
case, a cross-cut is generally ordered in each of those direc- 
tions, to a distance beyond which the vein could not be 
supposed to lie ; and, if in so doing, no indication of copper 
should be found, the earth is pronounced to have been 
proved, and it is concluded that the lode does not run in 
that direction. 

(To be continued,) 



THE VALUE OF PETROLEUM AND OTHER 
OILS AS A FUEL. 

IN a recent number, we adverted to the experiments on 
burning petroleum, carried on in America, the follow- 
ing, on the official report of experiments at Woolwich, ap- 
peared in the Standard: — 

The engineers of the Woolwich Dockyard have returned 
to the Admiralty, we hear, a statement, without comment, 
of what Mr. Richardson has done, and have accompanied 
their statement with a drawing of the apparatus by which 



286 Petroleum and other Oils as Fuel. 

the results have been obtained. Good wine needs no bush, 
and such results as the patentee, aided by the dockyard 
authorities, has obtained, need no comment. When it is 
known to every practical engineer that j\ lb. of water per 
I lb. of the best steam coal is the maximum quantity in 
ordinary practice ; that not more than 3J lb. to 4 lb. of 
water are done by common coals, and 6J lb. is the usual 
rate for railv/ay locomotives, what need could there be to 
add one word of remark to a table of practical experiments 
showing 13 lb, for American rock oils, 15 lb. to 17 lb. for 
Burslem, and above 18 lb. for the Torbane hill oil t 

Taking the average evaporation effected by coal as 6 lb. 
we may fairly urge that the best mineral oil, being three 
times as strong as coal in the quantity of heat it generates, 
and evaporating three times the quantity of water in the 
same space of time, is just as cheap as coal if it cost three 
three times as much to distil it from the shale as it does 
to get the coal out of the earth, and convey to our furnaces. 
It is quite a mistake to say that, however valuable shale 
may be for the production of paraffine, it can never be a 
satisfactory substitute for coal. No one ever dreams of 
carting shale about with its great percentage of earthy base, 
any more than bones and coprolites are expected by far- 
mers to be carted over their lands, while chemists can 
supply them with superphosphate of lime. What men have 
been trying to do is to burn shale-oil ; to get the oil away 
from the mineral base, and to have as little useless matter 
to carry about as possible. What has been done at Wool- 
wich has been to burn such oil in a boiler-furnace practi- 
cally, and to beat coal with it. It is no use any longer to 
question results. The mineral oil has been burnt for days 
together, just as it might be burnt for months together, and 
it has raised steam effectively, efficiently, quickly, steadily, 
and continuously. It is now only a question of time how 
s on the world will accept the fact, and engineers begin to 
employ it. Already oil-works are dotting with numerous 
manufactories considerable regions in England, Wales, and 
Scotland, and our shales and bituminous rocks are being 
fast brought into commercial use. Evident it is, that great 
will be the future supply when oil is admitted as the best 
steam fuel — a fuel that our factories will burn day and 
night with only a flickering glimmer of hot air from their 
chimney tops. Ships will carry the oil in tanks, and stow 
it in the bilge-ways under the lower decks, and in other- 
wise useless spaces, pumping it as wanted ; all the labour 



The Red House- A nt. 287 

of moving coal, all the dust and dirt from coal will be 
avoided, and every drop of oil will be consumed, and there 
will be smokeless fires ashore and afloat. As with coals, so 
with oils, there is a difference of quality, and it is not a 
little remarkable that England, possessing the superior 
qualities of the first, should possess also the best of the 
latter. While the American oils will touch 13 lb., nearly 
all the English ones exceed them, and the Torbane hill 
oil will go nearly, if not quite up to 20 lb. ; and here we 
would hint to oil distillers that their present crude oils and 
the veriest tarry refuse will have as fuel a value in the 
market, for most of them will do as much as ordinary coal. 
For the best work engineers will have the best oil, as they 
have now the best coals ; but if the thickest refuse of the 
distilleries will evaporate probably its 6 lb. of water, the 
mineral oil makers will have a profitable market for that 
which they incur an expense now to be rid of, disposing of 
it for manure or any casual purpose. For our fast pas- 
senger steamers, the oil will be a boon of the greatest value, 
and our sharp-witted companies will doubtles try its mettle. 
For our men-of-war it will, in unpeaceful times, be an im- 
perative necessity, and we may be sure that our new 
Government will neglect no important means of providing 
for the supremacy of the British navy. 

Whatever further experiments may be probably under- 
taken before oil is adopted by the Admiralty, suf^cient at 
least has been done, and under such superintendence that 
the results can neither be doubted nor disputed, to prove 
that there is a fuel capable of superseding coal for steam 
and mech^ical purposes, that it has been practically tried 
and applied, and which only awaits the demand to come 
into the market at economic prices. 



THE RED HOUSE-ANT. {DIPLORHOPTRUM 
MOLESTA.) 

BY W. E. SHUCKARD. 

UNFORTUNATELY I can give no new information 
respecting the little ant which has been sent me, 
and which, I am told, has recently made its appearance in 
vast numbers at Hastings, Brighton, &c., and also in the 



288 The Red House- A nt. 

metropolis. I suspect it has never been absent from 
London since the period when it was first noticed here, or 
perhaps, rather, when its appearance was first recorded, 
which was in 1828. Some stir was made about it in 1836, 
when the late Dr. Bostock brought the subject before the 
Entomological Society, his house, in Upper Bedford place, 
Russell-square being annoyingly infested by it. So great 
was the inconvenience he suffered from the incursion of 
these little pests, that he was induced to go to considerable 
expense in his endeavour to extirpate them by removing 
the ranges and wainscotings in his kitchens, 8z:c., but, I 
believe without avail. In the discussion that ensued at 
the time in the Society, I was applied to by the President 
for an opinion as to the locality of its probable origin, if 
not indigenous. Being then much engaged upon the Hy- 
menoptera, and not having noticed it, at large, in my ento- 
mological excursions, although I had for some time fre- 
quently observed and admired the pretty little creature 
indulging, in ones and twos, amongst my coffee sugar of a 
morning, I hazarded the opinion that it was an exotic, and 
very likely a native of the West Indies, led to this surmise 
by my own experience. That it is American is confirmed 
by the fact of its abounding in the Brazils, where it is a 
greater pest than with us, existing there in enormous pro- 
fusion everywhere, both in-doors and out of doors. It 
appears to have streamed thence — assuming that that 
country is its metropolis — upwards through the isthmus to 
the United States, reaching as high as Boston, in Massa- 
chusetts, where Thomas Say, the celebrated American en- 
tomologist, was as much annoyed by it as we are ; but he 
has suggested a remedy which may help to curb, if not 
completely to check its diffusion. I described it, with other 
small exotic ants, in Charlesworth's " Magazine of Natural 
History," in the year 1838, by the name of Myr^nica 
domestica, and where its description will be found at page 
626. I was not then aware that Say had before described 
it as Myrmica molesta, in the " Boston Journal of Natural 
History for 1834," page 293, — a specific name suggested 
by the inconvenience he had suffered from its intrusion. 
He there tells us that " it is called ' the little yellow ant/ 
and that it is frequently found in houses in great numbers. 
They sometimes eat vegetable food, and some of my 
garden-seeds have severely suffered from their attacks. 
They also devour grease, olive-oil, &c. Their sting is like 
the puncture of a very fine needle. I placed a piece of 



The Red House- A nt, 289 

meat on a window board frequented by these little depre- 
dators ; it was soon absolutely covered by them, and thus 
enabled me to destroy thousands every few hours that I 
returned to examine the bait, for several days, durmg which 
time their apparent numbers scarcely diminished." 

Similar means might be resorted to with us in houses 
where they abound ; and if the bait were placed near the 
spots whence they are observed to issue, very great 
numbers might be annihilated by pouring a little boiling 
water over them. I am, however, afraid that no radical 
cure can be effected without the destruction of the nests 
which contain the embryonic progeny. Their nests being 
constructed within or behind walls or wainscoting, or 
under hearthstones and behind ranges, they are difficult to 
get at. They swarm, I have no doubt, externally in the 
air; and although the time when this takes place has not 
been observed, I expect atmospheric influences operate as 
powerfully upon them as upon the rest of the tribe, and 
that it therefore occurs during sultry, still days in the sum- 
mer and early autumn, when the air is charged with electricity. 
This should be esqecially noted by those who wish to era- 
dicate them ; for the greater the number of winged females 
that can be then destroyed, the greater will be the decrease 
of their propagation, as every winged female that survives 
becomes the founder of a fresh colony, which readily ex- 
plains their abundant and wide distribution. The females 
are more than twice the size of these small neuters, being 
two lines long, and are larger than the males, and like them 
have four transparent wings. No trouble need be taken 
about the latter, as they speedily die — indeed, immediately 
upon the exercise of their exclusive function. 

The majority of exotic ants are extremely eccentric in 
structure and remarkably diverse in form ; but these little 
aliens are conformable to a type common to these islands. 
They are congeneric with our own species of rhe section 
Diplorhoptrum, of the genus Myrmica, that section being 
without spines to the metathorax, a spinedmetathorax being 
the character of the more typical forms. The females and 
neuters are armed with stings ; the club of the antennae 
has three joints, and the abdomen two nodes. The habits 
of our own species of this sub-divided genus differ very con- 
siderably from each other, therefore it would be perilous to 
jump at conclusions from one to the other. A prominent 
characteristic embracing all is that the pupae are naked ; 
namely, that they are not enclosed in cocoons. In illustra- 



290 The Science of Mnemonics. 

tion of this dissimilarity of habits, I may add that some of 
the species Hve habitually in society with ants of a very 
different genus and division of the tribe ; others in close 
contiguity to such as are equally distinct ; whilst others, 
again, live totally apart, and away, and by themselves. 
— Science Gossip. 



THE SCIENCE OF MNEMONICS. 

BY WILLIAM STOKES. 

Teacher of Memory, Royal Polytechnic Institution. 

(Concluded from page 224.) 

r T is not always necessary to study the Science of Mne- 
1. monies in order to become practically acquainted with 
Mnemonical principles. The practice of Mnemonics in one 
form or another, is as indispensable to man as the beating 
of the heart, and it may take place as unconsciously. When 
Kohl had committed his atrocious murder in Plaistow 
Marshes, why did tens of thousands of " roughs " flock to 
the spot } And why did everybody take away a rush } 
Was it because each rollicking or morbid-minded pedestrian 
had studied the theory of local and objective suggestion, 
and the association of ideas t No — the multitudes were drawn 
to the spot by an unrestrained instinct, and they broke off 
the rushes and took them away without attempting to assign 
a reason, yet knowing the reason practically as well as the 
profoundest philosopher. The gratification of this instinct 
is not always confined to such a simple act as the gathering 
of rushes. I happen to be writing this article in Glasgow, 
and my temporary abode is immediately opposite the house 
which was the residence of Dr. Pritchard. As I write, I 
can look upon the transmogrified habitation. Why was it 
altered in its appearance } Simply, because the powerful 
operation of the great law of association was so generally 
and so unpleasantly manifested, that an obliteration as far 
as possible of that which was suggestive to the masses be- 
came absolutely necessary. In casual conversation, I have 
been informed repeatedly by many eye-v/itnesses that the 
flight of stone steps belonging to the house was, to a great 
extent, chipped and chiselled away by the mob, so strong 



The Science of Mnemonics. 291 

was the morbid desire to obtain something as a reminder of 
the tragedy. 

Happily, association is more frequently in an agreeable 
manner. The child who cries because the sixpence pre- 
sented to him by his fireside banker " is not his father's 
sixpence ! " or the very coin his father gave him, is uncon- 
sciously illustrating the poetry of association. And this 
principle of association may be cultivated and used as a 
pleasant and powerful aid in the development of intelli- 
gence. Some few years ago, when I was lecturing at the 
Royal Colosseum, London, I gave my illustrating boys a 
treat of a day's excursion to Brighton, and one of the little 
fellows, on his return to London, told a gentleman he had 
been to Brighton and had seen the sea, and the boats, and 
chain pier, and other wonders ; " and here " said he, " is a 
pebble I picked up from the beach." ''Ah!" said the gen- 
tleman, with a smile, " you may as well throw that away. 
It isn't worth anything." " No Sir, ' replied the boy , " I 
know it is not worth anything as a stone, but I am going to 
keep \tfor Association s sake ! " It would be well if the boy's 
innocent answer were known and appreciated throughout the 
world. Association, and not wearisome repetition, is the 
great aid to Memory. 

The Science of Mnemonics embraces the art oi forcing 
association, or of making the mind increasingly susceptible 
of suggestions. 

How can associations be forced } Why, when ideas are 
in the mind in a state of isolation, bring them together. 
This may be symbolically represented thus : — 

C 



D 



^ Let the points A, B, be two given isolated ideas, let the 
line A, C, and the line C, B, be the legs of a pair of com- 
passes holding ideas A, B. Close the compasses at the line 
C, D, and the association will be found at the point D., thus : 
A D B 

Boy A boy on a gate, or gate 

a boy opening a gate, or 
a boy with a queer gait 
or, ad infinitum. 



292 The Science of Mnemonics. 

To work upon the principle association successfully, ideas 
which are suggestive must be substituted for ideas which 
are unsuggestive. Thus, for the unsuggestive numbers from 
I to 10 take the following suggestive representatives : 



Fur One 


Wonder 


„ Two 


Tutor 


„ Three 


Threefold 


„ Four 


Foreknown 


„ Five 


Fifer 


„ Six 


Sixpence 


„ Seven 


Severn 


„ Eight 


Hatred 


„ Nine 


A nigh 


„ Ten 


A tender (of an engine.) 


words A, 


opposite them write down 



Call the above 
ten wards at random, calling the latter words B ; make each 
couple A, B, meet at the imaginary point D, and you will 
know the numerical order of the words B, by thinking of 
the words A. 

Although the preceding hints are given clearly, it is 
highly probable that if they were offered to the general 
public, instead of to the readers of the TECHNOLOGIST, 
who are especially scientific, ninety-nine readers out of 
every hundred would not take the pains to try the experi- 
ment suggested, which does not occupy more than ten or 
fifteen minutes, and which illustrates one of the most in- 
teresting laws of our intellectual being. It is an experi- 
ment too, which might induce further investigation into this 
important subject. The characteristic tendency of many 
minds to leave experiments untried and to decline, investi- 
gation. 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF ENGLISH 
POETRY. 



BY HUNTINGTON BOYLE, M.A. 



THE rise and progress of British poetry is one of 
those subjects which claim paramount attention 
amid the fields of the intellectual culture of our land. In 
endeavouring, as briefly as possible, to sketch its history in 
the present article, every allowance must be made for the 
length of ground over which we travel. In doing so, how- 



Rise and Progress of English Poetry. 293 

ever, it may not be inadvertent, by way of preface, to 
remark that it is utterly impossible to dwell either at that 
length, or with that minuteness, on this very important 
branch of our literature within the space of a simple 
article, which it most indisputably deserves. 

To survey, for instance, the rise and progress of any art 
or science, during the lapse of nearly eight hundred years, 
requires much time and deliberation, but when we are 
called upon to survey the history of one so minutely inter- 
woven with the progress of literature and refinement, upon 
our sea-girt isle, to that brilliancy which has characterised, 
and is characterising, its effulgence during the last and 
present centuries, is by no means a facile task. 

Poetry is indisputably the most ancient, as it is the most 
excellent, of the fine arts. It was the first fixed form of 
language — the earliest perpetuation of thought. It was 
the medium of praise to the Almighty — the medium 
through which lessons of wisdom were inculcated, and 
through which deeds of valour were extolled. It was an- 
.terior to music in melody, and antecedent to painting in 
description, excelling the one in harmony and sublimity, 
and the other by its power of pathos in description. Re- 
gard we the ice-clad region of Scandinavia, or the sunny 
clime of Greece — behold we the Indian in his prairie — or 
the Arab in his desert — we shall find that whenever man- 
kind have made any progress towards civilisation, they be- 
come irresistibly impelled by a love of song amongst them. 

No further proof of this is wanting than the ancient 
Greeks were incited to deeds of warlike enthusiasm 
while singing their praises to Apollo, and that whilst that 
enthusiastic tone of liberty which characterised Athens in 
her high and palmy state, was not less attributable to the 
love of poetry amongst them, and again, while the Eagles 
of Rome flew to the utmost bounds of the then known 
world, were not, may it be asked, the triumphs of oratory 
and poetry equally conspicuous at home ? Campbell has 
well remarked, that — 

" Song is but the eloquence of truth." 
and again — 

" Where Truth deigns to come, her 
Sister, Liberty, will not be far." 

Shakespere, too, while delineating the power of poetic 
fancy, states — 

" The Poet's eye in fine frenzy rolHng, 
Doth glance from earth to heaven, 
NEW SERIES. — VOL. L B B 



294 ^^-^^ ^'^^(^ Progress of English Poetry, 

From heaven to earth, and as imagination 
Bodies forth, the forms of things unknown, 
The poet's eye turns them to shape, 
And gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name." 

In the limited space allotted to us, we cannot bring to the 
minds of our readers what was the marvellous effects of 
poetic fancy amongst ancient nations. We will, therefore, 
content ourselves by tracing its home Influence, amongst 
ourselves, and briefly to describe It by turning to the subject 
under review. It Is a matter of no small regret, that we 
are met with, at the very onset, by the difficulty of appre- 
ciating that which so deeply animated our Saxon ancestors 
— namely, the metrical nature of their poetry. It might 
be irksome, and certainly wearisome, to our readers, to 
wade with us through mists of uncertain — nay, almost 
mythical — romance. Therefore, we will pass over that 
period in our subject, which elapsed from the date of 
the Saxon Alfred, in 827, to that of the third Edward, 
in 1327. 

At this period, we shall discover that literature and re- 
finement were making gigantic strides in Europe, and that 
the literature of England was not long in following the 
exemplar of Italy ; and that while Dante, Petrarch, and 
Boccaccio gilded the horizon of Italian literature, and re- 
vived the Greek style of poetical composition in Italy, 
they were soon followed in their onward course by our 
parent Bard, Chaucer. It Is not difficult to imagine, that 
in a Court possessed of so much heroism and gallantry, as 
this most indisputably was, that the Muse would not lie 
unneglected. Nor did she, for this reign gave birth to 
Chaucer, the parent bard of our land, and the brightest 
ornament of Edward's Court. 

With Chaucer, we must necessarily, from the circum- 
stances we have stated, date the commencement of 
modern poetry in Britain. It must, however, not be 
neglected, that Chaucer had much to struggle with on 
the score of language. The extirpation almost of Anglo- 
Saxon, by William of Normandy, and the adoption, at all 
events, in high places, of .the Norman in its place, obliged 
Chaucer to form, if not to create, a new language of his 
own — a fact which must ever be borne in mind, when we, 
at this Japse of centuries, study the writings of him, our 
earliest poet. 

That Chaucer was not only a deep thinker, but a deep 



Rise and Progress of English Poetry. 295 

student too, and one who enriched much that is beautiful 
in itself, is evident to every reflecting mind. 

In endeavouring to trace the first source from which our 
modern poetry sprang, and to show that it was in some 
degree influenced by the reflective grandeur of the Itahan 
school, which awakened such beauty in our own bard, that 
much of the current of Chaucer's mind was fed by the poets 
of Italy. We need only take, by way of comparison, the 
lines, in his 'Knight's Tale,' descriptive of the death of Arcite, 
with the style displayed by Petrarch in that very beautiful 
passage on the death of Laura. Again, he is undoubtedly 
indebted to the Decameron of Boccaccio, for the concep- 
tion of his picture in the Canterbury Pilgrims, in which 
much of the coarseness of the one is equally conspicuous 
in the other. The personages here delineated — such as 
the Lawyer, the Doctor, the Gap-Toothed Wife of Bath, 
even at this lapse of time, all identify themselves. 

Time forbids us to enter fully into any appreciation of 
Chaucer's merits. We will, therefore, press forward on our 
onward course, by remarking that, although Lydgate, 
Surrey, Sackville, Wyatt, and a host of others, succeeded, 
and were contemporaneous with Chaucer, none approached 
his merits till about a century afterwards, and thus we 
merge, by no imperceptible means, into the Elizabethan 
period. Here we are called upon to mention Edmond 
Spencer, who, at the time, was Secretary to Lord Gray, the 
then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and during his avoca- 
tions there^like many men in position in modern times — 
devoted his leisure time to literature, and prompted him to 
give to the world his Faery Queen — one of the most mag- 
nificently allegorical poems genius ever produced. How 
beautiful soever this poem may be, it cannot help being 
a matter of profound regret, that Spencer had not the 
policy, forethought, and determination, to sink allegory in 
personification. Unlike Virgil, the sublimest poet, and in- 
disputably the greatest flatterer of antiquity, whose popu- 
larity may, and most probably did, spring from the fact of 
his using real instead of allegorical personages, as the 
burthen of his muse, — Spencer, on the contrary, preferred 
the latter, a fact which more than any other, has tended to 
consign to neglect, one of the sublimest efl"orts genius ever 
achieved. The Elizabethan period of English literature 
had this advantage overantecedent ones : Our Anglo-Saxon 
language was becoming more fixed : Elizabeth herself, a 
great patroness of literature in general, but of poetry in 

B B 2 



296 Affinity and Heat. 

particular, was surrounded in her Court by those whose 
ideas assimilated with her own, or by those exampled by 
them. Spencer, indisputably a courtier in himself, had 
abundant opportunity of heaping- that flattery of which, 
perhaps, his Royal Mistress was probably too susceptible. 
He, like many men, lost his chance of success, and unlike 
Virgil, preferred allegory to personification. Still, how- 
ever, the Faery Queen, long after its popularity, from inci- 
dental circumstances, ceased to excite, has long remained 
to be the admiration of subsequent ages. It is unfortunate 
for his posterity, that the fire which took place in his resi- 
dence, and deprived him of the love of his only child, de- 
prived the literary world, too, of six of the original twelve 
books he wrote. As an instance of the progress and 
refinement of style, we refer our readers to the poem in 
question, especially to the stanzas commencing with the 
lines : — 

" And is there power in Heaven, 
That doth compassion on our evils move." 

concluding with the well-known quotation of — 
" All for love, and nothing for reward." 

(To be continued.) 



AFFINITY AND HEAT. 

BY H. ST. CLAIRE DEVILLE. 

Translated from the First Chapter of a Series of Lectures on 
" Dissociation]' published in the Legons de Chimie, 

ALL the labours, all the tendencies of modern science, 
lead to the identification of the forces which come into 
play in the physical and chemical phenomena of nature ; 
all the numerical determinations which have been obtained, 
tend to establish their equivalence in the most rigorous 
manner. Afifinity and cohesion cannot escape their identi- 
fication, and already the mechanical theory encloses them 
within the circle of reasonings which must soon dispel 
whatever vague and mysterious notions may still be 
connected with them. 

It cannot be concealed that the study of primary causes, 
in the phenomena which we observe and measure, prevents 
in itself a serious danger. In the absence of any precise 



Affinity and Heat, 297 

and independent definition of special facts, the considera- 
tion of primary causes leads us, oftener than we suppose, 
into really begging the question, and contenting ourselves 
with specious explanations which cannot stand a severe 
criticism. Affinity especially, defined as the force which 
determines chemical combinations, has been for some time, 
and still is, an occult cause, a sort of archee to which are 
referred all facts which are not understood, and which 
thenceforth are considered to be explained, whereas they 
are only classed, and often badly classed. Thus to the 
catalytic force are attributed a host of phenomena which 
are very obscure, and will remain so, I imagine, if they are 
referred in the lump to an entirely unknown cause. It 
was certainly supposed that they belonged to the same 
category when the name was given to them. But the legi- 
timacy of this classification even, has not been demonstrated. 
What can be more arbitrary than to class together the 
catalytic phenomena which depend on the action or on the 
presence of spongy platinum, or of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, when the platinum and the acid, so to say, take a part 
in the action "> These phenomena may, perhaps, be here- 
after explained in an essentially different manner, accord- 
ing as they have been produced under the influence of an 
eminently porous substance like spongy platinum, or under 
the influence of a very energetic chemical agent like sul- 
phuric acid. 

Hence, in our investigations we must omit all those un- 
known forces to which recourse has been had only because 
their effects have not been measured. On the other hand, 
all our attention ought to be fixed on the observation and 
numerical determination of these effects, which alone are 
within our reach. By this work their differences and ana- 
logies are established, and new light results from these 
comparisons and these measurements. 

Thus, heat and affinity are constantly concerned in our 
chemical theories. Affinity eludes us entirely ; yet we 
attribute to it the combination which is the effect of the 
unknown cause. Let us then investigate merely the 
physical circumstances which accompany combination, and 
we shall see how many curious approximations, how many 
measurable phenomena, present themselves to us at every 
moment. Heat, they say, destroys affinity ; let us, then, 
persistently investigate the decomposition of bodies under 
the influence of heat, estimated in quantity or work, in 
temperature or vis viva, we shall at once see how fruitful 



298 Affi7iity and Heat. 

is this study, and how independent of hypothesis, of any 
unknown force, unknown even, from the point of view, of 
the kind of unit to which its exact or approximate mea- 
sure is to be referred. It is in this case especially that 
affinity, regarded as a force, is an unknown cause, at least 
when it is not merely the expression of a quality of matter ; 
in this case, it should merely serve to designate the fact 
that such and such substances can or cannot combine under 
certain well-defined conditions. 

One point is very urgent — that is, to define combination 
itself. Seeking attentively the state of our knowledge in 
this respect, I find, in the first place, that the definition of 
combination must comprehend solution, and can only ex- 
clude mixture. In fact, the phenomena of solution and of 
combination are joined by a continuous chain, which it is 
impossible to break at any one point. Everyone knows 
that interminable discussions have been raised on this sub- 
ject — for instance ; in respect to metallic alloys and their 
liquation ; in reference to salts, acids, energetic bases, and 
their action upon water, alcohol, &c. The most certain 
conclusion which can be drawn is, that there are all possible 
intermediate stages between the phenomena of combination 
and the best-characterised phenomena of solution. 

In endeavouring to formulate in the clearest manner 
the ideas now current on combination, I find it cannot be 
better defined than by the fact of change of state. When 
two substances put in presence change condition, they com- 
bine. This change of condition, defined in the ordinary 
manner, shows itself by some new property, whether 
physical or chemical, which discloses new qualities of the 
combined substances — qualities, whether physical or che- 
mical, which distinguish the combination from simple 
mixture. I will give an example. 

The question has been asked, Is air a mixture or a com- 
bination .-* How has this question been solved .'' The 
physical and chemical properties of the elements of air 
(oxygen and nitrogen), and of air itself, have been suc- 
cessively studied. They have been found to be identically 
the same, always equal in the case of air to the mean of 
these properties, determined upon each element simply. 
Hence, it has been concluded that nitrogen and oxygen, 
coming into contact under ordinary atmospheric conditions, 
exert no appreciable action on one another ; that, therefore, 
the condition of the gas has undergone no change ; that, in 
short, air is a mixture, and not a combination, of nitrogen 
and oxygen. 



Affinity and Heat, 299 

It must be observed, that recourse has always been had 
successively to the physical properties of air to solve so 
important a question. Biot went so far even as to adduce 
the equality between the refractive indices of air, and of 
the mean of the indices of oxygen and of nitrogen, as a 
proof in favour of the opinion now generally admitted. 
If, in fact, there had been found in a constant manner a 
measurable physical property, different in air and in a 
mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, the conclusion would 
have been immediately drawn, that air was a combination. 
There would have been a change of condition, owing to 
the mixture of the two gases, and the beautiful verification 
of Lavoisier would have been invalidated in an irrefutable 
manner. The argument drawn from the proportions of the 
two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, which are not in atonic 
proportion in the air, is without value. One of the two 
elements might simply have been in excess over a combi- 
nation of the two others. There would have been mixture 
and combination, and, therefore, change of state for one 
portion of the air alone, which is not the case. 

Combination being thus characterised by change of state, 
and, therefore, well defined, what is the particular form of 
combination which merits more especially the name of 
solution.'* I say especially; for it 'would be impossible to 
say now whether water and sulphuric acid, acetic acid, 
chloride of calcium, and many other bodies, are combined 
with, or merely dissolved in one another. But there is a 
fundamental difference between the effects produced when 
potash is thrown into sulphuric acid, and the efi"ect ob- 
served when common salt is placed in water. 

In both cases the change of state is manifest ; but when 
sulphate of potash has been obtained after the cornbinatiofi 
of sulphuric acid and of potash, new chemical properties 
have become strikingly evident. It is, in fact, by these 
chemical properties that change of state is most clearly 
manifested at the time of energetic combination. In the 
second place, when the sohttion of common salt in water is 
affected, the chemical properties of the elements in presence 
remain virtually unchanged. First, a true fusion of the salt 
is noticed, which assumes the liquid state — a change of 
physical condition, accompanied most frequently by an 
absorption and disappearance of heat— then variation in 
the density, or phenomena of contraction, alteration in the 
volume of the elements, which, again, is a change of 
physical properties, which essentially characterises true 
solution. 



300 Affinity and Heat, 

Yet an exclusive value must not be given to these 
differences, in the chemical properties to designate a com- 
bination in the physical properties to designate a solution. 
We all know from the beautiful experiments of Henry Rose, 
that very weak solutions of the alkaline carbonates of borax 
have reactions differing essentially from those which their 
concentrated solution present. This remark is sufficient 
once more to show that the phenomena due to changes 
of state, cannot be ranged in two distinct categories, com- 
bination and solution. I shall recur to this once more, in 
reference to diffusion, or the indefinite extension of matter 
in menstrua. 

What I have said, enables me to use the two words 
— combination and solution — in a perfectly definite sense, 
without the risk of considering them to express an un- 
known cause, and characterizing them simply by the 
effects which are manifested in our daily chemical opera- 
tions. I hope, therefore, to be logical, in the following 
reasonings : — 

When two gases are mixed, which spread uniformly into 
one another, can the phenomena of what is called their 
diffusion be compared to the solution of two liquids in one 
another } I do not think so. 

Suppose we place together bisulphide of carbon and 
white phosphorus, at a temperature convenient for the 
melting of the phosphorus, oil and sulphuric ether, 
chloride of calcium dissolved, acetic acid and water. We 
might obtain very decided changes of physical condition, 
characterized principally by an elevation or depression of 
temperature, and by a change of density : in a word, the 
physical properties of these solutions might vary without 
the chemical propeities being sensibly modified. 

Is this the same with gases } Experiment shows us, 
first of all, that gases frequently combine without apparent 
absorption, or disengagement of heat (oxide of carbon and 
chlorine, chlorine and hydrogen in diffused light). But 
whenever this disengagement of heat can be confirmed, 
the chemical properties have been profoundly changed. 
Moreover, Gay Lussac's law proves that gases which con- 
tract in combining, do not change in volume in the same 
way as liquids which dissolve. The volume of the com- 
bination is always a simple fraction, and, often a very small 
one, of the volume of the elements of this combination. 
Thus, contraction, when it exists, not merely characterizes 
the combination of the gases, but always the composition 
to be deduced therefrom. 



Affinity and Heat. 301 - 

Nothing of the same kind can be remarked in the solu- 
tion of liquid, where the contractions follow no simple law, 
and do not enable us to foresee any change in the chemical 
properties of the elements which interpenetrate by solu- 
tion. Further, the thermal phenomena, which may be 
manifested at the moment in which the liquids interpene- 
trate, do not necessarily imply change of their chemical 
properties. 

Observing that the physical and chemical properties of 
bodies cannot be separated in a more absolute manner 
than can the phenomena of combination and of solution, 
we conclude, first, that the diffusion of gases is essentially 
different from the solution of liquids, and therefore, that 
whenever, from the mixture of two gases, there results a 
calorific phenomenon, there is a change of condition, and, 
therefore combination. 

The phenomena observed on the contact of liquids and 
solids which mutually dissolve each other is far more com- 
plex, and deserve a special analysis. 

In attacking this question experimentally, a large num- 
ber of the physical properties of bodies must be known, and 
therefore, be determined whenever they are unknown. 
Hence, all the complications which would be a source of 
trouble in calculating the effect observed (for instance, the 
latent heat of the fusion of solids) must be removed at the 
outset in this investigation. Hence, my researches have 
hitherto been limited to the determination of the calorific 
phenomena manifested on the contact of liquids which 
combine or dissolve and produce a liquid. 

In general, two bodies which dissolve, contract, I shall 
begin by defining what I call heat of contraction, either in 
the particular case of liquids, or in the general case. 

Suppose we take a body whose weight is. unity, knowing 
the law of its expansion as a function of the temperature, 
we can calculate the temperature at which this body would 
lose a given fraction of its volume; and knowing the specific 
heat of this body within the limits of experiment, we can 
calculate the heat of contraction corresponding to the dimi- 
nution of volume. Hence we can obtain the quantity of 
heat necessary for a given variation of the density. That 
will be the heat of contraction. 

Suppose we take water and sulphuric acid at O^ super- 
posed in a spherical flask provided with a perfectly cylin- 
drical narrow neck ; suppose that the two surfaces of 
contact are separated by an obstacle easy to break — such, 



302 Affinity and Heat. 

for instance, as a spider's web ; and suppose, further, that 
the vessel is athermanous, and can neither be heated nor 
cooled — in other words, that its specific heat is zero. 

The level of the upper of the two liquids being at A, 
they are mixed in an infinitely short time, and in a 
complete manner. Heat at once manifests itself, and 
assumes a maximum value, which is indicated by a ther- 
mometer (whose weight can be neglected) placed in the 
interior of the liquid ; this temperature will be the degrees. 

At the same moment, the temperature being supposed 
to be equal and invariable, the liquid will sink in the narrow 
neck to the level B. Finally, cooling the acid to its 
original temperature of O^, its volume will again diminish 
until the surface is level with the point C. The volume of 
the cylindrical space AC, divided by the original volume 
of the elements (water and acid), which I shall call V, 
will represent the contraction. Calling v the volume of 
the acid after mixture we shall have for this contraction 
the value — 

-•■ v. 

What I call heat of contraction is the quantity of heat 
necessary to restore the volume of the mixture v to the 
volume V. Knowing the co-efhcient of expansion k of 
the liquid from Ov to a temperature a little higher than 6, 
the specific heat c of the liquid being supposed constant 
between the same temperatures and m its weight, we shall 
have for the heat of contraction Q the value — 

C-I)^=Q. 

The temperature 6, at which the mixture resumes its 
volume, being — 

: -1)1=^- 

I have determined, by methods which I cannot describe 
here, the heats of contraction of a great number of liquids 
resulting from the combination or the solution of two 
elements, also liquid, such as sulphuric acid and water in 
very variable atomic proportions, sulphuric acid and soda 
of various degrees of dilution, water and alcohol, water and 
acetic acid, water and formic acid, varying the proportions, 
which are always atomic, in a great| number of modes. 
The following is the result of my experiments : — 

I. When two liquids combine or dissolve, and give a 



Printing of Woven Fabrics, 303 

product which is also liquid, the highest temperature 
resulting from the mixture is generally smaller than the 
temperature 6 which contraction could give if the liquid 
disengaged all the heat corresponding to this contraction. 

2. Hence the quantity of heat disengaged in these kinds 
of combinations or solutions is always less than the heat of 
contraction. 

It follows that, in all the cases which I adduce, the mere 
phenomenon of contraction is sufficient to explain the 
development of heat in chemical combinations. Hence 
part of the heat which contraction disengages becomes 
latent in the new compound, and then plays an important 
part, which I shall afterwards point out. 

This quantity of heat, which is latent, or lost to the 
thermometer, may be expressed by a very simple fraction 
of the heat of contraction, if one assume that the specific 
heat is invariable between the temperature O and 6, which 
is never the case unless d is very small. On this hypothesis 
it becomes 

Considering one and the same liquid, we may, in conse- 
quence of the errors introduced by delicate and numerous 
determinations, suppose the temperatures to be proportional 
to the vires vivce, or to the square of the velocities in the 
molecules, the movement of which produces heat The 
number tt represents, then, the fraction of this vis viva 
which has not been expended at the moment of the 
combination or of the solution. It is, if we like, the 
fraction of the heat of contraction which has remained 
latent in the product of reaction, and tt is positive. 

(To be continued.) 



PRINTING OF WOVEN FABRICS. 

POPULAR apprehension usually confines the applica- 
tion of the "art preservative" to the multiplication of 
books, newspapers, or other periodicals, and the permanence 
of ideas which, spoken only, would be evanescent and die 
with their originator or his contemporaries. But, although 
the preservation of ideas belongs mainly to that adaptation 



304 Printing of Woven Fabrics, 

of printing which gives to writing its lease of life, by inde- 
finite multiplication of copies, an idea maybe as surely pro- 
tected, \{ it appeals to the fancy and innate love of beauty, 
as though it confined its appeal to the intellect exclusively. 

Printing is truly the " art of arts." It reproduces indefi- 
nitely the theories, ideas, and practical facts of thinkers 
and workers, and it as well subserves the purposes of him 
whose object is to appeal to the fancies and tastes of all 
classes. The production of figures on cloths is as really 
printing as the preservation of ideas by means of the letter 
type. The decoration of plain cloths with figures is one of 
the oldest of arts. It was practised by the ancients, and 
the Chinese and Aztecs were in possession of the art when 
they became first known to Europeans. To this day the 
Chinese use the same method in printing cloths that they 
do in printing books. In the latter case we have improved 
upon their process in using movable types, instead of en- 
graving on and printing from the blocks — we using in our 
stereotype process the movable types to produce the block, 
whereas they engrave the block itself In* the former case it 
is but a few years since machine printing took the place of 
hand block printing in figuring calicoes. 

This method of producing coloured figures on cloth by 
means of printing should not be confounded with dyeing, 
although by a previous protection of those portions of the 
fabric not intended to be coloured, dyeing has been em- 
ployed to make figured cloths. Printing deposits the 
colours directly upon the cloth, which are secured there by 
mordants. This art, brought from the East, founds its way 
into England about the year 1676. We will briefly describe 
the process formerly used. 

" Block printing " of calicoes was comparatively a simple 
process. The web of white cloth was sent to the printing 
shop, either in a bleached state, or dyed some colour which 
formed the ground. Previous to being submitted to the 
manipulations of the printer it was " calendered," or pressed 
between heavy rollers, which gave it a perfect surface. It 
was then ready for the printer. He worked at a table, 
wide enough to accommodate the fabric, and six or seven 
feet long. The roll of plain cloth lay at one end of the 
table on a platform, and was drawn up over the table, 
which was of stone, and covered with a thick felt blanket. 
Behind him was a tub, some thirty or thirty-six inches 
diameter ; partially filled with a mixture of common pitch, 
and a vehicle which held it in solution. Floating on a sur- 



Printing of Woven Fabrics . 305 

face of this yielding mass was a piece of woollen cloth 
stretched tightly over a hoop. A pot of the requisite colour 
stood at the side, and the attendant, or " tearer/' as he 
was called, with a flat brush smeared the hooped woollen 
sieve with the colour. The printer was furnished with a 
*' block," corresponding in length and width with the 
pattern to be printed, the face of which was cut in relief, as 
are the blocks used now in printing wood-cuts. By dipping 
lightly the block in the sieve, floating on the yielding 
surface, it took up enough of the colour to make an impres- 
sion on the cloth. The cloth being drawn tightly over the 
table, presented a smooth surface, upon which, by repeated 
applications of the block, its pattern was produced and re- 
produced indefinitely, the " tearer " smearing the sieve with 
fresh colour in each interval. The printer was guided in 
placing his block by a minute pin inserted at a corner of his 
block. The cloth on the surface of the table being printed, 
it was wound up over rollers traversing the room on racks, 
so that when it came back by the series of rollers to the 
end of the table, it was wound perfectly dry upon a shaft, 
from which it was taken to be " lived " or " raised." 

This is, in brief, the modus operandi of block printing in 
its simplest form. It will be seen that several applications" 
of the block were required to cover one single transverse 
section of the fabric, and many repeated applications to 
print a full web of thirty or forty yards in length. Some- 
times the ground itself was applied by blocks. In such a. 
case, the figure was first printed with the block cut in re- 
lief, and then the fabric was reprinted with a block cut in 
intaglio, the figure being sunk into its surface, and the sur- 
face itself being faced with woollen or felt, to convey a large 
portion of the colouring matter. Another style was that of 
printing several colours or shades at once by means of an 
apparatus which fed different colours at the same time. 
Technically this was termed a ** hokey-pokey " tub. The 
deposition of the colours, held in reservoirs, was effected by 
the pressure of the block, in dipping, acting upon com-^ 
pressed air. 

This block printing is still employed in the printing of 
silk handkerchiefs, each one of which is a single pattern, 
and largely in the printing of floor and table oilcloths. In 
the latter case the colouring matter is not a dye but a paint, 
and is deposited mainly on the surface of the fabric. 

Machine printing by means of engraved copper rollers, 
has now taken the place of block printing. When machine 



3o6 Correspondence, 

printing was first practised in England and France, the 
colours used were not deemed "fast," and much prejudice was 
excited against the product of the new process. Hand- 
printed calicoes were eagerly sought after, and as the pro- 
cess of hand-printing could not be so accurate as that done 
by machinery, those who studied economy rather than show, 
sought eagerly, in their selection of calicoes, for evidences 
of faults, to make sure that they were getting the genuine 
article. The shrewd suppliers of our markets abroad soon 
ascertained the fact, and sent to this country imperfectly- 
printed goods, printed by machinery, to suit the queerly 
fastidious tastes of the purchasers in the American market. 
Labour-saving machinery, however, ultimately triumphed 
over old and slow processes, and the days of block-printing 
were numbered. — Paper-Trade Review. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

WE are indebted to a subscriber to our journal for the 
following remarks on the article (which appeared 
in our last month's impression), "Beet sugar and Cane 
sugar," reproduced from " Travers's Circular." (Ed. TECH- 
NOLOGIST.) 

To the Editor of the TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — I am surprised to see you have printed in the pages 
of the Technologist an article on "Beet and Cane sugar," 
from, as is stated " Travers's Circular," the same being full 
of mistatements. 

1. The condition of the weather in the tropics C2.wnot be 
counted upon with certainty. — Rain to wit. 

2. The crop of Beet Root sugar was much larger last 
year in France than it is this. 

3. The refuse of the cane is not full of saccharine matter. 

4. The refuse of the cane is made useful ; it boils and 
evaporates, the juice and the ash is applied as manure. 

5. The Beet root will not grow and thrive from John 
o'Groat's house to the Land's End. 

6. The scale of duties was not meant to protect certain 
Colonies. 

7. The scale of duties had not the effect of lowering the 



Correspondence, 307 

standard of sugar making all through the tropics. The 
West India Islands, Barbadoes, Cuba, Port Rico, St. Croix 
and the Colony of Demarara have produced better sugar 
than usual this year. 

8. The yield from a given quantity of Beet-root is much 
less this year than it was last, that was quite an exceptional 
year. 

9. White sugar, fit to eat, cannot be made from Beet-root 
in one operation, in France as cheaply as brown. Beet-root 
sugar is only consumed in France as loaf sugar, which is 
more expensive to make than brown. 

As an original subscriber, I send you these observations, 
for I am sorry to see anything in your pages likely to mis 
lead the public. 

I am Sir, Your Obedient Servant, 

Thomas D. Hill. 

Union Club, 121 Piccadilly. 



ON THE DYNAMICAL THEORY OF 
ELECTRICITY. 

To the Editor of the TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — I have lately been led, in relation to a new edition 
of my " Elements of Natural Philosophy," now in the 
Press, to reconsider the whole question of electricity, and 
I have become strongly impressed with the reality of the 
dynamic theory, I have hence naturally been induced to 
look about for confirmatory facts ; and a strong and (to 
the best of my knowledge and belief) a new fact has 
presented itself to me. It has long been known that if a 
bar of antimony and one of bismuth be connected, and a 
current be transmitted from antimony to bismuth, heat 
will be developed at the point of junction ; and, on the 
contrary, if the current pass from bismuth to antimony, 
cold will be produced. Now it struck me that if in the 
former, as in all cases in which heat is developed in the 
passage of a current, a portion of electric potential is (as I 
believe) converted into thermic potential, or heat, there 
ought in the latter case to be an inductive conversion of 
thermic into electric potential ; and if so, there should be 
a loss of current in. the first instance, and a gain in the 
second, and such appears to be the fact. 

On duly balancing thermo-element above-mentioned in 



3o8 Miscellaneous. 

a Wheatstone's bridge, the deflection of the needle followed 
the direction of the current, and the anticipated loss or 
gain of current was fully realised. If you can find room 
for this in the Technologist, you will greatly oblige, 
Yours, &c., 

Charles Brooke. 

1 6 Fitzroy Square, W. 



REVIEW. 



Notice sur les Collections Scientifiques, et sur le Mus^e 
Commercial-Iudustriel. Gand-Belgique. Impremerie et 
lithographie, C Annost Braeckman. 1866. 

We have before us, a well-printed and handsomely-illus- 
trated pamphlet, compiled by Professor Bernardin, of the 
well-known Maison de Melle, of Gand. We can confi- 
dently recommend this little work to all visitors of that 
town, as a carefully-written, and intelligible guide to the 
Museum. Among the many interesting and curious anti- 
quities to be found at the " Musee Commercial-Industriel," 
we must call attention to the following, which will be found 
under the third section of Professor Bernardin's Cata- 
logue : — " Fragment de pouter en cedre, decouvert lors des 
excavations faites par M. Layard a Nineve. Phylactere 
Juif : Fragment de Mosa'ique de Pompei'." 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Photographic positive paper. — Among the various 
contrivances which are daily contributed towards the im- 
provement of this art there is a kind of positive paper, 
invented by Mr. A. Taylor. Instead of albumenising or 
salting it by means of the usual preparations, says the Star^ 
he coats his new paper with a solution of white lac in 
water, impregnated with borax. Thus prepared, the sheet 
is sensitised and printed in exactly the same way as com- 



Miscellaneous. 309 

mon albumenised paper. The photograph obtained is 
reddish, and would assume a disagreeable chocolate colour 
if it were merely fixed with hyposulphite of soda ; but this 
drawback may be avoided by toning in a gold bath. If 
the print be first dipped into a bath of sulphocyanide of 
ammonium, and then definitively fixed in a bath of hypo- 
sulphite of soda, it will first become yellow in the former 
substance, and then change to bistre in the latter. The lac 
may also be dissolved in a watery solution of phosphate of 
soda. The paper thus prepared and sensitised in the usual 
way prints exceedingly well ; its colour is black or sepia, and 
does not change materially when fixed with hyposulphite. If 
the white lac be dissolved in a mixture of phosphate and 
borate of soda, the paper coated with it will assume very 
agreeable tints varying between red and black; and these 
tints may be graduated at pleasure by varying the pro- 
portions of the two salts, The paper prepared with 
phosphate of soda is best adapted for hard and powerful 
prints ; that with borate, on the contrary, should be pre- 
ferred for delicate and light photographs. If the sheets 
prepared as stated be sensitised with nitrate, then dried, 
and afterwards once more dipped into the white lac solu- 
tion, their sensitiveness will not only not be diminished, 
but materially increased. 

Dalmatian Wines. — The best wine of Dalmatia is the renowned 
Malmsey. It is said to be from the same grape as Madeira, and 
resembles that wine, but is not equal to fine old Madeira. It has 
suffered more than any other grape from the disease, and is the 
only species of vine that has not recovered as the other have 
done during the last three years, after the previous ten years 
malady. New Malmsey has not been in the market since 1853. 
The Plarka is from a Burgundian grape, and produces an alcoho- 
lic wine resembling port. An English traveller, a good judge, last 
year told me that he considered this wine equal to a higher quality 
of port. The other wines noted in this province are the Tartaro 
of Lebenico, a strong red wine. There are also sweet wines, suck 
as the Vugara of Bruzza, but with the saccharine quality much too 
prominent for English tastes ; and without the pulpy fruit-conserve 
flavour of Malaga, Menee, and Cyprus. The preliminary culture 
of the vine in Dalmatia evidences both labour and skill, but, with 
regard to the ordinary vines, not included in the above specifica- 
tion, the subsequent manipulation of the juice of the grape in all 
the stages of wine making, is very rude and unscientific, and out 
of all proportion to the labour, and even skill bestowed on the 
culture of the vine. The red wines are generally made too soon, 
rom fear of the peasants steaHng the grapes ; hence the necessity 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. C C 



3 1 o Miscellaneous. 

of a wine police, as in the Rhine districts. There ought to be a 
selection at the precise moment for wine making on chemical 
principles ; that few Dalmatian wines keep well or stand a sea 
voyage is owing to a slight amount of acidity in the first stage of 
wine-making. From an improper exposure to the air there is 
occasionally the flat disagreeable flavour, known by the sardonic 
expression of " mouse closet bouquet." There is also a want of 
proper cellarage in Dalmatia, the soil being subject to earthquakes ; 
subterranean vaults are acted on by the internal heat, and do 
little to produce coolness, except at the bottom of steep hills 
facing the north, so as to be at least protected from the external 
heat of the sun. Venice used formerly to be the chief market for 
Dalmatian wines, but the railway by Conegliano Pordenore, the 
Taghamento, and the Friuli having opened the market of Venice 
to wines superior to the majority of those of Dalmatia, the latter 
have lost much of the Venice market. The Dalmatian vintage of 
1865 was copious and excellent, but the wine of Venetia appears 
to have been equally abundant, for, during the winter, several 
cargoes were returned from Venice to Spulato by the consignees, 
in consequence of purchasers not having been found at the lo west 
prices fixed on. 

Notes on Orange-Tree Plagues rN the Azores. — The 
Coccus Hesperidmn, of which mention has been made 
as one of the afllictions from which the orange trees have 
suffered seriously, is an insect well known to English exotic 
gardeners as attacking the orange trees in gi'eenhouses, 6^-c. It 
is one of the forty-three species of the genus coccus (order liemif- 
tera), and is commonly known as the greenhouse bug. It is oval, 
oblong, brownish in colour, and covered with a sort of exuding 
varnish. The male coccus of this species is a minute fly. The 
female having no wings when young, runs over the trees, and, 
finally, settles upon some leaf, where she deposits and hatches an 
infinity of eggs and then perishes. The more distinguished species 
of this genus is that which feeds chiefly upon the cactus opuntia^ 
which is therefore denominated the coccus cacti, and the origin of 
which has been traced to South America. This species is the 
valuable (though no less destructive) cochineal insect of commerce. 
Frequent manipulation and treatment with any pungent insoluble 
powders (not injurious to vegetation), such as peppers, raw sul- 
phur, (S^c, are amongst the best of corrective appliances as against 
the orange-tree coccus. The lagrima is one of those maladies 
which commonly result in all organic bodies as the effect of ex- 
haustion, and is probably due in these islands to the unchecked 
depredations of the coccus. It is a degenerated form of orange 
dew, otherwise known as orange manna. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 
Hardwicke's Science Gossip, for December. 
The Artizan for December. 



THE 

TBOHNOLOaiST. 

February, 1867. 
AFFINITY AND HEAT. 

BY H. ST. CLAIRE DEVILLE. 

Translated from the First Chapter of a Series of Lectures oji 
" Dissociationl' published in the " Legons de Chimie." 

(Concluded from our last.) 

IN the experiments I have terminated, I have only found 
one single exception ; and that is in the case of the 
formation of sulphate of soda by means of two dilute 
solutions, one of sulphuric acid, and the other of caustic 
soda. Sulphate of soda expands at the moment of its 
formation, and t is greater than 9, so that it becomes nega- 
tive, which is a nice point to explain. But the study of 
the phenomena of saturation in these solutions will, I hope, 
enable me to explain this abnormal phenomenon, like the 
contraction of water by heat, or the expansion of bismuth 
at the moment of its solidification, &c.* 

The contraction observed on mixing with water mono- 
hydrated acetic acid or saline solutions is considerable, 
and the cooling of the combination or solution very note- 
worthy, as had already been observed by Rudberg, if I am 
not mistaken. In that case, t becomes negative, and ir is 
greater than unity. Thus at the moment of the reaction, 

*!' Since writing these lines, M. J. Regnauld has made observa- 
tions on the subject which lead to a system of explanation far 
superior to my own. — " Journal de Pharmacie," 4 ser., vol. i., 
p. 401. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I, D D 



3 1 2 Affinity and Heat. 

the product at first renders latent all the heat of contrac- 
tion, which is very great, and then some sensible heat, 
taken from itself and from the adjacent bodies. MM. 
Bussy and Buignet have recently observed the same fact 
and others of the same kind, especially in the mixture of 
hydrocyanic acid and water. 

It is very probable that the preceding considerations 
would apply to solid bodies, if we knew their latent heat of 
fusion, to calculate formulae which give the heat of con- 
traction. 

When a solid dissolves in water, it first absorbs the 
quantity of heat necessary to melt it, then a certain 
quantity of heat which increases with the proportion of 
the solvent, and which corresponds to the extension of the 
body dissolved in its menstruum. These facts, which are 
of great importance, were determined in the most vigorous 
manner by M. Person, and deduced from observations made 
more especially on nitrate of potash. To these thermal 
units, expended in the work of solution, must be added the 
heat of contraction absorbed and determined by the 
methods I have described. 

Thus, the more a soluble substance is difTused in its 
solvent, the more heat it has absorbed, which it has 
borrowed either at the contraction (which appeared indefi- 
nite) in the act of solution, or from the adjacent bodies when 
there is cooling during solution and extension. Thus, 
though Tuse an expression paradoxical in form, it may be 
afftrmed that every body which cools while it undergoes 
molecular modification, is really heated by borrowing heat 
from the adjacent bodies, and from itself first of all. The 
latent heat which it possesses is increased to the extent of 
all the heat which has disappeared either by the fact of 
spontaneous cooling or by diminution of the heat of con- 
traction. It is, in fact, so much heat lost, and therefore 
changed into motion of the molecules, or, if we like, into 
affinity, if we thus designate the force which produces this 
motion. 

All this heat, lost apparently, will reappear completely 
when the solution is made to undergo the phenomenon, 
the inverse of extension — that is to say, concentration. 
Hence, in the cycle comprehending the solution of a salt 
at the ordinary temperature and its crystallisation by 
spontaneous evaporation (supposing the salt to be an- 
hydrous like nitrate of potash), all the quantities of heat 
borrowed from without, and from the contraction during 



Affinity and Heat. 3 1 3 

the period of solution and extension, will reappear and be 
given out during concentration and crystallisation. Hence, 
it might be said that these solutions contain (and that will 
only be true potentially) all the heat which water and the 
salt have absorbed during the development of the pheno- 
menon. 

Thus, a body which cools spontaneously does really be- 
come heated by all the latent heat which its molecules fix ; 
and it may be conceived that in an almost indefinite state 
of extension it might even be decomposed by the heat 
which it has absorbed at each addition of the solvent. In 
this manner is to be explained the decomposition by diffu- 
sion produced by Mr. Graham, and which serves as the 
basis of his admirable method of dialysis. 

If you put bisulphate of potash in the internal diiTusion- 
vessel (two cylindrical concentric vessels, Graham's first 
apparatus), you know that the illustrious physicist shows you 
sulphuric acid separating from neutral sulphate of potash 
and passing into the external vessel. 

Then we have a true decomposition which is necessarily 
accompanied by the absorption of a certain quantity of 
heat. Let us inquire to what it is due. If we add sul- 
phuric acid to sulphate of potash, both in dilute solution, 
the liquid will become heated ; but the quantity of heat 
thus produced will always be less than the heat of contrac- 
tion, calculated in the manner I have shown. In fact, there 
will be a transformation of the heat which should have 
become sensible during the contraction, into latent heat ; 
and when this has become considerable enough, decompo- 
sition by diffusion will take place. 

In order that the inverse of the original effect may take 
place, the combination which is destroyed must take up 
the quantity of heat which became sensible at the time it 
was effected. It is the latent heat, stored up during solu- 
tion which furnishes it ; but it is inadequate for completely 
producing this effect, and thus the phenomenon is only 
partial, as Mr. Graham has well observed. 

The phenomena of decomposition by diffusion take 
place therefore in a continuous manner, like the decompo- 
sition of gases by heat, and all that I am about to say re- 
specting dissociation and its tension (which might here be 
replaced by the ratios of weights) is absolutely applicable 
to them. Whether diffusion takes place in two concentric 
vessels as I have supposed, or in Graham's new membrane 
apparatus, the process is the same. 

D D 2 



314 ^ ffii^ iiy ^^^^ Heat. 

Suppose that a body with little stability — such as hydro- 
chlorate of alumina — a body which is reduced to its ele- 
ments by the least heat, be introduced into the dialyzer, 
above the membrane or parchment-paper which serves as 
a filter with very close meshes. Below this filter is water, 
which I assume to be constantly pure. 

The hydrochlorate of alumina absorbs the more heat 
the greater the quantity of water in which it is dissolved, 
so that at a given moment it may be supposed to contain 
so much heat that if this heat became sensible and were 
applied to its elements, they would at once separate. At 
this moment hydrochloric acid becomes free, and hydrated 
alumina separates in particles extremely divided, which 
occupy all the liquid in which the separation is effected. 
Hence it ought to have all the properties of a dissolved 
substance. It will soon be seen that these properties are 
only apparent. 

That is what takes place in the dialyzer ; moreover the 
hydrochloric acid passes through the filter, and alumina 
remains on the surface in the state of apparent solution, or 
in the colloidal state, to use the expression which Mr. Gra- 
ham has adopted. Yet .in practice this reaction does not 
take place exactly in this manner. 

We may suppose the permeable membrane divided into 
two horizontal layers, — one the higher layer, where the 
hydrochlorate of alumina penetrates (this has little thick- 
ness), the other the lower layer, where water alone pene- 
trates. It is clear that in an apparatus of this kind the 
solution of hydrochlorate of alumina will very soon find a 
layer near the surface where the water, which is renewed 
with rapidity, will be in considerable proportion as com- 
pared with hydrochlorate. In this layer the decomposition 
of the salt will then take place by indefinite diffusion (con- 
sequently by the effect of heat), the hydrated alumina will 
remain in the state of colloidal particles on the upper sur- 
face, and the hydrochloric acid will be carried away by the 
water. The colloidal layer thus produced will itself become 
a true filter, and the phenomena of decomposition may go 
on in its interior. 

Yet decomposition by diffusion cannot be complete ; for 
it varies with the ratio of the quantity of water put in con- 
tact with hydrochlorate of alumina, and with the quantity 
of hydrochloric acid which this water contains. In other 
words, the quantity of water separated by diffusion will be 
the smaller the more this water is charged with hydro- 



Affinity and Heat, 3 1 5 

chloric acid (this acid arising from a portion of hydro- 
chlorate already decomposed). Everything takes place as 
if the heat necessary for entirely decomposing hydrochlo- 
rate of alumina could never be entirely equal to that which 
extension furnishes to its molecules, within the limits of our 
experiments. 

Thus the phenomenon of dialysis is never complete ; a 
little hydrochlorate of alumina always passes through the 
membrane, and the colloids cannot be separated in an abso- 
lute manner by means of diffusion. 

This principle has numerous applications. If we admit 
generally that all solutions are cooled on being diluted — as 
is shown by a great number of experiments — if, moreover, 
we assume, as my experiments seem to shov/, that in every 
change of state, accompanying solution there is a loss of 
vis viva, and hence a concentration of latent heat in the 
substances dissolved, and in their menstrua, we can under- 
stand a great number of phenomena, the explanation of 
which escapes us, and bring them within the class of known 
phenomena. 

Thus, the sap of trees is, so to say, pure water at the 
moment it begins to move, and contributes to the increase 
of the plant. It is a solution so diluted with carbonic acid 
and organic or mineral substances drawn from the seed or 
from the soil, that its molecules may be considered abso- 
lutely free, or separated by the latent heat which is there 
accumulated. When this solution reaches the parenchyma 
of the leaves, where both its concentration and its altera- 
tion on contact with the elements of the air take place, it 
may be said that all molecular equilibria are successively 
possible ; and if circulation raises them to concentration or 
to combination at a given moment, all the elements of car- 
bonic acid, of water, and of the mineral principles which 
the sap contains, may group themselves according to a 
formula determined previously by the rapidity of the circu- 
lation, the nature of the leaves, and the physical circum- 
stances necessary for the life of the plant. In this manner 
we can probably account for the diversity which the act of 
vegetation imprints on the nature of the products it forms 
with the elements of water, of carbonic acid, of ammonia, 
and of some minerals. 

It is also in the heat stored up by solution that we must 
seek the principal element of the decomposition by vege- 
tables of carbonic acid into carbon and oxygen — a pheno- 
menon regarding which we must confess our total ignorance. 



3 1 6 Affinity and Heat. 

A most remarkable experiment which M. Berthelot has 
made, by placing together carbonic oxide, water, and 
potash, belongs to actions of this kind. 

Carbonic oxide dissolves in potash, and absorbs during 
its extension in the liquid, a certain number of thermal 
units beyond that which the loss of vis viva by contrac- 
tion doubtless allows it to retain at the moment of its 
liquefaction. This solution, which takes place in very small 
quantity at a time, owing to the slight solubility of the gas, 
is really a considerable extension, which, thanks to disso- 
ciation by diffusion, gives to the molecules of carbonic 
oxide the heat necessary for entering into direct combina- 
tion with the elements of potash. In this reaction (it is, 
moreover effected with the slowness which characterises 
all operations where solution is necessary when the solu- 
bility is small) the heat is fixed which formic acid needs for 
its existence. It is the origin of this heat taken from the 
solution by a combination effected between bodies in the 
7tascent state, and which will be disengaged in the form of 
sensible heat when formic acid is decomposed by spongy 
platinum, as has been done by Berthelot, or when formic 
acid is burned, as was done by Favre and Silbermann some 
time ago. 

Combination is almost always produced by the destruc- 
tion of motion, sometimes by the transformation of heat 
into motion. In the first case there is a disengagement of 
heat, in the second a cooling or absorption of heat. In 
the second category are to be included all those bodies 
which I have proposed to call explosive — that is, which 
render into insensible heat the motion they have acquired 
in absorbing latent heat. Formic acid, a great number of 
organic compounds, as well as the explosive compounds of 
nitrogen, are in the latter category ; and these are rarely 
produced by the direct union of the elements but are ob- 
tained by the interchange of their elements in the body of 
more or less dilute solutions. It is assumed that then the 
molecules are in contact in the nascent state. Here we 
must be on our guard ; this term still includes the idea of 
an occult cause. It must be employed with extreme re- 
serve and by it must be understood a system of circum- 
stances in which the molecules may change their state of 
equilibrium by finding about them latent heat or in 
general, the causes of motion necessary for producing and 
exciting this change of state. The origin of the expres- 
sion which renders this idea, implies an hypothesis which 



Affinity and Heat. 3 1 7 

may give rise to a vicious circle in the minds of young 
chemists or of persons who have not maturely reflected on 
these definitions. 

It is seen from the explanations I have given, that a 
more or less dilute solution really contains a certain 
quantity of heat, arising either from gain by contraction 
or by cooling by expansion. Hence most of the combina- 
tions which are due to the nascent state ought to take 
place in solutions, especially those which take place under 
cooling, those which give explosive substances. 

From what has been adduced in this chapter, it will be 
seen how great in their origin are the differences between 
the calorific effects produced when gases combine with each 
other and the calorific effects developed by the combina- 
tion or solution of liquids with each other. In the latter 
case, the heat of contraction has almost always been suffi- 
cient and more than sufficient to account for all. As to 
gases, this heat of contraction which may be calculated by 
formulae given above, is always very small as compared 
with the heat disengaged during combination ; it may in- 
deed be zero, as in the case of hydrogen and chlorine and 
indeed, whenever gases combine in equal volumes, and 
hence without condensation. Therefore we must admit 
that gases contain of themselves and in the latent state, 
the principle of motion or of heat which is manifested at 
the moment of combination. 

Lavoisier considered oxygen to be composed of a cer- 
tain unknown radical and of this principle which he 
materialized under the name caloric. This point of view 
I shall develope in a following chapter. 

In direct combinations, the motion is destroyed and con- 
verted into heat. Just as a finite velocity can only be im- 
parted to a body in a finite time, or combination will always 
require for its production a greater or less time, but always 
a definite one. 

On the phenomena of indirect combination (or that pro- 
duced by the nascent state) require (i), a volution ; (2), an 
absorption of heat, or a cooling. The time necessary for 
their development will be greater, (i) as the solubility of the 
substances acting in the menstrua is smaller, (2) as the 
absorption of heat is greater. 

The action of time need not be mysterious ; we must 
always either explain it simply or wait for facts to account 
for it. 



31^ 



ON THE CAUSE OF EXPLOSIONS IN LAMPS* 

BY JOHN ATTFIELD, PH.D., F.C.S. 

Director of the Laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain. 

DURING the last two months I have been investigating 
the inflammable properties of mineral oils ; at first, 
for the scientific interest the subject presented, then by de- 
sire of the Committee of the Petroleum Association of the 
City of London, and recently in elucidating the cause of an 
explosion of a lamp, at a house of a gentleman in the coun- 
try, Thomas Smith, Esq., the Croft, Sudbury. I am now, 
consequently, in a position to state the immediate cause of 
explosions in lamps, to show how it is, that oils having dan- 
gerous properties occur in trade, and to point to more than 
one means whereby the use of mineral oils for illuminating 
purposes may become as safe as that of the old, less valu- 
able, vegetable oils. 

The oil in a lamp passes up a wick by capillary attrac- 
tion, comes in contact with the brasswork of the lamp in 
the long slit or channel which holds the wick, and finally 
burns at the top of the wick by help of a strong current of 
air. The flame heats the brassv/ork in its vicinity, the heat 
is conducted downward through the metal to the body of 
the lamp, and thence to the oil, which after two or three 
hours becomes considerably warmer than when the lamp 
was first lit. Now mineral oils, when sufificiently heated, 
emit vapour which form, with air, a dangerously explosive 
mixture. The point to which any specimen of mineral oil 
must be heated before it yields this mixture can be ascer- 
tained readily and with perfect safety by the method pro- 
posed in my last paper" On the Igniting-point of Petroleum," 
namely, by half filling an ordinary chemist's test-tube. 6 in. 
long, and i^ in. broad, warming, and well stirring with a 
naked thermometer until a small flame, frequently intro- 
duced into the upper part of the tube, occasions an explo- 
sive flash ; the temperature indicated by the thermometer 
at this moment is the point of danger. Tested in this way 
the oil from Sudbury afforded inflammable vapour at 8^ 
degrees. But, curiously enough, the temperature of the 
bulk of the oil in the lamp that exploded never reached 

* From the Pharmaceutical Journal, January, 1867. 



On the Cause of Explosions in Lamps. 319 

this point ; for besides the greater part of the two gallons 
of oil, a portion of which was in the lamp at the time of ex- 
plosion, the brasswork and fragments of the lamp had been 
forwarded to me, and I was thus enabled, after fitting on 
another glass body to experiment on what might be con- 
sidered as the original lamp and original oil, and found by 
actual observations with thermometers, introduced through 
holes bored in the sides of the lamp, that the oil in the 
interior rose no higher than ']Z degrees, even after fiv.e hours 
burning in an unusually warm room. On applying a light, 
however, at this temperature, to an opening in the lamp, an 
explosion ensued. In short, it was found that even when 
the oil in the lower part of the body of the lamp was not 
warmer than 65 degrees, a mixture of vapour and air had 
formed in the upper part of the body, and exploded on a 
flame being introduced. Here, then, was a sample of oil, a 
portion of which had been the source of an explosion under 
ordinary domestic circumstances, which emitted no in- 
flammable vapour under 83 degrees, when tried outside the 
lamp, and yet which inside the lamp gave, at 60 to 70 de- 
grees, such a mixture of vapour and air that, should it catch 
fire, would inevitably explode. The explanation of this state 
of things was obvious. The oil, though at 75, 65, or even 
colder, had, in its passage up the wick to pass through the 
heated brasswork, the temperature of the gateway of which, 
the temperature of that part presented to the interior of the 
lamp, must have been high enough to cause the evolution 
of vapour into the air in the upper part of the interior. This 
temperature was taken by appropriate means and found to 
be 108 degrees ; in a smaller lamp it was 105, and in other 
experiments varied from 100 to no degrees during an 
evening. The cause of the explosion was thus perfectly 
clear. An oil giving inflammable vapour at 83 degrees, and 
not apparently heated beyond 60 to 70 degrees, had actually 
been exposed, in a most complete manner, to a temperature 
of 108 degrees, resulting in the formation of an explosive 
mixture, which accidently ignited on turning down the wick. 
Every person who had used this oil in a paraffin lamp of 
the usual form had, so to speak, been burning his candle 
over a charge of gunpowder, and were it not that the chances 
of the explosive mixture becoming ignited were exceedingly 
small, as will be presently shown, many explosions, before 
that now recorded, must have attended the use of the oil. 
So, then, an oil giving inflammable vapour below no de- 
grees, and burnt in a lamp of ordinary construction, yields, 



320 On the Cause of Explosions in Lamps. 

sooner or later, a gaseous mixture which, should it catch 
fire, will burst the lamp and scatter the oil, to the possible 
injury of property and danger to life. Practically, I have 
only obtained lamp-explosions with oils which give ofif 
vapour below lOO degrees, when examined in the test-tube 
in the manner above described. Unfortunately, fourteen 
out of every fifteen specim.ens of " crystal oil," " photogen," 
" American paraffin oil," and other varieties of petroleum 
now sold for illuminating purposes, generate the explosive 
mixture at temperatures much below lOO degrees, and 
hence are dangerous. The same remark does not apply to 
Young's paraffin oil, but there is reason to fear that this 
mineral oil is often diluted with dangerous American oils. 
Other home-made mineral oils also vary in explosibility. 

The explanation of the occurrence of dangerous mineral 
oil in trade was fully traced out in my last paper ; three 
sentences, therefore, will be sufficient on this head. Crude 
petroleum having been found to be inflammable at common 
temperatures, an Act was passed in 1862, forbidding, except 
by licence, the storing of petroleum and its products near a 
dwelling-house or warehouse in larger quantities than forty 
gallons, unless proof was forthcoming that it gave off" no 
" inflammable vapour at a temperature of less than one hun- 
degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer." Unfortunately, this 
was taken to mean, and probably did mean, the petroleum 
itself should not ignite under 100 degrees when heated by 
a flame or a warer-bath in an open saucer or a small bowl, 
— a most fallacious test, first, because the time employed 
in the operation, the amount of stirring practised, the form 
of the vessel, its arrangement over the source of heat, the 
quantity of liquid used, and the distance of the test-flame 
from the surface of the petroleum, all influenced the result 
to the extent of causing two observations to vary from 4 to 
40 degrees from each other ; and, secondly, because the 
experiment thus performed invariably gave the igniting- 
point many degrees higher than the temperature at which 
inflammable vapour was evolved, — than the temperature, 
therefore, at which the oil was dangerous. Shippers, mer- 
chants, brokers, adopted this fallacious mode of testing ; 
oil changed ownership under a warrant that it would not 
ignite under 100 degrees, not, however, without occasional 
litigation caused by the uncertainty of the test, and hence 
the market was and is supplied with oil which emits in- 
flammable vapour in most cases below 90 and often below 
80 degrees, 



On the Catise of Explosions in Lamps. 321 

The remedy is plain. Let those who sell and those who 
buy discountenance the sale and use of those qualities of 
mineral oil which generate inflammable vapour at tempera- 
tures below 100 (better no) degrees, when examined in a 
test-tube in a manner already indicated. Such tubes may 
be purchased for a few pence of any chemical apparatus 
maker, naked thermometers can be obtained at the same 
places, or these articles, together with an instrument for 
ascertaining the power of the oil to ascend a wick, a spirit 
lamp test-flame, jet, directions for use, &c., all enclosed in 
a neat pocket case under the name of the Petr oleometer, 
are now kept in stock by Mr. Cassella, Hatton garden, 
London. Oils which stand the test may be considered safe, 
and such oils can be supplied by refiners as easily as 
unsafe ones, — it is only a matter of carrying the refining 
operation a little further. Indeed, safe oils are even now 
occasionally met with. At a shop in Drury lane I pur- 
chased petroleum at /^d. and at 4j<^. per pint; the former 
yielded inflammable vapour at Z6 degrees, and gave me an 
explosion the first hour it was burnt in a lamp; the latter 
only emitted vapour at 1 14 degrees, and gave no explosive 
mixture in a lamp, even aftersevenhours'burning. The use of 
safe oils will be the chief means of avoiding explosions. But 
the lamps themselves are not altogether faultless. The 
air-hole which allows the air entering the lamp and taking 
the place of escaping oil is usually within about half an inch 
of the flame, it might very well be placed at some other part 
of the lamp ; for it is this aperture which forms the 
touch hole by which fire is conveyed from the flame to the 
explosive mixture within. Fortunately there is always a 
strong draught of air in the opposite direction, so that the 
chances are perhaps five hundred against, to one in favour 
of the accident, even though an explosive mixture be con- 
stantly in the reservoir. Were this not so, explosions with 
the petroleum now in commerce would be the rule rather 
than exception. Blowing down the chimney of a lamp 
neutralizes this current, and doubtless increases the chances 
of the flame reaching what I have already termed the touch- 
hole. Then this channel of communication might be packed 
with wires after the principle of the oxy-hydrogen safety jet. 
Again, the portion of the brasswork facing the interior of 
the lamp should be covered with bone, glass, or some other 
material, having bad conducting powers for heat, so that 
the gateway, as I have before called it, through which all 
the oil has to pass in ascending from the reservoir to the 



32 2 On the Cause of Explosions in Lamps. 

flame shall be cool instead of hot. By these means, and 
especially by demanding that all mineral oils shall comply 
with the letter instead of what is said to be the spirit of the 
Petroleum Act of 1862, explosions in lamps will seldom or 
never be heard of. 

A few words in conclusion. I have pointed out the cause 
and the remedy. With whom will begin the adoption of the 
means of prevention of these explosions } It is useless to 
say the refiner ought to do this ; the refiner at New York 
and Philadelphia satisfies the requirements of the shipper ; 
the shipper sends whatever is wanted by the British mer- 
chant ; the merchant imports according to the demands of 
the dealer; the dealer supplies the wants of the retailer; 
and the retailer finds ready sale for any mineral oil that 
will give a good light without smoke, and is cheap. Then 
the adoption of preventive measures scarcely lies with the 
public ; for the consumer seldom knows anything about 
thermometers, petroleometers, igniting-points and explod- 
ing-points, and the only test I can suggest to him, by which 
to assure himself that a given specimen of oil is, or is not 
dangerous, is to unscrew the brasswork after the lamp has 
been burning for an hour or two, and to introduce the flame 
of a lucifer or thin splint of wood into the reservoir of the 
lamp. A light blue flash of flame, visible within the aper- 
ture, and scarcely audible explosion will result if the mix- 
ture of air and vapour in the upper part of the reservoir is 
inflammable. Such an experiment is as harmless as that 
of lighting raisins soaked in brandy in the game of Christ- 
mas snap dragons. If the explosive mixture is met with, 
the oil is dangerous, as the ignition of the mixture may 
occur when the aperture is closed by the brasswork; in that 
case the resulting flame and expanded products of combus- 
tion, having no other vent, will escape by bursting the 
reservoir, and scattering the oil, to the risk of a conflagra- 
tion, if the oil catches light. If there is no explosive mix- 
ture in the reservoir the oil is safe, and will even extinguish 
the test-flame if the latter is plunged beneath the surface. 
Experiments of this sort would, of course result in a demand 
which, passing on from mouth to mouth, would at last pro- 
duce the supply of safe oil from the refiner. But we must not 
expect such tests to be performed to a commensurate extent 
by the public. We must turn to the trade in this matter, and 
look to them to adopt this experiment, in its, to them, 
easier form of the test-tube and thermometer, already de- 
scribed, and to regard no refined oil as marketable if it 



Rise and Progress of English Poetry. 323 

gives off inflammable vapour, or, in other words, if it affords 
an explosive mixture below 100 degrees Fahrenheit. But 
with which of the above-named classes of the trade will 
this reform begin ? Who will find it to his interest to dis- 
card his old standard of lOO degrees as the temperature 
below which the oil itself should not ignite, and adopt in- 
stead the higher standard just given ? Perhaps the Com- 
mittee of the Petroleum Association will bring about this 
reform, and thus ensure safety to the public ? If the trade 
will not help the consumer, possibly the excise, the press, 
or Parliament will take the matter up ? If neither comes 
to the rescue, we must put up with an occasional explosion 
and its attendant fright, fire, or loss of life, or else leave off 
burning these valuble oils altogether. 
17 Bloomsbury Square, London. 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF BRITISH 
POETRY. 



w 



BY HUNTINGDON BOYLE, M.A. 

(Continued from page 296.) 

E now come to notice the productions of one of 
whom it may with the utmost verity be remarked 
that no event, perhaps, conspired to render the reign of 
Elizabeth at once conspicuous, if not glorious in history, his 
birth would alone have done so. The birth of Shakespere, 
the immortal Swan of Avon, gave a literary lustre to this 
period of our subject. He was truly Nature's poet in no 
small degree. No one we are convinced, probed deeper 
into the hidden throes of human impulse than Shakespere 
did. The versatility of whose genius, the depth of whose 
observation are unparalleled ; and whether we survey his dra- 
matic productions by our quiet homes, our family hearths, or 
see them surrounded by all the pomp and pageantry of scenic 
effect upon the stage, they carry us back to the times of 
which they treat, enabling us, as it were, to lift the veil o'er 
antecedent ages, and leaving, not merely the imagination, 
but the reality of the past before us. The influence of regal 
patronage did much, the innate genius of the poet did 
more to produce one, of all others, who looked while hold- 



324 Rise and Progress of English Poetry. 

ing the mirror up to Nature, looked through Nature, up to 
Nature's God. It is impossible to overrate his merits ; of 
all that has been said, of all that numberless panygerists 
have written in praise of Shakespere, none have done ample 
justice to the shrine of one who has left little room for 
literary comment, or critical remark. 

He,thestarof the Elizabethan period shone amid the other 
luminaries that surrounded him in the highest planesphere 
of invention. The glorious works of one so extended as our 
author's, must necessarity entail both long and elaborate 
disquisition to do them justice. This, however, cannot be 
accomplished in the present article, the object of which 
being rather to roam through the fields of poesy quickly, 
to cull the beauty of several flowers, than dwell lenghthily 
upon the fragrance of one. As an instance of the progress 
of style, one or two quotations will sufficiently serve to 
mark it. Nothing in metaphorical beauty can equal the 
apostrophe to mercy, which Shakespere puts into the mouth 
Portia, in the " Merchant of Venice." 

" The quality of mercy is not strained, 
It droppeth as ye gentle dew from Heaven 
Upon the earth beneath. It is twice blessed ; 
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes ; 
'Tis mightiest 'mid the mighty, and becomes 
The throned monarch better than his crown \ 
His sceptre shows the force of Temporal power, 
The attribute of awe and majesty, wherein doth sit 
The fear and dread of kings. But mercy 
Is above that sceptered sway, it is enthroned 
In the heart of kings. It is an attribute of God himself, 
And earthly power dost then show likest gods, 
When mercy seasons justice." 

The following quotation, however, will serve to illustrate 
Shakespere's insight into human nature, combining as it does 
some of his finest simile, with that which cannot be failed to 
be recognised by all Benedicts, as a piece of very safe ad- 
vice, without being exactly technological, it is, at all events, 
decided logical. At the risk, therefore, of offending the 
fairer portion of our readers, we will impartially mention 
that, in the 5th act of the " Taming of the Shrew," Katherine 
thus teaches the duty of wives towards their husbands, in 
the following words ; graphic and full of force are they, 
commencing thus : — 

''Fie fie ; unknit that unkind threatening brow, 
And dart not scornful glances from those eyes, 



Rise and Progress of English Poetry. 325 

To wound thy lord, thy king, thy governor ; 

One who for thy maintenance commits his body 

To painful labour both by sea and land. 

Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe. 

He seeks no other tribute at thy hand, but love, fair looks, 

And true obedience. Too httle payment for so great a debt. 

A woman moved is as a fountain troubled, 

Muddy, ill seeming thick, bereft of beauty, 

And when she is so, none so dry, or thirsty, will deign 

To drink one drop of it." 

The quotation is so lengthy, and perhaps in feminine 
ears too treasonable to give it in extenso. It concluded, 
however, with a very fair argument. 

" Why are your bodies smooth, unapt to toil and trouble in the 
world, 
But that your fair condition, and your hearts, 
Should well agree with your external parts." 

Bidding a hasty adieu to the Elizabethan period, with 
barely space enough to glance at its brightest luminaries, 
Spenser and Shakespere. It may, however, at this junc- 
ture be worthy to note the cause which influenced, without 
doubt, the poetry of the time. Religious and political ex- 
citement will be seen in this, and as we proceed, in future 
times, to influence poetic efl'ect. 

Happily for England, the bigotry and intolerance of Papal 
sway which had, during the reign of Mary, cast its gloom 
over the length and breadth of our land, was removed in 
the present one. The arm of Omnipotence had struck the 
rock which had so long o'ershadowed us, and the gleam of 
truth burst forth with redoubled splendour in this auspicuous 
era. It appeared as if the whole resources of our national 
genius which had been so long hidden in obscurity, in the 
antecedent, burst forthwith redoubled splendour in the pre- 
sent reign. Then was it too, that the Muse ever foremost in 
the train of literary championship, blazoned forth Spenser as 
a worthy successor of Chaucer, and pressing onward with re- 
newed joy at the enlightenment of the period, boasted of 
one unrivalled by any country in the known world. The 
Elizabethan period then was undeniably owing for its ad- 
vancement, to the freedom of religious and political opinion, 
which marked this reign, which gave birth to new feelings 
and conceptions, and new actions, not less In the political 
and social hemisphere, than in the literary one. 

(To be continued.) 



326 



PRACTICAL PAPER MAKING. 

(Concluded from page 224.) 

MCanson's Method of Sizing in the Pulp. — 
• This process is no longer a secret, but is in the 
hands of a great number of persons ; nevertheless, as the 
inventor has taken out a patent which insures him a mono- 
poly, we think it right to notify to the reader that the follow- 
ing description of the process does not give him the least 
right to avail himself of it in practice, until the patent has 
expired, without the formal and written consent of M. 
Canson. 

The inventor operates in this wise : — A wax soap is pre- 
pared, of which the following are the proportions : To one 
litre (176 pts.) of a solution of caustic soda, marking five 
degrees on Beaume s hydrometer, is added 0'5 kilog. (I'lO 
lbs. avoird.) of white wax. and the mixture boiled till the 
wax is completely dissolved. The liquid soap is then 
poured into 30 or 40 litres (6'6o to 8'So galls.) of boiling 
water, and 3 kilog. (6'6o lbs.) of potato starch well mixed 
with water are at once added. The mixture is stirred till it 
thickens and forms a paste, which, if kept in a cool place, 
even in summer may be preserved for a fortnight without 
spoiling. 

In using this size it is poured into the rag-engine, con- 
taining 30 kilog. (66* 14 lbs.) of dry rag pulp mixed with the 
quantity of water required by the quality of paper to be 
made, and the composition is allowed to become well incor- 
porated in the pulp. There are then added 300, 400, or 500, 
grammes (0.66, 0.88, or i.io lbs.) of powdered alum dis- 
solved in boiling water. After the cylinder has been 
worked long enough to penetrate the pulp thoroughly with 
these ingredients, the ordinary operation of manufacture is 
continued. 

The inventor only makes use of this process for fine 
papers, and especially those destined for writing purposes, 
for common papers he suppresses the wax soap, and only 
uses white soap and starch, though he still impregnates the 
pulp with these substances in the rag-engine. 

In the beginning of the year 1827, M. Canson submitted 
paper of his manufacture to the " Societe d'Encouragement," 
which referred the examination to its commission. M. 
Merimee made his report on this subject at the meeting of 
the nth of April, in which it was set forth that sizing in 



Practica I Paper Making, 327 

the pulp had answered very well for writing papers ; that the 
cobalt blueing was very handsome, giving the same shade 
upon both sides of the leaf, and that in this particular it 
had surpassed the English ; that the paper intended for 
colouring presented irregularities in the sizing, so that 
several sheets upon which M. Merim^e had spread colours 
were found to be very spotted. In the manufacture of this 
kind of paper alone, MM. Canson are behind the Dutch or 
the English. 

Comparison of the Two Methods. — We have given 
with all necessary detail, the two methods of sizing in the 
pulp, which are at the present time in competition. We 
have reported, word for word, the opinion of a distinguished 
manufacturer on the process recommended by the commis- 
sion of the " Societe d'Encouragement," and the opinion of 
this commission upon the specimens sent by MM. Canson. 
The result of the comparison of these two methods is, that 
they have both been entirely successful, with the exception 
of a few defects in that of M. Canson, which will un- 
doubtedly disappear with increased care in manipulating. 

It, therefore, remains for the intelligent manufacturer to 
choose the method, which experience may prove to be the 
most advantageous, under the double aspect of cost and 
facility of operation 

1st. Under the head of cost, we refer to the purchase of 
material. It cannot be denied that the wax employed by M. 
Canson is very much more expensive than resin, and the 
same holds good of potato starch as compared with glue, 
obtained from the parings of saddlers, leather dressers, and 
tanners. Potato starch is undoubtedly lower in price than 
gelatinous size, and sizing with wax costs double what it 
does to employ gelatine. 

2nd. In regard to facility of operation, those necessi- 
tated by the commission's process are limited to mixing the 
size with the pulp in the vat itself, and making the mixture 
into paper at once ; whereas, to carry out M. Canson's plan 
the mixture is made in the rag-engine, and has then to be 
transported to the vat before beginning the operation of 
manufacturing the paper. 

3rd. And lastly, as to the right of putting one or the 
other of these two methods into practice our choice cannot 
be very doubtful. M. Canson required the payment of one 
thousand francs (about 200 dols.) to allow a participation in 
his patent riglits ; whereas the " Societe d'Encouragement " 
has opened the important discovery of its commission to 

NEW SERIES. — VOL I. E E 



328 Practical Paper Making, 

the public, and every manufacturer is free to use it without 
any compensation whatever. 

Dusters. — The most simple apparatus consists of a 
truncated cone revolving upon the axis of the great circle 
and upon two rollers running in a groove round the crown 
of the small circle. This is covered with a network of iron. 
The inner sides are armed with iron teeth arranged in a 
spiral, which force the rags out by the end opposite that of 
entrance. This kind of duster will only answer for fine 
clean and half clean rags. 

To render the action of this instrument more energetic, 
a tree is placed within, bearing iron spokes arranged in a 
spiral. These spokes force the rags against the wire-netting, 
which revolve in an opposite direction from that of the rota- 
tion of the tree. This contrivance for dusting, of a conical 
or cylindrical form, is preferable for foul and soiled rags, 
hems, seams, &c. It naturally requires more power than 
the first mentioned machine. When the duster is cylin- 
drical, it is given an inclination of from 25° to 40° ; and a 
diameter of 0*90 to v\Q metres (2-95 to 3'6o ft.) by 4*50 to 
5.0 metres (1476 to 16-50 ft.) in length. 

The wolf (loup briseur) serves to divide and clean the 
wastings of flax, hemp, oakum, coarse rags containing straw, 
or hemp and ropes. It is constructed upon the same prin- 
ciple as the preceding apparatus, and offers a resistance 
proportioned to the work it has to do. The iron axis 
armed with spokes is alone movable, and the impurities fall 
through an iron grating. 

The loss of material caused by this engine is at times so 
considerable that it has been discontinued in some paper 
mills. It nevertheless facilitates the operation of boiling, 
and various other manipulations by disintegrating the rag 
filaments, and rendering them more susceptible to the ac- 
tion of the lyes. These rags are softer and more easily re- 
duced to pulp. The machine requires great power, which 
many mills are not able to bestow. 

Whatever may be the style of duster employed, it is in- 
dispensible that it should be covered over with a close 
wooden cage in order to retain the dust and other impuri- 
ties which, mixed with the rag fibres, are called wastings of 
the duster. It should be understood that as the quality of 
these wastings varies with the nature of the rags, it is im- 
portant not to dust on the same day rags that differ much 
in quality, so that the refuse may be collected only once a 
day. 



Pine Apple. 329 

Washing Apparatus. — To wash the rags before boil- 
ing, we may use with advantage a large wooden vat analo- 
gous to the bleaching cisterns, furnished with a washing 
drum and a large sand trap. The light parts, such as 
feathers, &c., are carried along with a current of water which 
is poured out through a strainer covered with wire gauze, 
and placed at the upper part of the vat. The water, running 
in at the lower part, produces by its pressure a constant 
agitation of the rags in the liquid. 

With a single vat of this kind we can easily cleanse from 
2,000 to 2,400 kilog. (1,968 to 2,362 tons) of rags in twenty- 
four hours. 

For the same purpose a sort of duster or washing drum 
is used, revolving in a trough filled with water. In all cases 
it is well to conduct all the water after washing, into cis- 
terns where the filamentous parts which have been carried 
ofT may be recovered. 



In the United States thare are 750 paper mills in active 
operation. They produce 270,000,000 pounds of paper 
which, at an average of ten cents, per pound, would be 
worth 27,000,000 dols. As it requires about a pound and a 
half of rags to make one pound of paper, there are con- 
sumed by these mills above 400,000,000 lbs. of rags in a 
single year. If we estimate the rags to cost four cents, per 
pound, there would be a profit of 11,000,000 dols. in this 
branch of manufacturing. 



PINE-APPLE {ANANASSA SATIVA). 

" T) INE-APPLE, a penny a-sKce ! " is a sound familiar 
y^ to Cockney ears, whilst the variation indulged in by 
the more learned itinerant vendor, of " Here's yer fine 
West Injun pines ! " localises the product, and contributes 
a trifle to street science. It must not be taken for granted, 
however, that the West Indies is the only great centre of 
pine-apple growth, or that " Pine-apple Rum " is the dis- 
tilled spirit from the juice of this fruit. That " partickler 
wanity " of Mr. Stiggins, as immortalized by " Boz," does 
not absorb our Christmas thoughts, and we have ever been 
innocent of any hankerings after the " Genuine Pine-apple 

E E 2 



330 • Pine Apple. 

Rum." If any sceptic should inquire at our office, he may 
procure " Social Bees," " Lissom Fingers," and such like 
" Curiosities of Civilization," but as for the other article, 
the only reply will be, " Werry sorry to say, sir, that they 
don't allow that particklcr wanity to be sold in this here 
establishment." 

That we may begin early in our history of this plant, we 
quote from Father Kircher, as translated in 1669. " They 
have in China a tree called Kagin, yielding fruit twice a 
year, which, by inversion, thrusts forth the seeds or kernels, 
the werts, or such excrescences, on the outside of the fruit, 
and is in common to the East and West Indies, who call it 
Ananas \ but the Chinese call it Fan-polo-mie \ it groweth 
in the provinces Quantung Kiangsi and Fokien, and is sup- 
posed to have been brought from Peru ; the tree on which it 
groweth is not a shrub, but an herb like unto Carduus ; 
they call it Cartriofoli, on whose leaf a fruit groweth stick- 
ing unto its stalk, of so pleasant and exquisite a taste, that 
it may easily obtain the pre-eminency amongst the most 
noble fruits of India and China ; the spermatick faculty is 
innate in all the parts thereof, for not only the seeds shed 
on the ground, but its sprouts and leaves being planted, 
produce the like fruits." 

Our opinion of pine-apple, whilst derived* only from an 
experience of imported West Indian specimens, was by no 
means so flattering as that of the learned Father. In fact, 
it remains doubtful, though some may regard it as heresy, 
whether, since we have deliberately tasted of fine varieties 
ripened at home by experienced growers, that our opinion 
is much altered for the better and in favour of the pine. 
Our depraved tastes would lead us to pronounce in favour 
of a rich mellow pear, or a dish of strawberrys and cream, 
against a dozen pine- apples. But we are wandering again, 
and who can blame us "^ — even editors and authors are but 
" men " at Christmas time, and cannot help thinking about 
the good things which comfort the inner man, and forsak- 
ing the "midnight oil" for — some other "partlckler wanity." 

Before us lies a list of names by which the pine-apple is 
known in about forty languages or dialects, and the root 
of the majority of them is the original South American 
Nanas ] from which the Tamul Anasa, and the Arabic 
Anannas, as well as the generic Latin name, by which the 
plant is known to botanists, is derived. There is but little 
doubt that America was the original home of the pine- 
apple, whence it became introduced into eastern and 



Pine Apple. ^iZ ^ 

southern Asia. How it got into Africa we do not pretend 
to explain, nor would we like to assert that it is not known 
anywhere on the habitable globe, wherever the temperature 
is sufficient for its production. 

When Oliver Cromwell ruled in these realms, a present 
of pine-apples was one of the things which fell to his lot, 
and this was probably the first introduction of the fruit into 
England, although it was known on the Continent four 
years previously. Four years afterwards and Evelyn 
writes of its appearance on the royal table. 

But the fruit, however much it may have been extolled, 
is not the only good product of this plant. From the leaves 
thereof is procured a fibrous material known and appre- 
ciated by the barbarous hordes of Africa, and the semi- 
civilized Malays. The celebrated pine-apple cloth of the 
Philippines, resembling the finest muslin, is woven with the 
delicate fibres of the uncultivated pine-apple plant. This 
muslin is embroidered by the nuns of the convents of 
Manilla with excellent skill and taste, so that the '' Pina " 
musHn of the Philippines has become a celebrated article 
of manufacture. Mr. Bennett has observed in his " Wan- 
derings," that one of the coarser fibres may be subdivided 
into filaments of such fineness as to be barely perceptible, 
and yet sufficiently strong for textile purposes. 

The Malays use the fibre of the pine-apple to manu- 
facture their fishing nets, and so plentiful is the plant in 
many parts of India and the East, that it forms immense 
thickets; and Dr. Heifer says that the fruit is so abundant 
in the Tenasserim provinces that it is sold in Amherst Town 
during June and July at the rate of two shillings for a boat 
load. What an inducement for the rapturous devourers of 
pine-apples ! Should a Tenasserim Pine-apple Emigration 
Company (Limited), become one of the projects for 1867, 
we shall not permit the fact to be forgotten, that its sugges- 
tion originated with ourselves and the New Y^ds.— Science 
Gossip. 



332 
DIATOMS. 

BY ANDREW WAINE. 

MANY persons have heard of these beautiful objects 
and those who possess a microscope have no doubt 
often wished to have specimens to examine ; and the object 
of this paper is to tell them when, where, and how to collect 
and mount them in the most advantageous manner. 

The Diatomaceae (for that is the name of the group I in- 
tend to describe) may be collected always, as some one of 
the many varieties may be found in almost any pond or 
brook ; but the most beautiful are found in the mouths of 
tidal rivers, or in fossil deposits. 

A diatom is characterized by having a flinty case or shell, 
beautifully marked with lines, or rows of dots ; but these 
are often so fine and close together that they cannot be 
distinguished, except with a well-constructed instrument 
and high powers (a J-inch objective will do for most), and 
this has led to the employment of some of these as test- 
objects — that is to say, that if one glass will define the 
markings better than another it is considered more fit for 
scientific purposes ; and so great is the difference between 
the size and distance apart of the markings, that some may 
be used as tests for the low powers, while others can only 
be used for the highest. 

Many of these beautiful forms can be found living in the 
Thames, and other rivers on our own coasts. In the months 
of April, May, September, October, and November, they 
will be found in the greatest abundance and variety ; the 
salt marshes on the banks of most of the rivers will also 
well repay the trouble of searching for them. 

Supposing the reader to be in London, and wishes to 
collect these interesting objects for himself, I should advise 
him to go to Southend (which may be reached by the 
Tilbury and Southend line, starting from Fenchurch street 
station), which is as good a place as any other for the pur- 
pose of collecting the objects under discussion ; the mode 
of doing which is to gather the seaweeds at low tide, taking 
care to take as little sand with them as possible, and at 
once put them into a bottle of sea-water, if it is desired to 
examine the hving forms in their natural position on the 
weed. But, if their flinty cases are wanted to exhibit the 
markings, the weeds may be put, dry, into a bag ; and, on 
reaching home, they are to be plunged into a jar of fresh 



Diatoms. 333 

water for half an hour, which will kill the animalculae at- 
tached ; and when the weeds are rubbed and stirred about 
in the water, they come off and form a cloud of muddiness, 
which is to be allowed to settle, and the water then poured 
off and the sediment transferred to an oil flask (which has 
been well cleaned), and boiled with nitric acid over a candle 
or gas jet. After the first portion of the acid ceases to act, 
the flask, with its contents, must be set aside till the liquid 
is perfectly clear, when it is to be poured off", and fresh acid 
added. This is to be continued as long as the acid exerts 
any action, and the sediment is perfectly white, when it is 
to be washed with water until the liquid is no longer acid. 

In this sediment, when examined by the microscope, 
may be found the Triceratmm favus , which is one of the 
largest of the Diatomaceae, and is about the i-i6oth of 
an inch in diameter. It is in the form of an equilateral 
triangle, with slightly curved sides. At each corner is a 
projecting spine or hook, and round the base of each there 
is a row of round dots ; and the rest of the surface is 
covered with large and regular hexagonal markings, resem- 
bling, in the closest manner, the formation of honey-comb. 
If you wish to mount it, when found, you must pick it out 
from among the grains of sand and other impurities by the 
help of a stout hair from a shaving brush, or a cat's 
whisker stuck in a split at the end of a slender wooden 
handle, such as a paint-brush handle, and place it in the 
centre of a glass slide. A drop of Canada balsam is then 
to be added, and the slide warmed till the balsam becomes 
rather hard. On cooling, all the air-bubbles should be 
broken by the point of a needle, and then the thin glass 
cover is to be put on, taking care to have the object as 
nearly in the centre as possible, and not to press so hard 
as to break it. Objects mounted in this way, under small 
round pieces of thin glass, on plain ground edged slides, 
look very neat ; and all the rest of the things described in 
this paper may be mounted in the same way, though more 
than one specimen may be mounted at once. Surirella 
constricta, which resembles a lady's needle-case, may also 
be found. It has strongly-marked ribs running from the 
outside edge towards the centre, where a clear space may 
be observed. Surirella plicata has no resemblance to the 
last ; but strongly resembles a lemon in outline, as does 
also another object (of which I never found but one), but 
which is covered with minute dots instead of being marked 
with faint lines. A smiall, but beautiful variety of the 



334 Diatoms. 

Coscinodisais, which Is a round shell resembling a thick 
shilling, closely covered with dots on both sides, is worth 
mounting, when found ; but, being extremely brittle, great 
care must be used. The GramatapJwra serpentina is found 
in great numbers, and is like a card case, with four curved 
lines running from opposite ends towards the centre. Dif- 
ferent kinds of Navicntce, or little ships, are to be found by 
careful examination ; and they are very amusing when 
alive, for they run about and bump up against one another, 
then draw back after a time and swim away in the opposite 
direction. A few specimens of Pleurosigma hippocampus 
(Sea-horse), and some other varieties of these most beau- 
tiful objects, which are at once recognized by their form, 
which is that of Hogarth's lines of beauty of different cur- 
vature joining at their ends, and having another which runs 
between them and expands in the centre, and at each end 
into round dots or spaces (which some say are openings ; 
others, only a thickening of the central rib ; but I am in- 
clined to believe the latter, from the manner in which the 
valve is broken on being pressed ; for the crack does not 
run across the dots, as it would do if they were openings, 
but round them, proving them to be stronger there than 
elsewhere). And all the rest of the surface is covered with 
rows of minute dots, arranged in regular rows, but so tine 
that, except with the very highest powers, nothing can be 
seen but longitudinal and transverse lines; and a J-inch 
that will show even these may be considered very good. 

Pinnularia dactylus is like Surirella constricta, only much 
smaller and expanded instead of contracted in the centre. 
The Gallionela sulcata is a beautiful object, and resembles 
highly-carved ivory bones stuck end to end, so as some- 
times to form a filament appearing as much as three inches 
in length, when viewed under a good \ inch power. Sym- 
phonema geminatum, which may be compared to a number 
of joined fans attached to a branched stalk by the end held 
in the hand ; and Acnanthes longipes, which is a bundle of 
oblong boxes joined together and connected by a long ge- 
latinous stalk to the weed, complete the list of those from 
Southend which I have found ; but I have no doubt that a 
much greater variety would be obtained if the weeds were 
collected at the proper time. 

A great number of the most beautiful forms are contained 
in fossil earth, which may be obtained from dealers in 
minerals. Those of Bermuda, Oran in Algeria, and Rich- 
mond, U.S., are the most important, and contain the 



Diatoms. 335 

greatest variety. Bermuda earth contains one most beau- 
tiful object, the Heliopelta (sun-shield), of which a tolerable 
notion may be got by cutting an orange in half transversely. 
Then every alternate triangle you must suppose to be 
marked with a different pattern — one being covered with 
large and regular round markings; and the next, which ap- 
pears to be on a different level, to be marked with smaller 
and less distinct, but nevertheless, very beautiful markings. 
The ribs which divide the triangles from one another, dilate 
at their extremities, forming in the centre a clear space 
corresponding to the central pith in the orange, and at the 
ends next the margin expand and gradually melt into the 
rim or border, which is thickly set round with transparent 
spikes of different lengths. The earth from Richmond 
affords many beautiful specimens, especially of the genus 
Navicula. 

Guano, the dry excrement of sea-fowls, is very rich in 
objects. One, the Arachnoidiscus, is like a small and per- 
fect spider's web (whence its name), with all the colours of 
the rainbow condensed in it. A large variety, or indeed 
two or three varieties, of the Coscinodiscus are present in 
considerable numbers ; and the Zygoce^^os rhombus is a 
miniature shepherd's purse, such as is found on the sea- 
shore, only covered with dots. The Actinocychis is the 
same kind of thing as the Heliopelta, only without the mar- 
ginal spines. The earth of Oran contains the same Dia- 
toms as guano. The guano* and the earths mentioned 
are to be prepared in the same way as the sediment from 
the weeds from Southend, only they should be well washed 
in water first (the guano more especially). The modus 
operandi is to shake up the earth or guano with water in an 
oil flask, and then allow it to settle : this is to be repeated 
until the water is no longer coloured. It is then to be 
treated as before directed. Most writers recommend the 
use of hydrochloric acid first, and secondly, nitric acid, 
when the former ceases to act. With large quantities this 
would be more economical ; but it necessitates the purchase 
of a second stoppered bottle. 

The reader exclaims, " Well ! Now I have found these 
things, what are they } " The writer answers, that is a sub- 
ject of dispute, some claiming them for the animal world 
and others for the vegetable. The chief argument for their 
belonging to the animal kingdom, is their voluntary motion ; 

* The guano can be had for 4d. the lb. at Butler's, in Covent Garden. 



33^ On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 

but that is possessed by undoubted plants, so that is not 
conclusive. On the other hand, it is asserted that they 
resemble plants in decomposing carbonic acid and libera- 
ting oxygen, whilst animals do the contrary. This to me 
seems to settle the question, but everyone had better judge 
for himself. Again, the reader may say, " You tell me of 
things that are covered with round dots, what are those 
dots .'* raised knobs, little pits, or only surface markings.?" 
This, too, like most things connected with them, is a bone 
of contention. Some will have it that they are prominences, 
others depressions ; but my impression is, that it is some- 
times one, and sometimes the other; for some break in such 
a manner as to lead to the idea of their being indentations, 
whilst others break in the contrary direction. And if you 
happen to get some of them on their edges and look along 
their surfaces, some exhibit spikes, others not ; and the 
mode in which shadows fall when they are viewed by 
oblique light leads now to one and then to the other con- 
clusion. 

Finally, I may state that the reason I have made so 
many comparisons is, that the reader may recognize the 
forms when found. — Ibid. 



ON THE IGNITING-POINT OF PETROLEUM. 

BY JOHN ATTFIELD, PH.D., F.C.S. 

Director of the Laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain. 

it is now well known that Petroleum, as it issues from 
the earth, and as met with in commerce in the crude 
state, emits a vapour of powerful odour, which is inflam- 
mable, and which, consequently, when mingled with air 
in certain proportions, forms an explosive mixture. The 
combustible properties of this vapour closely resemble 
those of common coal gas. As with coal-gas, so with petro- 
leum vapour, — a small quantity in a large quantity of air 
gives odour to the air but does not form an explosive mix- 
ture. Again, coal-gas, as supplied to the consumer, always 
contains a small percentage of air, and yet the mixture is 
not explosive, so petroleum vapour, even though containing 



On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 337 

a small quantity of air, burns very well at a jet (so long as 
the petroleum which supplies the vapour is kept boiling), 
but the vapour itself is not explosive. In short, petroleum 
itself, or petroleum-vapour itself, is no more inflammable 
than common air; it is the mixture of petroleum-vapour 
and air that is dangerous. It is almost as easy to show 
that a jet of air will burn in an atmosphere of petroleum- 
vapour as it is to show that a jet of petroleum-vapour will 
burn in an atmosphere of air. 

Now crude petroleum generally gives off, at common 
temperatures, quite enough vapour to form an explosive 
mixture with air, if the air be in a confined space, as in a 
partially empty lamp, bottle, or cask. For this, among 
other reasons, crude petroleum is always refined before it is 
sold to the general public ; it is distilled, and the portion 
which first rises into vapour is collected apart, and, under 
the name of petroleum-spirit, used as a substitute for tur- 
pentine. The next, and larger portion which distils is the 
refined petroleum, so extensively sold under various names 
as a cheap illuminating oil. The residue is heavy oil used 
for lubricating purposes. 

Refined petroleum still has the characteristic odour of 
petroleum. Even at the coldest temperature it emits suf- 
ficient vapour to be most obviously perceptible to the nose, 
but not sufficient to form with the air in the vicinity of the 
oil an explosive mixture. But as we rise to the warmth of 
summer, or of a hot room, or the still higher temperature in 
the neighbourhood of a lighted lamp, a point may be reached 
at which the oil emits vapour at such a rate that before it 
can diffiase away into the air of the apartment, explosive 
proportions are arrived at, and on a flame being brought 
into contact with the mixture, explosion results. Now this 
point, the point to which the petroleum must be raised in 
temperature before this vapour is emitted sufficiently rapidly 
to form an explosive mixture with the air in the vicinity, 
will of course vary according to the quality of the petro- 
leum, will vary with the proportion of " spirit " removed by 
the refiner. If enough has been boiled off*, the oil is per- 
fectly safe ; but, unfortunately, it is not to the interest of 
all parties to remove the spirit, hence much of the petro- 
leum sold in retail shops is dangerous to use. Should a 
lamp fed with it become a little warmer than usual, an ex- 
plosive mixture forms in the chamber of the lamp, and any 
flame brought accidentally or thoughtlessly into contact 
with the mixture gives rise to explosion. Hence the Legis- 



33^ On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 

lature of this country has wisely ordered) 25 & 26 Vict. cap. 
66) that large quantities of crude petroleum shall not be 
stored within fifty yards of a dwelling house or warehouse 
except under license ; and the Act states that " Petroleum 
shall include any product thereof that gives off an inflam- 
mable vapour at a temperature of less than one hundred 
degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer." That is to say, re- 
fined petroleum, such as is commonly vended in retail shops 
as " Crystal Oil/' " Photogen/' " American Paraffin Oil," &c., 
&c., for illuminating purposes, must not be kept in or near 
a house in larger quantities than forty gallons, unless proof 
is forthcoming that it does not give off inflammable 
vapour below 100° F. If it will stand this test, then the 
liquid is not petroleum within the meaning of the Act, and 
the owner of it runs no risk. I have purposely characterized 
this Act as wisely framed, because some have questioned 
the wisdom of placing restrictions on the sale of petroleum 
and its products, (refined petroleum and petroleum spirit), 
w^hile naphtha, spirituous liquors, knives, razors, and still 
more dangerous things, are freely bought and sold without 
any such restriction. It must be remembered, however, 
that the danger attending the use of these things is well 
known, and therefore always guarded against, whereas not 
only was petroleum a new article to the public, the dangers 
attending the use had to be learned, but, worse still, it was 
introduced as a lamp-^^'Z, — an article of unknown and dan- 
gerous properties was called by the name of an article of 
known and safe properties. Petroleum, infinitely less dan- 
gerous in itself, became, by the false colours under which it 
sailed, far more dangerous than gunpowder; that is to say, 
there was far greater chance of accidents occurring by it 
than by gunpowder. I say that, under these circumstances, 
restrictions on its sale were wisely made, and will be wisely 
retained until the character of petroleum is thoroughly well 
recognised. 

The Act having been passed, and having come into opera- 
tion (Oct. I, 1862), merchants, brokers, and other dealers in 
large quantities of petroleum, became commendably anxious 
to buy and sell only that quality of refined article which 
should give off no inflammable vapour at temperature below 
100*^ of Fahrenheit's thermometer. But, unfortunately, an 
egregiously wrong method of determining this point crept 
into the trade. To ascertain the quality, it was, and still is, 
usual to pour a little of the liquid into a saucer, small bowl, 
or other similar vessel, to apply heat by a lamp, by partially 



On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 339 

immersing the saucer in hot water, or otherwise, stiring the 
Hquid with a thermometer, and applying a Hghted match 
from time to time during the gradual rising of temperature 
until the oil caught light. The degree at which this oc- 
curred was said to be the igniting-point of the petreloum. 
But disputes as to the igniting-point soon occurred. Care- 
ful observers frequently noticed that several degrees before 
the petroleum finally ignited, a thin blue flame would seem 
to shoot from the lighted match to the surface of the liquid, 
or, as one experimentalist described it, " the petroleum 
would appear to ignite and go out again," and some would 
give this as the igniting point. Other observers not noticing 
this flame, or not operating under the circumstances causing 
it, found the igniting-point to be much higher. But ig- 
niting points were observed and stated which could not be 
accounted for by this cause of difference. Hence disputes, 
and hence arbitrations, which sometimes made the matter 
worse instead of better. Hence, too, which is the most 
serious part of the matter, much, if not most of the petro- 
leum sent up to the present time into retail commerce in 
the refinal state for use by the public gives ofl" Inflammable 
vapour many degrees below 100^ F., and is unquestionably 
very dangerous. Slowly, and apparently carefully warmed 
in the manner already stated, the petroleum does not fully 
ignite perhaps till 100° F. is reached, and the merchant or 
broker is satisfied, yet, as I shall presently show, inflamma- 
ble vapour is evolved at perhaps 80° or 85°, and should the 
inflammation of this vapour cause the fracture of a lamp, or 
otherwise scatter the petroleum, danger to life and property 
ensues. 

The above is only a fair picture of the state of the petro- 
leum trade at the present time. My object in writing this 
paper is to show why the igniting-point of petroleum is 
liable to variation, and also to suggest a modification of the 
usual method by which that igniting-point shall be deter- 
mined with accuracy and constancy of results. And in 
speaking of igniting-point, I shall henceforward always 
mean temperature to v/hich the petroleum must be raised 
before its vapour becomes inflammable. This is the point 
referred to in the Petroleum Act, and this is the point at 
which petroleum becomes dangerous. As already indicated 
the igniting-point of petroleum itself may be several and 
often many (sometimes thirty or forty) degrees higher than the 
igniting-point of the inflammable mixture of vapour and air 
on its surface, and the petroleum does not catch fire for the 



340 On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 

same reason, doubtless, that gun-cotton may be ignited on 
a heap of gunpowder without setting fire to the latter ; the 
heat evolved is intense enough, but the explosion occurs too 
quickly for the subjacent material to be ignited. Neither 
the petroleum nor the gunpowder, however, is any the less 
dangerous on that account ; for, should the ignition of the 
mixture of petroleum-vapour and air cause an explosion so 
slight as only to force up a little of the petroleum into a fine 
splash of spray, ignition of the petroleum will inevitably 
ensue, as in that condition petroleum is inflammable even 
at very cold temperatures. 

But to proceed to show why a given specimen of petro- 
leum may be observed to ignite at various temperatures. 

The time employed in the operation of taking the ig- 
niting point of petroleum as usually performed, is the first 
cause of variation to which I shall allude. About two ounces 
of a specimen of petroleum marked "Ladoga/' was placed in 
a small dish or capsule about five inches wide and one inch 
deep, and veryslowly warmed by a gas-lamp, a small flame 
being passed near the surface of the liquid every quarter or 
half minute. The liquid was stirred with the bulbed end 
of a thermometer, the temperature rising at the rate of 
about a degree per minute. In this way the experiment 
was carried on until at 124'^, as marked on the stem of the 
thermometer, the petroleum-vapour ignited, and the liquid 
also ignited at the same instant. A similar experiment 
was performed on a fresh specimen of the same oil, except 
that the temperature was quickly raised ; ignition of the 
vapour took place at 95^, and the oil itself took fire at 1 1 1°. 
It would seem that the highly volatile portion of the petro- 
leum, the portion which forms inflammable vapour, soon 
escapes when the oil is heated in an open vessel, leaving a 
liquid less inflammable than before. We know from the 
researches of Ronalds, Schorlemmer, Pelouze, Cahours and 
others, that petroleum, utterly unlike sperm, colza, olive, 
and the other old burning oils, is a mixture of a large num- 
ber of liquids of different degrees of volatility, and, indeed, 
containing bodies which when isolated are permanent 
gases, hence the above result might have been expected 

The rate of escape of vapour from the oil and from the 
operating vessel is another cause of variation in the igniting- 
point Some of the same "Ladoga" oil was treated as 
already described, except that it was heated somewhat 
quickly, and was only stirred just before taking a reading 
of temperature. This time ignition occurred at 98°. 



On the Igniting Point of Petroleum, 341 

Stirring, as is well known, promotes the escape of vapour 
from a liquid, and in this case also by causing eddies and 
currents of air, promotes its escape from the surface of the 
liquid. 

T\\^ form of the vessel in which the petroleum is heated, 
by accelerating or retarding the escape of vapour, also 
causes variation in the igniting-point. Some " Ladoga " 
oil was heated gradually but quickly in a wide mouthed 
bottle ; the mixture of petroleum-vapour and air thus 
formed in the upper part of the bottle gave indications- of 
ignition at 92°, and fairly burnt at 94°, several degrees be- 
low the igniting-point in an open vessel. 

The arrangement of the vessel over the source of heat of 
course influences the result. If a dish, &c., be so placed 
that its upper walls, not covered by the liquid, be- 
come much hotter than the lower portions, then the 
petroleum stirred up on to the hot part is quickly con- 
verted into vapour and ignites, while perhaps the liquid 
itself is comparatively cool. This is simply bad manipula- 
tion, and any one making an error of this kind should not 
be trusted with the performance of such experiments. 
Making the experiment in a deep glass beaker, or wide- 
mouthed glass bottle, and frequently introducing a large test 
flame, that the upper part of the vessel becomes full of the 
products of combustion to the exclusion of much of the air, 
would, of course, be equally bad manipulation. It is, per- 
haps, unnecessary to allude to these causes of variation, 
but that many of those to whom these remarks are addressed 
deal much in petroleum, but have no knowledge of practi- 
cal chemistry. The usefulness, therefore, of the observa- 
tions must be the excuse if they are trite and common- 
place. 

Shaking with air causes great variation in the igniting- 
point of a specimen of petroleum. A fresh specimen of 
the same refined " Ladoga " oil was gradually warmed in a 
bottle, the specimen being violently shaken before the test- 
flame was introduced. In this way explosion actually took 
place at "jZ" F. This was an extreme experiment, but it 
serves to show the influence which more or less shaking or 
so to speak, washing out of the vapour from the oil by air, 
exerts on the point of ignition. It is true that when once 
in a lamp petroleum is not likely to be much shaken about, 
yet there are other circumstances under which violent agita- 
tion may take place ; it is only fair, therefore, that in taking 
the point at which a specimen of petroleum evolves in- 



342 071 the Ignitifig Point of Petroleum. 

flammable vapour, some amount of stirring or agitation 
should be practised. 

The distance of the test--flame from the petroleum may 
cause variation in observing the igniting-point. The 
amount of vapour evolved in a given time may be sufficient 
to form a small quantity of explosive mixture near the sur- 
face of the petroleum, but not at an inch or two from the 
surface ; hence an operator dipping the test-flame down to 
the surface of the liquid, or even below the surface, to see 
if the oil will extinguish instead of being ignited by his 
flame, will give a lower igniting-point of the vapour than 
an operator who only brings his test-flame within an inch 
of the surface of the oil in a basin, or only just within the 
mouth of a bottle or gallipot In an experiment with the 
" Ladoga " oil, this cause of error made a difference of 4° 
in the observed igniting-point. 

The mnoiLnt of petroletun operated on in comparison with 
the size of the vessel in which the operation is performed 
will, of course, influence the observations, for the reason just 
stated. An operator making his experiments in a bottle 
or deep beaker or gallipot, and always introducing the 
test-flame only just within the mouth, will sooner meet with 
the explosive mixture if the vessel is three-fourths full, than 
if that mixture has first to fill the upper part of a vessel 
only one-fourth occupied by the liquid. 

These, then, are causes, amply sufficient in number and 
nature, of the variation in the igniting-point of petroleum, 
as observed by diff"erent experimenters, or by the same ex- 
perimenter at difl'erent times. They fully explain the fact 
that I have found a specimen of petroleum to ignite at 
almost any degree between 78^ F. and 124° F. Before pro- 
ceeding to suggest a modified method of observation which 
shall give constant results, it may be instructive to give a 
table of the igniting-points of several specimens of refined 
petroleum recently circulating in wholesale and retail com- 
merce'^ the experiment on each specimen being taken un- 
der three conditions : — first, heating in an open earthenware 
bowl, of the form, &c.. already described ; second, heating 
in a two-ounce, wide-mouthed, white glass phial, without 
shaking the petroleum ; and third, as the second, except 
that before introducing the test-flame, the stopper was in- 
serted in the bottle, and the whole well shaken for three or 

* For the former I have to thank Messrs. Rose, Graham, and 
Wilson, of Threadneedle street. 



On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 343 

four seconds. It will be noticed that differences of igniting- 
point in any one specimen are obtained varying Irom ten to 
thirty degrees. The other causes of variation already 
alluded to were excluded by the experiments being all per- 
formed by one operator of experience, each set of experi- 
ments being made under equal conditions, and each 
experiment occupying the same amount of time, — about 
three minutes. The table will also serve to show that the 
Lancet ^o^N^A (March 29, 1862) in regard to mineral oils 
sold in London, and what the observations of O'Neill 
showed at Manchester in June, 1862 {Chemical News vol, v., 
p. 312), and of Tate at Liverpool, in September 1862, 
{Pharmaceutical Joiirnal,^o\. iv.. New Series, p. 1 50), namely, 
that much of the petroleum supplied to the public is dan- 
gerous. In addition it shows that, as much of it (in the 
words of the Act) "gives off an inflammable vapour at a tem- 
perature of less than one hundred degrees of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer," the law has not yet had the effect anticipated 
namely, the exclusion from retail trade of that quality of 
petroleum which is so badly refined as to have dangerous, 
because unsuspected, properties. 

And now, with regard to a method of taking the ignit- 
ing-point of petroleum-vapour, which shall be reliable and 
constant in the results of its application. 

As petroleum is not a definite chemical compound, but 
a varying mixjiure of several hydrocarbons ; as, in short, it 
has no constant chemical or physical property of which 
adyantage might be taken in devising a ready method of 
taking igniting-points, it follows that the method selected 
must be more or less arbitrary, empirical, conventional. It 
is true, that their volatility is a constant physical property, 
and MM. Salleron and Urbain in France, have, it is said, 
contrived an apparatus for taking the tension of the vapour 
of mineral oils, which is obviously proportional to their 
volatility ; adopting 64 millimetres of water at, apparently, 
35° C. as the limit of safety ; but only an abstract of their 
paper was published, in the Comptes Rendus of January 
2, 1 856 ; their full paper does not seem to have been 
printed, so that I am unable to judge of the merits of the 
method. It has not the recommendation of being a direct 
process. The only feasible plan would seem to be, select a 
direct method, simple in principle, easy of execution, occu- 
pying little time in performance, and inexpensive ; and 
when this is found, to take steps for accomplishing a fir 
more difficult task, namely, securing its universal adoption. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. F F 



344 ^ ^ ^^^ Igniting Point of Petroleum, 



Table of Gravities and Igniting Points of 
commmercial petroleum. 







Igniting point of vapour in degrees 




Specific 




Fahrenheit 








In bottle. 


Name, Brand, or Dis- 


Gravity 

(Water = 

1,000.) 


In open 
bowl. 






tinctive Mark. 


Without 


, With 
violent 








agitation. 


agitation. 


^^Woodville" . . 


796 


80 


76 


70 


A 


797 


98 


^l 


78 


'Standard" . . . 


798 


96 


95 


85 


"Caynga" . . . 


798 


81 


80 


70 


B 


799 


104 


87 


71 


"Denmark". . . 


799 


94 


86 


85 


"Hutchinson" . . 


800 


90 


86 


84 


"Lucifer" . . . 


801 


91 


81 


78 


"American Paraffin 










Oil" .... 


801 


92 


80 


68 


"Commercial" . . 


803 


104 


81 


79 


" Amercn. Petroleum," 










No. I. 


804 


134 


134 


in* 


„ No. 2. 


805 


93 


90 


74 


„ No. 3. 


806 


83 


76 


66 


** Common Paraffin 










Oil" ... . 


806 


105 


90 


83 


"Brilliant" . . . 


806 


83 


74 


72 


" Young's Paraffin 










Oil " (not a Pe- 










troleum) . . 


819 


116 


97 


91 



* This is an interesting specimen. Its light colour, both when 
purchased and after being exposed to the hght for some time, and 
its specific gravity, indicate that it is really a petroleum, and not 
a paraffin oil. It was purchased at a retail shop in Drury lane, 
London, as " our best, 4jd. per pint.'' Another quahty, sold at 
the same shop at 4d. per pint, had a higher specific gravity, 806, 
but much lower igniting-point. Tried in the manner recom- 
mended at the end of the paper, the "best" gave off inflammable 
vapour at 114 deg., the other at 86 deg. The properties of this 
sample prove, or at least indicate (for I could not get at the 
bulk) that it is easy to supply the public with a perfectly safe 
petroleum at a reasonable price, a petroleum so low in specific 



On the Igniting Point of Petroleum. 345 

Now the ignition method is sufficiently simple in principle ; 
but from the foregoing, and many other experiments, I 
would advise the rejection of its application in an open 
dish, saucer, basin, or bowl. Even if this experiment could 
be always similarly performed under constant conditions, 
which is impossible, the rapidity with which vapour escapes 
from the surface of the liquid renders a thermometer read- 
ing, taken under the experiment, an unfair indication of the 
temperature at which inflammable vapour would be 
given off from the petroleum in a lamp or other closed or 
partially closed vessel. Of course experiments, made with- 
out a thermometer, are not sufficiently delicate for the 
purposes of the analyst. Again, the petroleum must not 
be heated in a common bottle, on account of the great 
liability of the latter to fracture ; nor is it necessary to use 
a vessel contrived for violently agitating the oil and air to- 
gether. But if the bottle be substituted by a short, wide 
tube of glass, thin, so that it can be heated with safety, — 
by, in short, a rather wide variety of the common test-tube 
of our analytical laboratories ; then, if equal quantities of 
petroleum be operated on, the liquid be fairly well stirred 
and shaken, and the test-flame be always introduced to the 
same distance from the surface of the liquid, constant re- 
sults may be expected. The same tube may be used in 
which to insert a hydrometer to take the specific gravity of 
the oil, and thus, with a naked thermometer somewhat 
longer than the test-tube to act also as a stirring rod, we 
have a compact and inexpensive apparatus. These articles 
have been made for me by Mr. Casella, the well-known 
physical instrument maker of Hatton garden ; he has in- 
cluded them all in a neat pocket case, introducing a small 
spirit-lamp also ; but I need not say that the petroleum 
test-tube may be heated over a gas-flame, by partial 
immersion in a vessel of hot water, or by any other con- 
venient plan. Half way up the test-tube is a mark indicat- 
ing the amount of petroleum to be operated on. The test- 
flame should be introduced to within half an inch of the 
surface of the oil. 

I will conclude by giving detailed directions by which to 
take both the igniting-point and specific gravity of a speci- 
men of petroleum or paraffin oil. Into a test-tube of thin 
glass 6 or 6\ inches long, and ij in diameter, pour the 

gravity as to readily ascend a wick, and so high in igniting-point 
as not to be dangerous under ordinary circumstances. 

F Y 2 



34^ On the Igniting Poi?it of Petroleum. 

liquid until the tube is half full. Stir the liquid well with a 
naked thermometer, having the usual degrees marked on 
the stem, shaking also so as to keep the upper part of the 
tube well wetted with the liquid, and note the temperature. 
Now introduce a flame (of a thin splint of wood, or, far 
better, a small gas flame, a quarter of an eighth of an 
inch long) into the mouth of the tube to within half an inch 
of the surface of the liquid, quickly withdrawing it, and 
noticing whether a thin blue flame runs between the test- 
flame and the surface of the oil. If not, warm the tube by 
passing the bottom of it gently through a spirit lamp, or 
other flame, or by dipping the lower portion of the tube 
into hot water, constantly stirring the liquid with the ther- 
mometer, frequently noting the temperature, and intro- 
ducing the test-flame every minute or so. The temperature 
at which the thin blue flame appears will be the igniting- 
point of the petroleum, the point at which it gives ofl" in- 
flammable vapour. To correct this result, let the tube 
gradually cool, introducing the test-flame as before. The 
lowest temperature at which the vapour takes fire is the 
true igniting-point. To ascertain the specific gravity, pour 
the petroleum or paraflin oil in the test-tube until the latter 
is about three-fourths full; insert a thermometer, and warm 
or cool until the temperature is about 60 degrees ; "^ now 
immerse the hydrometer, and take care that it fairly floats 
in the liquid ; the point on the stem of the hydrometer, cut 
by the under surface of the liquid, will be the specific 
gravity. A copy of these directions will be found in the 
case, as sold by Mr. Casella. 

This particular hydrometer might be termed a Petro- 
leometer ; that name would, however, perhaps best desig- 
nate the whole box or set of articles. The most accurate 
method of taking gravities is of course the specific-gravity 
bottle ; but a hydrometer, if well made, gives, I find, num- 
bers varying not more than one degree from those of the 
bottle, whilst its use involves far less trouble and expense. 

As an indication of the extent to which confidence can 
be placed in an igniting-point of petroleum, taken in the 
manner recommended, I may state that two different ob- 
servers, experimenting at difl"erent times on three difl*erent 

* Five degrees of temperature make about one degree differ- 
ence of specific gravity. At 70° Fahr. an oil will be about two 
degrees lighter in specific gravity than at 60° Fahr., and at 50 
Fahr. two degrees heavier. 



Supply of Fish in Great Britain. 347 

specimens of petroleum placed before them without distin- 
guishinging marks, gave igniting-points in which the greatest 
limit of variation was one degree. It would doubtless be 
easy for an analyst, by processes of fractional distillation, to 
obtain even from safe petroleum, vapour that would be in- 
flammable at 60° Fahr., or even at freezing temperatures ; 
but it would be absurd to regard such petroleum as dan- 
gerous, or to use such a fact as evidence of the weakness of 
any method of determining the igniting-point of petroleum. 
What I claim for the method above described is, that it 
accurately shows the temperature at which petroleum, as 
used by the public, is dangerous, It surely is not too much 
to expect that the method will be adopted by the trade, 
and that no mineral oil will be supplied to the public unless 
guaranteed to give off no inflammable vapour below 100 
degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer. Only by some such 
means will explosions in lamps, &c., be avoided, explosions 
which are alwas alarming, frequently the cause of loss of 
property by fire, and occasionally resulting even in loss of 
life. 



WHETHER THE SUPPLY OF FISH FROM THE 
SEA FISHERIES OF GREAT BRITAIN IS IN- 
CREASING, STATIONARY, OR DIMINISHING > 

(Concluded from page 273.) 

IN 1833, the House of Commons appointed a Com- 
mittee to inquire into the state of the sea fisheries. 
The Committe reported, that the fisheries in the British 
Channel had been in a declining state since the peace of 
18 1 5, that capital employed in them yielded no profit, that 
the numbers of boats and men were decreasing, and that 
the fishermen and their families were, in a greater or less 
degree, dependent on the poor rates for support. The 
fisheries are now in a very different condition. The capital 
employed yields a satisfactory return. The boats are every 
year increasing, both in numbers and size, and, instead of 
being dependent on the poor rates for their support, we do 
not think that any class of our labouring population are 
now in more comfortable circumstances than the British 
fishermen. Their numbers have nearly doubled within the 



34^ Supply of Fish in Great Britain. 

last twenty years, a progressive ratio of increase indicating 
a degree of prosperity probably not exceeded by any class 
of our population. 

Two exceptions, however, to the general prosperity of 
fishermen thus indicated must be noticed : — 

1st, The oyster fisheries in the bays and shallow waters 
along the coast have been everywhere represented as in a 
state of great depression, owing to the scarcity of oysters. 
In many places, the oysters have, within the last three 
years, almost entirely disappeared. The valuable oyster 
fisheries off Jersey, which, between the years 1855 and 
i860, gave an annual return of from 30,000/. to 40,000/., 
have, during the last three years, produced from 3,000/ to 
4,000/ a year only. In the estuary of the Thames the 
greatest scarcity prevails, and the price of the native oyster 
has more than trebled during the last four years. It has, 
however, been conclusively proved that this scarcity is due 
to a succession of bad breeding seasons for the oyster, for 
which no well-ascertained cause can be assigned. In the 
estuary of the Thames, there has been no general good 
breed of oysters, either in public or private beds, since the 
year 1858. 

2ndly. The other exception which must be made, is of a 
more serious and permanent nature. The evidence and 
statistics of the Irish Sea fisheries represent a very great 
falling off in the number of boats and men employed along 
the coast. The following return, provided by the Irish 
Fishery Commission, and corrected by their last report, 
gives a comparative statement of the numbers of men and 
boats : — 



1830 — Fisheries under stimulus of 
bounties or loan funds 

1836 — Fisheries under depression, 
caused by withdrawal of 
bounties - - - - 

1845 — Fisheries immediately before 
the famine - - - - 

1848 — Fisheries after the famine 

1865- ------ 



Number of 

Vessels of 

all Classes. 



13.119 



10,761 

19,883 

15.932 

9>300 



Number of 

Men and 

Boys 

employed. 



64,771 



54,119 

93,073 

70,011 

40,946 



Stipply of Fish in Great Britain. 



349 



The return shows a diminution, within the last twenty- 
years, of 10,583 boats and 52,127 men. 

The numbers given for the last year, however, reduced 
as they are, appear to be very large as compared with the 
produce of the fisheries indicated by the railway returns, 
and the supplies in the principal markets. But it has been 
explained to us that a very small portion of the 40,000 men 
and boys included in the return, are fishermen in the true 
sense of the term. A further return classifies the boats 
and men as follows : — 





Vessels. 


Men. 


Boys. 


First-class vessels, which include 
the tonnage of fifteen tons 
and upwards 

Second-class, under fifteen tons 

Making a total of - - - 


978 
8,322 


4,559 
32,875 


475 
3,055 


9,300 


37,416 


3,530 



The great decline in number of the fishermen in Ireland 
we believe to be wholly due to the effects of the famine of 
1848, and the subsequent emigration. It might have been 
anticipated, that during the famine, the fishermen at least 
would be secure from its ill effects, and would not only 
have plenty of food for themselves, but would be the 
means of averting starvation from others. But such was 
not the case. It was found that the people would not live 
wholly on fish, nor would they, out of the small means 
remaining to them, buy fish in preference to meal or 
potatoes. The fishermen, therefore, suffered not only from 
the loss of their own crops of potatoes, but from want of 
market for their fish. They shared, to the full extent, in 
the sufferings of the famine, and as most of them became 
physically incapable of going to sea, it was frequently 
found that men were starving while fish were in abundance 
on the coast. In many parts of Ireland, the fishing popu- 
lation has not yet recovered from the depression and ruin 
caused by the famine ; and the subsequent emigration, by 
taking off the youngest and the ablest of the fishermen, 
and leaving behind the old, the feeble, and the incompetent, 
has still further operated, not only in reducing the numbers, 



350 Supply of Fish in Great Dritam. 

but in lowering the average condition of those who remain 
behind. 

Though in many parts of Ireland the appearance of the 
fishermen, and of their boats and gear, indicated great de- 
pression and want of prosperity of the trade ; in others 
there are not wanting signs of improvement and of greater 
enterprise and activity. The herring fishery of Howth, as 
already mentioned, has within the last six or seven years 
grown into a very important fishery, and a considerable 
number of Irish boats have been fitted out for it, and have 
done as well as the Cornish and Scotch boats that join in 
the fishery. The trawlers from Dublin have now for some 
years been doing well, and have brought in a large supply 
of the better class of fish to the markets. At Dingle, also, 
trawling has been introduced with success, and the fisher- 
men are doing well. At Arklow the oyster banks have 
been extensively worked within the last few years. 

The general supply of fish from the Irish coast must 
necessarily have considerably fallen off, owing to the great 
reduction of men and boats engaged in fishing. But if 
double the number of men made a living by fishing wholly 
or in part twenty years ago, it is not to be supposed that 
over-fishing within the last few years can have contributed 
to this result. We cannot doubt that with greater enter- 
prise, skill, and the application of capital, a greatly in- 
creased supply of fish might be produced from the seas 
round Ireland. Whether, however, the "mine of wealth" 
which has so often been referred to by witnesses before us, 
as existing in an undeveloped state off the west and south 
coasts is a reality or a myth, can be decided only by expe- 
rience. Looking to the nature of the coast, the frequent 
severity of the weather, the great depth of water, and the 
total want of shelter outside a few bays and inlets and the 
opposition of the local fishermen to the introduction of im- 
proved methods of fishing, we are inclined to think that 
such anticipations are not likely soon to be realised. 

The great importance of fish as an article of food may 
be clearly shown by a comparison to the total supply of 
fish and beef to London in the course of a single year. 
Neither in the case of fish nor of beef is it possible to give 
accurate statistics. But it has been roughly estimated 
that London consumes 300,000 fat cattle annually, which 
at an average weight of six cwt. each, would amount to 
90,000 tons of beef. At this moment there are betweeu 
800 and ^o tra'^vl vessels engaged in supplying the Lon- 



Supply of Fish in Great Britain. 351 

don market with fish, and assuming the average annual 
take for each to be 96 tons, this would give a total of some 
80,000 tons of trawled fish. This is irrespective of the vast 
quantities of herrings, sprats, shellfish, and of other de- 
scriptions of fish which are supplied by other modes of 
fishing. The weight of beef and of fish annually consumed 
in London is thus of no great disproportion. But the price 
is very different. The fisherman receives on an average 
over 7/. a ton for his fish, prime and offal together ; the 
farmer is readily paid for his beef not less than 60/. a ton. 

But this disparity of price becomes the more remarkable 
when tested by the practical experience, not of the pro- 
ducer, but of the consumer. The buyer of both in the 
west end of London finds that on the average his fish costs 
him more per pound weight than his beef or mutton. And 
when inquiry is made, the salesmen at Billingsgate readily 
admit that the retail dealer gets an enormous profit on the 
small quantity of fish he disposes of. It might be thought 
that the competition of trade would rectify any demand for 
excessive profit, but in this case it does not seem to have 
any effect. While the fishermen receive 3d. and 4d, a 
pound at Billingsgate for prime fish, the buyer is charged 
IS., IS. 3d,, and is. 6d. a pound by the retailer. 

Some check might probably be put upon this extra- 
vagant rate of profit by a daily return inserted in the 
newspapers, and signed by the clerk of the market, of the 
wholesale prices of the various kinds of fish sold in Bil- 
lingsgate. 

The facts we have laid before our readers, coupled with 
the increasing scarcity and high price of butcher's meat, 
leaves no doubt in our minds that a great field for profit- 
able enterprise is open for the application of increased 
capital and skill to the old fisheries of the United King- 
dom. Within the last two years a single London company 
have increased their fishing fleet by ten sailing and two 
steam vessels, and are now building two more steamers. 
The same course is being followed by others ; and though 
by such means the supply of fish to Billingsgate is con- 
stantly increasing, it fails to keep pace with the demand. 
The well-known fishing grounds in the North Sea are even 
yet only partially fished. The Dogger Bank, which has 
an area of several hundred square miles, and is most pro- 
lific of fish, is to a great extent unworked by the trawler, 
and new grounds are still being discovered where fish are 
found in great abundance. Between England and the 



352 Supply of Fish m Great Britain. 

Continent the average depth of the German ocean is ninety- 
feet. One-fifth of it is occupied by banks which are always 
being added to by the muddy deposits of the rivers of both 
countries. In extent they are equal to the superficial 
area of Ireland. To these banks the animals of ^the ocean 
chiefly resort, and this great and prolific field is free to the 
industry of all. 

The produce of the sea around our coasts bears a far 
higher proportion to that of the land than is generally 
imagined. The most frequented fishing grounds are much 
more prolific of food than the same extent of the richest 
land. Once in the year an acre of good land carefully 
tilled produces a ton of corn, or two or three cwts. of meat 
or cheese. The same area at the bottom of the sea on the 
best fishing grounds yield a greater weight of food to the 
persevering fisherman every week in the year. Five ves- 
sels belonging to the same owner, in a single night's fish- 
ing, brought in seventeen tons weight of fish, an amount 
of wholesome food equal in weight to that of 50 cattle or 
300 sheep. The ground which these vessels covered dur- 
ing the night's fishing could not have exceeded an area of 
fifty acres. 

When we consider the amount of care that has been 
bestowed on the improvement of agriculture, the national 
societies which are established for promoting it, and the 
scientific knowledge and engineering skill which have been 
enlisted in its aid, it seems strange that the sea fisheries 
have hitherto attracted so little of the public attention. 
There are few means of enterprise that present better 
chances of profit than our sea fisheries, and no object of 
greater utility could be named than the development of 
enterprise, skill, and mechanical ingenuity which might be 
elicited by the periodical exhibitions and publications of 
an influential society specially devoted to the British 
fisheries. 



. 353 
REVIEWS. 



Divine Origin of Mnemonics. By William Stokes. 
Houlston and Wright, London. 

A RECENT parliamentary enactment, combined with 
a verdict more recent still, in our courts of judica- 
ture, has afforded a certain check to medical quackery, but 
literary quackery still runs its course, unrestrained, and as 
far as our experience extends, its seems to have attained 
its culminating point in the volume now before us. We 
confess that we commenced the perusal of this book with 
anything but favourable impressions of the author, and the 
chief cause of our bias lay in the heading, which caught 
our eye, at page 60, set out in large capitals — " DAMNATION 
THE Result of Forgetfulness. A few lines further 
down the page, occurs another heading — " SALVATION 
DEPENDENT UPON MEMORY." In each case a scriptural 
quotation is given, but never was the sacred volume more 
abused by a profane endeavour to excruciate the word of 
life into an agreement with some preconceived plan of 
turning a penny. To preserve the mere letter of Scripture, 
and to make it do service for the sale of Mr. Stokes's book, 
the whole spirit of it has been shamelessly abused. That 
the small volume of Mr. Stokes is not wholly denuded of 
merit, we readily admit, but we say of that what the great 
Mendelssohn is reported to have said of a manuscript sub- 
mitted for his critical opinion : — " There is much in this 
paper that is good, and much that is new, but what is 
good is not new, and what is new is not good." 

We advise Mr. Stokes either to read more deeply or to 
give up the idea of pronouncing authoritatively on matters 
relating to Jewish antiquities. Where, in the name of 
wonder, did he pick up the information contained in the 
second proposition of the following paragraph } — " Phylac- 
teries are worn by the Jews in the East, to this day, but 
they are generally concealed under their garments." 

The phylacteries worn by the Jews cannot possibly be 
traced to any biblical authority. That they were used by 
the Pharisees, in the time of Christ, is an admitted fact : 
but many other ritual observances were also in that time 
in vogue, although they had no solid basis in primitive 
Judaism. All commentators, as well as rational Jews, of 
every age, have regarded the passage — " And thou shalt 



354 Reviews, 

bind them for signs upon thine hands, and they shall be as 
frontlets between thine eyes," as figurative, standing pre- 
cisely on a level' with the meaning of the 6th verse — " And 
these words, I command thee, this day shall be on thy 
heart;" and again, Deut. xi., i8 — "And you shall lay up, 
these, my words upon your heart and upon your souls, and 
bind them for a sign upon your hands," &c. 

The whole book is impregnated with cant, nor is the cant 
skilfully concealed, since the veil beneath which it lies is 
too thin to hide it. If the author has anything to tell that 
may improve memory, he may do a useful thing, but failing 
solid material, it is but a pitiful attempt, after all, to make 
up for the absence of sterling matter by a pious fraud, 
which would persuade the credulous, that the author, in 
putting forth his book, is discharging a divine mission. 

The prayer, with which Mr. Stokes concludes, is in 
perfect keeping with the rest of his sanctimonious per- 
formances. 



Elements of Italian Grammar. By Raphael Vagnolini. 
Allan and Co. 

For simplicity of arrangement and facility of comprehen- 
sion, we have rarely met with a grammar so suited to our 
tastes. Of its practical utility there can be little doubt, it 
is most admirably adapted for the purposes for which it was 
compiled, and will soon rank, as it well merits, a standard 
position in its sphere. 



Cosmopolitan Sketches. Holloway, 291 Strand. 

Although scarcely within the ken of the Technologist, 
we cannot refrain noticing the little work before us. The 
sketches appear as reprints from the Cosmopolitan, and 
those of our readers who have not read its columns will do 
well to look out for the racy sketches of inner life, which 
frequently appear in its pages. Without being exactly 
sensational, they are true to nature, and uplift the veil from 
much that does not meet the general observer. The sketches 
of Constable's Hotel, in other words, Whitecross Street 
Debtors Prison. The description of midnight meetings are 
graphic in the extreme. In fact, it were vain to particu- 
larise, as one and all are so life-like, that none of our 
readers could possibly be disappointed in them. 



Reviews, , 355 

Hardwicke's Science-Gossip. 

This most interestingly valuable little serial is a great 
boon to lovers of science, our appreciation of its contents 
may be judged by our reprinting for the benefit of our 
readers, an article on Diatoms, and one on the culture and 
growth of the Pine- Apple. Altogether it is a very successful 
feature in the scientific lite rature of the day. 



The Artizan. Salisbury street. Strand. 

Since 1843 this journal so exclusively devoted to the con- 
sideration of scientific and artistic matters has lost nothing 
of i s early excellence. Its contents are varied and afford 
much useful information for those readers for whom it is 
intended. The January No. is the first of a fourth series 
and is a decided improvement both in matter and get up 
to antecedent issues. A work eminently useful in its 
sphere. 



The Distinctive Characters of the Principal British Natural 
Orders of Pla?tts. By WILLIAM A. TiLDEN, F.C.S. 
London. 

The above is a very carefully arranged table of British 
plants. It will be found to be of great service by students 
of botany. 



Oh I Meet Me at the Stile. A Ballad. By Richard 
Fletcher. London: W. Williams and Co., 221 
Tottenham Court road. Price 2s. 6d. 

This ballad is from one of whom we have not heard of 
before ; but, from its beautifully soft an j plaintive strain, 
shall no doubt have the pleasure of receiving others in 
due time. The melody is sweet and very pretty. It 
ranges with such songs as " Would I Were a Bird," " Annie 
Laurie," &c. ; indeed, is quite in the style of the Christy 
Minstrels' songs, to whom it would be a great acquisition. 
We strongly recommend it to the lovers of this class of 
ballad. 



356 
CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE DYNAMICAL THEORY OF ELECTRICITY. 

To the Editor of the TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — Since I sent you a short notice of a fact in thermo- 
electricity, I have had under revision my chapter on 
organic electricity, and I have been forcibly impressed by 
the harmony existing between obvious deductions from the 
dynamical theory, and some recently observed physiological 
results. 

The physiological effects by acting causes incidental to 
transmission of a continuous voltaic current through a mus- 
culomotor nerve, are of a complex character ; they are 
universally acknowledged to be manifested 07tly at the 
moments of closing and opening the circuit, but are modi- 
fied by the influence of the current, during its prolonged 
continuous passage in the portion of nerve-tissue included 
in the circuit. 

In order to interpret correctly all its observed physiolo- 
gical effects, it becomes necessary to consider carefully the 
dynamical consequences of the passage of a continuous suc- 
cession of electric waves, here assumed to constitute a 
voltaic current, they must comprise three distinct phases : 
First, the momentary passage of the molecules of the con- 
ductor from a state of rest to a state of motion ; secondly, 
the indefinite continuance of a molecular motion ; and 
thirdly, the return of the moving molecules to a state of 
rest. 

The first phase will be accompanied by a rush, or a sud- 
den impulse of increased potential in the direction of the 
current, because there must be a condensation or accumu- 
lation of motion, in consequence of the inertia of the mole- 
cules at rest, opposing the transmission of the wave ; this 
may be termea the initial current. During the second 
phase there will be (supposing the potential of the current 
to remain constant for the time) continuous and uniform 
wave motion. During the third phase, the excitation of 
motion ceasing, the vis viva of the moving particles will 
accumulate motion towards the termination of the conduc- 
tor, whence a reflex motion may be expected to be propa- 
gated, (as in the case of a wave travelling from the hand 
along a stretched cord, which reaching the fixed end, is re- 
flected back again), giving rise to a momentary terminal 



Correspondence, 357 

current, inferior in intensity, and opposite indirection to the 
initial currents. 

These initial and terminal currents (or impulses, as they 
might more appropriately be termed) have long since been 
recognized as the extra currents of Faraday ; but their rela- 
tive direction and intensity have been assumed to coincide 
with those of the induced secondary currents; and, there- 
fore, to be the reverse of what dynamical considerations 
have suggested ; it has, however, been demonstrated by an 
experiment of M. Chauveau, that the dynamical view is the 
correct one. It has been proved by numerous experiments 
that physiological effects are produced. I produced only, 
by a sudden efflux of electricity from a nerve or muscle 
into a negative electrode, whether the active agent be a dis- 
charge of Franklinic electricity, or either the induced or the 
extra currents already mentioned. Starting from this as 
an admitted fact, the experiment of M. Chauveau appeal to 
the most sensitive of all tests of the direction of an electric 
impulse (using that term as synonymous with " shock," or 
" momentary current,") a living nerve. He places the elec- 
trodes of an electromoter over the opposite facial nerves of 
a horse, and, having duly adjusted the strength of the cur- 
rent, he finds that, on closing the current, that side of the 
face only is convulsed, (by the initial extra current}) the 
nerve of which lies under the negative electrode, and on 
opening the circuit the contrary side is less strongly con- 
vulsed (by the terminal extra current^ the nerve of which 
lies under the positive electrode. M. Chauveau also found 
that with a still further reduced current, convulsion occurred 
in relation with the negative electrode only, the contrary or 
terminal extra current being then too feeble to affect the 
nerve. And if several horses were similarly included in one 
circuit, the same results were observed in each of them. 

The same fact has been observed by M. Claude Bernard* 
in a prepared frog's limb, in which the vitality of the nerve 
is unimpared : with a sucffiiently reduced current, con- 
vulsion occurs on closing the circuit, and only then, whether 
the current be direct or inverse, because the terminal extra- 
current is then inoperative. 

It may here be remarked that the well known relative 
direction and intensity of the initial and terminal secondary 
or induced currents in a secondary coil, are the necessary 

* " LcQcns sur la Physiologie et la Pathologie du Systeme Ner- 
veaux," Paris, 1858, vol., p. 163. 



358 Correspondence, 

dynamical consequences of the above assumed condition of 
the extra currents. The initial extra-current will excite a 
similar impulsive motion in secondary coil, just as one 
stretched chord will excite another capable of vibrating in 
unison with it ( for electro-dynamic induction is probably 
quite analogous to the reciprocation of sound), and the re- 
coil of this impulse (the initial induced ctirrent) will be 
weakened in opposing the co7tti7iuous motion induced by the 
contimioiis primary current. Again, the recoil of the im- 
pulse induced in the secondary coil by the terminal extra 
current in its primary (the terminal induced ctcrrent), will 
likewise be in a direction contrary to that of the inducing 
impulse, but its potential will remain undiminished, as it is 
un-opposed by any continuous induction ; and it will, 
therefore, possess greater force than the initial induced 
current. 

But it may be asked by those who find a difficulty in 
dispossessing their minds of long-established and time- 
honoured notions. Is not all this about " inertia," and 
" vis-viva," and " impulses," sheer hypothesis } Not so : 
The writer has long since observed and recorded a precisely 
similar phenomenon (apparently an exact analogue of the 
initial extra current) in an unquestioned case of wave 
motion, an experiment on the interference of sound waves, 
due in common with so many others to the genius of Pro- 
fessor Wheatstone. Let the handle of a vibrating tuning- 
fork, held obliquely, rest on the surface of a table. As 
long as it remains at rest, a loud resonance of the table is 
audible : but if the tuning-fork be moved parallel to itself 
along the surface of the table in any direction, the reso- 
nance of the table immediately ceases, from the perpetual 
interference of the vibrations in successive parallel planes 
with each other. The instant the tuning-fork stops, the 
resonances burst out again in a very striking manner If 
the tuning-fork be held vertically, the planes of vibration 
coincide, and the resonance is not interrupted by moving it. 
It can scarcely be doubted that the impulsive recommence- 
ment of the resonance after its interruption by interference, 
is entirely due to the dynamical cause here assigned to the 
initial extra current. 

M. Chauveau (no doubt correctly) ascribes the physiolo- 
gical effect of an electric impulse to the dynamical moleculor 
disturbance which it produces. 

It will naturally be asked if electricity be only wave 
motion, what is the nature of that motion, and in what re- 



Miscellaneous. 359 

spects does it differ from the wave motion of light and 
heat ? It is evident that the existence of two opposite 
electrical states must involve some kind of polarity or direc- 
tionality in the motion, not required to explain the pheno 
mena of light and heat. The probable dependence of 
magnatism on the circulation of the magnet would seem to 
suggest the idea of circular waves ; if these be supposed 
analogous to the waves of eircularly polarized light, the 
phenomena of electric polarity may be readily explained. 
Moreover, the state of mutual inductive constraint of the 
electricity of two opposed, ^nd oppositely electrified sur- 
faces may be roughly symbolized by the condition of 
spiral springs, mutually compressing each othe** against an 
intervening obstacle. 

In the hope that these remarks may induce some of 
your readers to direct their thoughts to the elucidation of 
an important point of physics, 

I remain, &c., 

Charles Brooke. 

Fitzroy Square, W. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Power of Coal. — The best anthracite coal has been 
found to contain 98 per cent, of carbon. Favre and Sil- 
berman found that if all the heat is utilised, one pound of 
carbon in burning will generate sufficient heat to raise the 
temperature of 8,080 pounds of water one degree of the 
centigrade scale ; and, according to Andrews, it will heat 
7,900 pounds one degree. Taking the smaller of these re- 
sults, 7,900 pounds, and reducing it, we find that one pound 
of carbon will raise the temperature of 14,220 pounds of 
water one degree of Fahrenheit's scale. Multiplying this 
by Joule's equivalent, 772, and we have 10,977,840 foot- 
pounds as the quantity of work which one pound of carbon 
will perform. If wesuppose it burned at the rate of one 
pound per hour, by dividing the foot-pounds of work by 
33,000 and by 60, wdshall have the horse-power ^\. If all 
its heat could be utilized, therefore, we should have a horse- 
power from two-elevenths of a pound of coal per hour. 

TTEW series. — VOL. L G G 



360 Miscellaneous. 

This point is worth remembering — that theoretically we 
should have a horse-power from two-elevenths of a pound 
of coal per hour. The very best engines give a horse-power 
from about two pounds of coal per hour, and it is a good 
engine that produces a horse-power from four pounds of 
coal per hour. An engine that gives a horse-power with 
two pounds of coal per hour utilizes in work about nine per 
cent, of the whole power of the coal ; and one that yields a 
horse-power for four pounds of coal per hour, utilizes about 
four and a half per cent, of the power of the coal. 

Photographing under the Sea. — M. Bazin, favour- 
ably known for his photographic researches, has contrived 
a very ingenious submarine photographic studio, by which 
he is enabled to take photographs of sunken ships, rocks, &c. 
The chamber is provided with lens-shaped water-tight win- 
dows, and by means of the electric light the objects to be 
photographed are highly illuminated. M. Bazin is able to 
remain about ten minutes in his submarine chamber, and 
has produced several clear and well-defined photographic 
pictures of objects at the great depth of three hundred feet. 

Books Cut or Uncut. — A correspondent of the yi//^^- 
ncejim writes, '' I have no less than seven paper-knives in 
use in my house; but, in common, I dare say, with many 
of your readers, it very often happens that I am unable to 
lay my hands upon one when wanted. I know that to many 
it is a luxury to have the first read of a book, and with 
paper-knife in hand cut away as they read ; but I think the 
balance of convenience is on the other side, and I wish to 
take the opinion of the literary world as to whether a period 
of civilization has not arrived when the readers of books 
knd periodicals might reasonably ask that they should be 
delivered from the publishers ready cut." 

A New Substitute for Collodion. — M. Persoz, fils, 
has recently discovered a method for obtaining a material 
possessing the same characteristic qualities as collodion. 
La Lumiere says : — This new substance is produced by dis- 
solving silk in a suitable solvent, and then separating the 
latter by means of dialysis. If the film be of a certain de- 
gree of thickness, it assumes on drying a golden tint, but 
this would no doubt be scarcely perceptible in a thin film, 
such as would be used in photography. The solvent chosen 
by M. Persoz is chloride of zinc, which, when kept at a 
warm temperature, readily dissolves the silk, but if the sol- 
vent be not warmed, the silk takes a much longer time to 
dissolve. Before employing the chloride of zinc, it is 



Miscellaneous. 361 

heated with a small quantity of oxide of zinc in order 
to neutralize any excess of acid in the chloride, and then 
filtered through a piece of fine cambric to remove the super- 
abundant oxide. To separate the chloride of zinc, from 
the solution of silk, M. Persoz has recourse to Professor 
Graham's method of dialysis. The apparatus for dialysis, 
Avhich is a kind of sieve, is made by means of a broad strip 
of gutta-percha, bent round and cemented in the form of a 
cylinder, at one end of which is fixed a disc of parchment 
to form the bottom. The apparatus is floated upon a ves- 
sel of water, and the silk solution, previously diluted with 
water to the consistency of collodion, is poured into it. The 
chloride of zinc percolates through the moistened disc of 
parchment, and mixes with the water in which the appa- 
ratus is floating. In a few days the whole of the chloride 
of zinc will be found to have become separated from the 
silk solution, but the presence of a slight quantity of the 
chloride in the material is of no great consequence, as it 
merely gives rise to the formation, in the sensitive film, of 
a minute quantity of chloride of silver. Although M. 
Persoz does not mention the fact, there is no doubt that a 
dry film of this substance would be quite insoluble in 
water. Its employment is very simple. It is first iodized 
by mixing with it an aqueous solution of iodide, and then 
dried and sensitized ; the exposure and development are 
conducted in the ordinary manner. — Journal of the Society 
of Arts. 

The fifth of the Christmas juvenile lectures at the Royal 
Institution, on " Gases," was delivered by Professor Frank- 
land, F.R.S. He explained that the words "combustibles 
and " incombustible," as commonly applied to different cir- 
stances, convey erroneous ideas. For instance, in the com- 
bustion of common gas, intense chemical action, giving out 
heat and light, takes place at the line of contact between 
the gas and common air. It is therefore commonly said 
that the gas is combustible, and the air a supporter of com- 
bustion. But if a room be filled with coal gas, and pipes 
conveying common air be laid on, the air would burn in 
such an atmospheae, just like what is called inflammable 
gas. The lecturer took a large glass tube about three 
inches in diameter, and fourteen inches long, and plugged 
the lower end of it with a bung, through which passed a 
small glass tube, to admit common gas into the larger one. 
A second tube, open at both ends, passing through the bung 
admitted a very small quantity of common air, whicb was 



362 Miscellaneous. 

ignited, and made to burn in the atmosphere of coal gas. 
The upper part of the large tube he covered with a 
sheet of perforated mica, and as the superfluity of the gas 
escaped through the mica, it was also made to burn. By 
this simple arrangement, a jet of common air was shown 
burning inside the tube, and jet of coal gas outside. He 
showed that sulphur is a combustible substance, by burning 
some in oxygen ; also, that it is sometimes a supporter of 
combustion, because copper foil catches fire when plunged 
into the vapour of boiling sulphur, and burns with 
a blood-red flame. Professor Frankland next sifted some 
powdered metallic antimony into ajar of chlorine gas, which 
has such a powerful affinity for the metal that it ignited it ; 
and the particles of chloride of antimony formed, fell to the 
bottom of the vessel in a shower of red-hot sparks. He also 
plunged some wool, soaked in oil of turpentine, into a jar 
of chlorine. Turpentine is composed of carbon and hydro- 
gen, and as chlorine burns, or unites with the hydrogen 
without touching the carbon, the latter filled the jar with a 
dense smoke, as black as ink. Some laughing gas was then 
distilled from nitrate of ammonia, but not administered, as 
the lecturer thought there was a possibility of its being dan- 
gerous, although he had never seen it produce any ill effects. 
Lastly, he made some phosphoretted hydrogen, which bub- 
bled up from the bottom of a jar of water, and caught fire 
spontaneously when it reached the air. Each bubble, as its 
flame burst, formed a light ring of white smoke, which 
sailed slowly upwards. This closed the experiments. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

J. K. L., Bristol. — i. Dichloride of sulphur is a reddish-brown 
liquid ; specific gravity, i '686 ; it boils at 282°. It much re- 
sembles chloride of sulphur, whose specific gravity is i"6o, and 
boils at 146*^. 2. Dichloride of sulphur is likewise known as 
bisulphuret of chlorine. 

T. B. — " Fluxes " are necessary in some cases of metallic reductions ; 
they dissolve impurities, protect the metal from the air, and some- 
times exert a reducing agency. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

The Pharmaceutical Journal, August to January. 
Hardwicke's Science Gossip. 
The Artizan. 

Divine Origin of Mnemonics (Stokes). 
Report of the Statistical Society of Lloyds, 1866. 
The Distinctive Characters of the Principal British Natural Orders of 
Plants. 










==^v 



ENGRAVED BY GRAPHOTYPE. 



THE 

TEOHNOLOaiST. 

March, 1867, 

THE SAMARITANS AND THE SAMARITAN 
PENTATEUCH. 

BY THE REV. PROFESSOR MARKS. 

SAMARIA, the capital of the kingdom of the ten tribes, 
which renounced allegiance to the Davidical dynasty- 
soon after the accession of Rehoboam, originally formed 
part of the territory of Ephraim. Not far from it stood 
Sichem — now called Nations, a corruption of Neapolis — 
where the bones of Joseph, brought by Moses out of Egypt, 
were interred, and where Joshua convoked a national 
assembly of the tribes to receive his dying admonition. 

After Samaria had enjoyed an existence, as the capital 
of the rival kingdom, for about two centuries, it was taken 
and partially destroyed by Shalmanessar, King of Assyria ; 
and with the fall of the capital, the kingdom of the ten 
tribes passed away, never to survive. 

The Biblical historians mention Samaria in terms so 
vague and indefinite as to perplex ordinary readers. It is 
applied alike to the capital, the surrounding district, and 
the entire territory of the ten tribes. Scarcely less loose 
and indeterminate is the use of the proper name Sama- 
ritan. It may either mean the inhabitants of the city of 
Samaria, or of the whole kingdom, the hybrid people, 
whom Ezra calls " the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin," 
or the " Samaritans," as described by the writers of the New 
Testament. 

It has long been a moot point whether the '' Samaritans," 
as they appear on the canvas of history, in the age of Ezra, 
are to be regarded as a people wholly of foreign extraction, 
or as a mixed race, containing an appreciable element of 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. H H 



364 The Samaritans and the 

the descendants of ten tribes. Some contend that the 
language of Scripture (2 Kings xvii., 24), hardly admits of 
a doubt that the whole Jewish population was rooted out 
of Samaria, and replaced by settlers, who were Assyrians 
by birth or subjugation. The scripture chronicle tells of 
the country having been infested with lions, which, it should 
seem, the superstition of the times attributed to the ignor- 
ance of the new settlers respecting " the manner of the God 
of the land." " Had any of the old inhabitants been left," 
says Dr. Hessey, " it would have been impossible for the 
new settlers to have been so entirely unable to acquaint 
themselves with the manner of the God of the land." 
Now it does not seem to us that this objection goes for 
much in the face of what is recorded of the settled purpose 
of the Kings of Israel to supersede the national religion of 
Mosaism by the idolatrous worship of Baal and other 
Phenician Deities. Jeroboam, the first King, set up calves 
for worship in Bethel and Dan ; Abijah, Jehu, and Ahab, 
went from bad to worse ; and abundant evidence is afforded 
in the Bible that both priest and layman had wandered 
far away from the worship of Jehovah, long before the 
conquest of Samaria was accomplished by Shalmanessar. 

Besides which, it is no easy matter to root out the popu- 
lation of a whole kingdom within the space of a few 
months. Extermination is a work of slow progress ; and 
we are not deficient of proofs, in our own times, where the 
appliances of destruction and of deportation are greater 
than they could have been 720 B.C., that it requires many 
years, if indeed, the object can ever be effectually brought 
about, to exterminate a large aboriginal population. But 
what we rely upon most in support of the view we venture 
to uphold is, an occurrence which the Bible sets down at a 
date more than a hundred years after the conquest of 
Samaria. Jeremiah, who prophesied about 620 B.C., speaks 
of Israelites who had come from Shechem, Shiloh, and 
Samaria, to bring offerings to the Temple at Jerusalem — a 
sufficient proof that as late as his time there were Hebrews 
in Samaria. Again, a record is preserved in 2 Chron. 
xxxiv., 9, to the effect, that in the reign of Josiah, contri- 
butions to the Temple were collected "by the hand of 
Manassah, Ephraim, and all the remnant of Israel 

Assuming, then, that the population of that part of 
Palestine which once described the kingdom of Samaria, 
contained within it, after its conquest, an element of its 
original Hebrew settlers, we pass over an interval of 180 



Samarita7t Pentateuch. 365 

years, and arrive at the stirring period in Jewish story, 
when Cyrus, the Mede, having conquered Babylon, set free 
the captives of Judah, and permitted them to return to 
Judea to rebuild the Temple of Solomon, and to reconsti- 
tute their ancient state. 

The Samaritans appear again on the scene as soon as 
the first colony of emancipated Judah arrives at Jerusalem. 
They profess themselves disciples of Moses ; they offer to 
assist in the rebuilding of the temple and the city ; and 
they ask to share in the rites of national worship, as well 
as in the political privileges accorded by the firman of 
Cyrus to the remnant of Judah and Benjamin. It is more 
than doubtful whether these professions were sincere, since 
it was the practice of the Samaritans to avow themselves 
Jews, and to renounce their connection with the Jewish 
community, just as it served their purpose, for securing 
some temporal advantage. At the same time, there is no 
reason to doubt that they had embraced the doctrine of a 
pure Monotheism, although some of their ritual practices 
might have been tainted with old heathen superstitions ; 
and it does seem somewhat harsh and ungenerous on the 
part of the Jews, to have repulsed them in so determined 
a manner. Perhaps the old rivalry between the adherents 
of the house of David, and those of the house of Joseph 
had not yet died out ; or, what is more probable still, the 
returned exiles of Judah, who had been taught by the 
Prophets to ascribe all their national misfortunes to the 
idolatrous practices of their fathers, might have recoiled at 
the suggestion of making common cause in matters of 
religion with a body, whose ritual still retained much that 
was inherited from heathen times. Zerubabel, Ezra, and 
Nehemiah, who were quite agreed with respect to the 
exclusion of the Samaritans, must have had solid reasons 
for arriving at this determination ; but whatever these 
reasons may have been, the resolution that was taken 
generated a hatred of so bitter and intense a character 
between the two peoples, that there is nothing in the 
history of feuds, national or sectarian, that offers to it a 
perfect parallel. 

Excluded from taking part in the national work the 
Samaritans resolved to oppose the advancement of it, by 
every device which malignant hostility could suggest. 

Scarcely had the foundations of the temple been laid, 
when the Samaritans appeared in imposing force and 
obliged the Jews to relinquish their labour. In vain the 

H H 2 



366 The Samaritans and the 

Jews appealed to the Persian Court, for the ministers, 
bribed by the Samaritans, prevented the petitions from 
reaching the king. No change took place until the death 
of Cyrus, 529 B.C. Cambyses succeeded his father. He 
is called in Scripture, Ahasuerus, but he is not the same 
sovereign mentioned in the Book of Esther, who could 
have been none other than the silly Xerxes, the invader of 
early Greece. It was well known that Cambyses had been 
opposed to the policy pursued by his father towards the 
Jews ; and the Samaritans were not slow to take advantage 
of the opportunity afforded by a change of rulers. They 
memorialised the Persian Court, asserting that the Jews 
had been fortifying Jerusalem, as a preliminary step to 
throwing off their allegiance and declaring their indepen- 
dence. The ruse was completely successful. A firman 
was issued, suspending all further operations in Judea 
until a full and searching inquiry should be made, and the 
Samaritans, emboldened by this edict, compelled the Jews 
to desist from their purpose. 

No progress is made by the Hebrews until the death of 
the usurper, Smerdis, 521 B.C., when Darius ascends the 
throne. In the following year, the prophets Haggai and 
Zachariah urge the Jews to action and promise them help 
from above. They now apply themselves with great zeal ; 
but the Samaritans, always on the alert, appeal to the 
Governor Tatnai, who calls upon the Jews to produce an 
authorization for the works they are constructing. They 
bring forward a copy of the edict of Cyrus and Tatnai 
applies for instructions to the Home Government. The 
original firman is discovered amongst the archives at 
Ecbatana and the Jews are permitted to rebuild the temple 
which is inaugurated about March, 516 B.C., in time for the 
solemnisation within its walls of the important festival of 
Passover. 

Of the condition of the Jewish colony from this date 
until the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus (458 B.C.) 
we know nothing. Ezra sets out from Babylon at the 
head of a second Hebrew colony, and finds affairs in a 
deplorable condition on his arrival in Palestine. He is a 
man of the highest moral worth but no statesman ; and 
little or nothing is effected for the new colony during the 
thirteen years of his administration. A very important 
personage now appears upon the scene. Nehemiah, a man 
of considerable influence in the councils of Artaxerxes, 
solicits and obtains the appointment of Pacha of Judea, 



Samaritan Pentateuch. ' 367 

and he arrives in Jerusalem about 444 B.C. Under his 
vigorous rule, the walls of the city are commenced, and 
although the Samaritans, under their able leader San- 
ballat, ally themselves with the Arabs, the Ammonites, and 
the Philistines, and dispute the right of the Jews to rebuild 
and fortify their city, by an appeal to arms, Nehemiah 
perseveres and succeeds in the end. 

The Samaritans, who had by degrees winnowed their 
ritual from the old heathen leaven, and brought themselves 
to adopt pure Mosaism, felt it a great grievance to be ex- 
cluded from the temple of Jerusalem, whilst they had no 
sanctuary of their own. After a while an event occurred 
which enabled them to set up a rival temple. Manasseh, 
brother of the High Priest Jaddua, had married Nicaso, 
daughter of Sanaballat the Cuthean, in consequence of 
which he was degraded from the priestly house and exiled 
from Jerusalem. Manasseh had powerful friends at the 
Court of Darius Nothus, who granted him a firman to 
build a rival or Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim, near 
Sichem. The invasion of Persia by Alexander, and the 
overthrow of Darius, deferred for a time the execution of 
the edict, but Alexander was induced to give it effect, and 
the Samaritans built their temple, and constituted them- 
selves a Mosaic sect. To prevent the possibility of a sub- 
sequent reunion with the Jews, Manasseh made it a chief 
point to differ widely from the Jews on some important 
matters. All the books of the Bible were rejected, except 
the Pentateuch, and a version of Joshua,* and even the 

* This book of Joshua has nothing in common with the book 
of the same name found in the canon of the Old Testament. The 
only manuscript of the Samaritan "Joshua" known to be in 
Europe, is in the national library at Leyden. In 1584 the learned 
Scaliger obtained it from Cairo, and it was published in 1848. It 
has eight chapters of introduction, followed by a pretendedly his- 
torical account of the conquest of Palestine by Joshua, which 
runs on to the fortieth chapter. The next ten chapters give a 
general account of the vicissitudes of the Samaritans under Nebu- 
chadnezzar, Alexander the Great, and the Roman Emperors. It 
contains not even as much as a reference to David, Solomon, or 
the Hebrew prophets. It is supposed that the content? of the 
book have been drawn from four original sources — one Hebrew, 
and three Arabic. One part of the book is considered to have 
been written in the fourteenth century, and the others at the close 
of the fifteenth century. Its language is Arabic, and the origin of 
the book is not Palestinian, but evidently Egyptian. 



369 Fancy and Imagmation. 

Pentateuch, as will be presently shown, was falsified by the 
Samaritans, in order to make it appear that the Mount 
Gerizim and not Jerusalem was the spot indicated by 
Moses where the national temple was to be built. After 
the temple at Gerizim had stood for 200 years, it was com- 
pletely destroyed 129 B.C. by John ELyrcanus, one of the 
Maccabean princes, and the Samaritans were brought 
under subjection. But neither force nor persuasion could 
influence them to adopt orthodox Judaism. They con- 
tinued to perform their worship, as before, near the ruins of 
their temple, and the opening of the Christian era found 
them distinct in their worship, and as bitter as ever in their 
hatred to the Jews. The Samaritans seem to have been 
unfavourably regarded by the founder of Christianity. 
Jesus does not recognise them as Jews, and what is more, 
he forbids the twelve whom he sends forth, to enter any of 
their cities. A bitter, and enduring animosity, grows up 
between the Christians and the Samaritans, and they per- 
secute each other with all the barbarity of which the early 
centuries offer many painful examples. Rome also found 
the Samaritans difficult to govern, coercion and conciliation 
having alike failed. In spite of the havoc committed in 
their ranks by the Roman legions, the Samaritans increased 
rapidly during the early centuries of the present era, and 
several sects arose amongst them. From the middle of the 
tenth century they began to fall off, and at the present 
time their whole community does not exceed fifty families. 
They still worship on the Mount Gerizim and their Pass- 
over festival is inaugurated with the sacrifice of a lamb. 
In 1 861, Mr. George Grove was present during the 
solemnization by them of the Day of Atonement, and the 
account which he has published of their ritual is highly in- 
teresting and instructive. 

(To be continued.) 



FANCY AND IMAGINATION. 

MOST of our best writers on the subject of the " Plea- 
sures of Imagination " and Addison among them, 
have given their attention solely to the regions of taste, and 
appear to think that fancy is exercised on no other topics 



Fancy and Imagination. 369 

but those which administer to our perceptions of the grand, 
the beautiful and the subHme. We nevertheless think, that 
we shall be enabled to show that poets are not the only 
portion of mankind who fec^st on the pleasures of fancy ; 
but that in all our idle amusements as well as in all our 
business occupations, imagination occupies by no means, 
an unimportant position, but on the contrary, that in the 
greater part of those pursuits to which our attention is de- 
voted, whilst we would be thought by the world to be 
anxiously engaged in our several spheres of business, we 
are really pursuing something which is ideal to all but our- 
selves. 

It will be readily admitted that the members of that 
body among us who have most leisure and inclination for 
gaiety and pleasure, are the greatest slaves of imagination. 
It matters not whether their taste for pleasure soars to the 
region of the playhouse, the concert room, and the ball 
room, or to the ratting match and prize fight, the pleasure 
which they actually realize compared to that which they 
anticipate, shows them to be under the influence of a lively 
imagination. Whatsoever be the anticipated gratification, 
it may be taken as a rule, that the disappointment that 
follows may be justly estimated by the quantttm of such 
anticipated gratification. But the effects of Fancy are not 
confined to those whose lives are exclusively devoted to 
pleasure. On considering the different departments of 
human pursuit, — business, ambition, avarice, and vanity, 
which, although they may appear contradictory are not un- 
frequently trades carried on by the same person, we shall 
discover a fancy continually at work to improve shadows 
into substances, to enlarge small things to matters of 
moment, and to represent some great good as accessible, 
although never attained. As regards avarice — can poet or 
any other man be pronounced more a creature of imagina- 
tion, or be supposed to soar higher in flight of fancy than 
the miser, who hoards up money with no other view than 
to say it is in his possession ; who desires no higher reward 
than to look at it, or greater talents than to be able to 
count it ; whose sole object of life is to know that after his 
death it will be reported that he died rich > 

Is the ambition of those whom nature and education 
have resolved to keep down less fanciful } Who can be 
said to possess a larger amount of imagination than the 
tradesman or artizan who having acquired wealth by some 
means, considers himself on a level with those of superior 



3 70 Fancy and Imagmation. 

rank, and pushes himself into the circles of those who 
possess that elegance of manners and liberality of mind to 
which he can never attain ; who, when he has reached this 
pinnacle of his ambition, although words of contempt and 
disdain reach his ear from every side, still persists in the 
belief that he is honoured and respected ? 

What a great felicity it must be for some of our financiers 
of the present day to pursue the crooked paths to riches and 
reputation as honest men, that they can positively fancy 
themselves going on the straight and honourable road ! 
When they see their names heading charity subscription lists 
in the daily papers, or quoted as chairman of this railway, or 
director of that company, they really believe themselves 
respectable members of society. What a boon it must be 
to them that when they are exposed and their spurious 
accounts made public, to believe themselves to be men of 
the utmost purity of intention and integrity of action. Such 
a flight however, cannot be taken at once ; there must be 
something preparatory to it, and therefore, their fancy first 
persuades them, that notwithstanding their many virtues 
and unimpeachable honesty, they have had the misfortune 
to be persecuted by a host of fastidious shareholders and 
uncharitable accountants, and so have lost their chance of 
convincing their fellowmen of their disinterested and 
honourable motives of proceeding. 

There is another body of men formed out of all ranks of 
life, whose imaginations continually suggest to them that 
they shall live for ever, that disease and death are things 
that belong to their neighbours, and that such casualties 
happen merely to produce paragraphs and funerals, wills 
and obituaries. The fancy of some of these immortals does 
not grow duller as they advance in years, which is said to 
be the case with even the most ingenious of our poets, but 
on the contrary, becomes more lively than ever. They blow 
a spark or two out from the dying embers and the fire of 
their imagination really makes them believe that they are 
perpetuating the original blaze. The imagination of this 
class is so prolific, that they consider the debilitating in- 
firmities of age form an admirable junction with the vigorous 
frolics of youth ; that feebleness is irresistible, and that the 
language of the eyes is never so expressive as when they 
ogle in a palsied head. Certainly, there is nothing so ex- 
travagant in the most ludicrous conceit of our poets as the 
amorous pursuit of a dropsical Lothario. 

In conclusion, we should like to show the extent of 



Copper Mines. 371 

imagination in matters of Love and Marriage, but refrain 
from discussing on such delicate ground. That there is a 
wide scope for fancy in this case is apparent from the 
writings of poets from the earHest ages down to the present 
time. 



COPPER MINES.— No. 11. 

(Continued from page 285.) 

A SHAFT is, in appearance, very like an ordinary well 
from which excavations are described as having been 
made to the north and south, at a certain depth, called 
cross-cuts ; these being of sufficient width to enable two 
men to work abreast, and about five and a half or six feet 
in height. If the ground be not hard, and the expense of 
excavating be consequently not great, such experimental 
excavations or cross-cuts are frequently continued to the 
distance of two or three hundred feet, so as to prove the 
ground, during which the most minute variations in the 
strata are noticed and scrutinized ; and if any promising 
symptoms present themselves, transverse sections are im- 
mediately commenced in pursuit of them, to the E. and 
W., following the course of the strata to which the excava- 
tion described had heen in an opposite direction. A work- 
ing which had proceeded to the extent before mentioned, 
(and which may be called, quite incipient,) would require 
about eighteen workmen, fourteen of whom would be let 
up and down by a windlass, at the opening or mouth of 
the shaft, by buckets, which would be also used in the 
transmitting of the excavated matter or earth. Of these 
men, two would be employed in each, driving from the 
cross-cut ; two, in wheeling the excavated matter from 
them to the bottom of the shaft ; one, in filling the buckets 
from the barrow, and two at the windlass ; making alto- 
gether, (as there must be a day set and a night set) eighteen 
hands. The instance before us, (if the details of it be 
summed up,) suppose a shaft or well, six feet square, to 
have been sunk perpendicularly about thirty or forty feet ; 
at which depth the writer has supposed passages to have 
been made from it, branching N. and S., with a view of 
dividing the strata, so as to cut or intercept any vein of ore 



372 Copper Mines,- 

which may have been running with it E. and W. These 
passages or drivings, the writer supposes to have been con- 
tinued for about forty feet each way ; that at such distance 
one of them has been discontinued, and that the other has 
arrived at what is termed a lode. He supposes this lode, 
or vein, to have been immediately pursued by fresh drivings 
E. and W., branching off from the original driving which 
was N. and S. ; and thus he has endeavoured to give to the 
reader some idea of the commencement of a mine. Hitherto 
the operators have been working without any other air than 
what has been admitted through the perpendicular shaft ; 
but it is to be observed that, as the excavation proceeds, 
such air becomes more and more rarified, until, upon com- 
mencing transverse drivings to pursue the lode, the men are 
no longer able to work ; and, in addition to their own per- 
sonal and physical disabilities, they find that the candles 
will not continue to burn ; so that there becomes an ab- 
solute necessity for fresh air. In this dilemma, air is gene- 
rally introduced by the sinking of another shaft over the 
spot where the transverse excavations commence ; for air 
(though it may continue sufficiently strong in a direct line 
for a long distance,) becomes very much attenuated by the 
turning of a corner, which seems to show that air is by no 
means so perfect a fluid as is generally thought. 

Where a rise for this purpose is impracticable by reason 
of water, or too great a mass of superincumbent ground, or 
any other cause presenting difficulty, air is introduced by 
means of pipes, which, at the mouth of the shaft, are fur- 
nished with a sort of windsail ; and in mines where air has 
to be introduced by pipes for a considerable distance, it 
becomes necessary to have it propelled by pumps or bellows. 

In the progress of operation, the parts containing ore are 
disengaged from the surrounding substance with great care, 
in order to preserve the former as entire as possible ; but 
some ores are of so friable a nature that it is impossible to 
prevent a portion of them from falling among the fragments 
of rock. Whilst miners are employed in extracting the 
vein in the mine, others (in order that no time be lost), are 
engaged in sinking fresh shafts on the outside, with a view 
of striking the same lode at the same depth further to the 
E. and W., and working so that the whole should at last 
unite and form one line of excavation. In the course of 
this line, frequent ramifications occur, as well as occasional 
variations in point of quantity, and very often obstacles 
present themselves by the intervention of hard rocky sub- 



Copper Mines. 373 

stances, which divide the lode, and throw it right and left 
for a considerable distance. 

Veins of copper, it has been observed, run with regard to 
their longitudinal course, in a direction E. and W. With 
regard to their vertical course they are found to descend, 
at times, in a direct perpendicular ; but more usually on an 
inclination varying from a perpendicular to an angle of 45^. 
Their inclinations are also seldom uniform for many fathoms 
together, but are apt to vary, so as, at times, to form a 
waving line or to be even angular like steps. If a lode of 
ore, uniform in thickness and without intermission (as is often 
the case), could be laid open on one side, so as to be seen 
at one view, it would present to the eye a metaUic layer which 
had been until then condensed between layers of another 
substance ; the same as if one supposes a plate of metal to 
be introduced between different plates or layers of slate, 
stone, or any other matter ; and if the reader, by a stretch 
of imagination, can suppose layers of such description on a 
large scale to be occasionally bent horizontally, in rather 
zigzag lines, from E. to W., and to be at times, a little 
blended and confused, so that their homogeneous character 
be in certain parts destroyed, but otherwise to descend on 
inclinations as before mentioned, he will be able to form an 
idea of a mineral vein. When such vein has an inclination 
downwards towards the N., it is said to dip to the N. ; and 
when in the opposite direction, it is said to dip to the S. 

The term " vein " gives the idea of a substance having 
its breadth equal to its thickness, and its thickness to its 
breadth — something running in a line or string — such as 
the veins of animals. But the term is improper when ap- 
plied to a vein of copper or other mineral, which is, in 
reality, a layer ; and the only reason that the writer can 
assign for the term having been applied to minerals, is be- 
cause in excavations there is never any more of the layer 
exposed at any one time to view than that which, to a cer- 
tain extent, may be said to resemble a vein ; although to 
the eye of the mind it is presented in a very different form. 
The expression is, for the same reason, equally improper 
when applied to the veins in marble, but streaks or varie- 
gations. In the present treatise, however, the word has been 
and will be used in its commonly accepted sense. 

When a lode, vein (or layer), has been worked sufficiently 
both E. and W., upon one level or floor, it becomes neces- 
sary to descend ; for which purpose it is usual to sink shafts 



374 Copper Mines. 

from above at convenient distances to the N. or S., which 
ever may be the incHnation of the lode or layer; after wliich 
the same course of operation takes place as has been des- 
cribed before, and thus two floors or levels are formed ; 
during which the miners from the upper floor make ap- 
proaches towards those on the second floor by excavations 
at regular distances ; after this, the intermediate parts (or 
the portions of the layer between such excavations are cut 
away, and thus the whole portion of the layer between the 
first and second floor is removed. It is obvious that in so 
large an excavation, a great extent of surface would be 
left unsupported and likely to fall in were not something 
done to prevent such a calamity. For this purpose recourse 
is had to timber, a man being constantly at hand whose 
exclusive duty it is, to shore up those parts in the progress 
of the work, where any danger is apprehended. The tim- 
ber is usually deal, imported from the Baltic, free of duty, 
and it would be difficult for anyone wholly unacquainted 
with mining operations, to form an idea of the vast quan- 
tity which is used on such occasions. As the mine becomes 
deeper, fresh excavations are made on new levels or floors ; 
the intermediate parts of which are cast away and timbered 
in a manner similar to what has been described, In fact, 
as the work descends, it exhibits nothing but a repetition 
of operations at stated depths varying but little from one 
another until either the mine is worked out, or the expenses 
incidental to its progress are found more than equal to the 
profits. Mines are occasionally sunk to a very great depth. 
One mine in Cornwall is said to be i,8oo feet deep, with 
levels and other ramifications of proportionate extent. In 
mines newly formed the operators usually ascend and de- 
scend by buckets as before described, but this would after 
a short time, be found inconvenient ; on which account a 
shaft is in generally cut on purpose for ascent and descent, 
called a foot way to the sides of which are attached iron 
ladders. At the distance of about every 60 feet are landings 
or resting places, formed of timber, having apertures for the 
ladders made alternately in opposite directions, so that a 
person could not in case of accident easily fall beyond 60 
feet at any onetime, In the subterranean excavations, the 
workmen are plentifully supplied with candles, notwith- 
standing which there is often difficulty in procuring suf- 
ficient light, for miners can work where there is scarcely 
oxygen enough to sustain a small flame. By the same 



Sympathetic Liks. 375 

force of habit they are also enabled to endure the excessive 
heat incidental to places where little air can be introduced, 
and, where the warmth of their own bodies occasions a 
constant steam. 

(To be continued.) 



SYMPATHETIC INKS. 



THERE are four kinds of sympathetic inks. I. When 
the writing becomes visible by simply applying heat 
or atmospheric moisture or dryness. 2. When peculiar 
gases or vapours make it visible. 3. When solutions of 
chemical or other compounds accomplish the same thing. 
4. When the simple action of light will make the writing or 
drawing visible (Photographic preparations). Of these we 
give the first one, not on account of any merit or new dis- 
covery, but simply of their interest in popular science. 

First Class — No. i. Red Sympathetic Ink. — Nitrate of 
the deutoxide of copper. A weak solution gives an in- 
visible writing, which becomes red by heating. 

No. 2. Yellow Sympathetic Ink. — Chloride of copper. 
A very dilute solution is used, invisible till heated. To 
make it, dissolve equal parts of blue vitriol and sal ammo- 
niac in water. 

No. 3. Yellow and Greeit Ink. — Nitrate of nickel and 
chloride of nickel. A weak solution forms an invisible ink 
which becomes green by heating when the salt contains 
traces of cobalt, which usually is the case ; when pure, it 
becomes yellow. 

No. 4 Gree7i and Red Ink. — Chloride of cobalt. A 
properly diluted solution will produce a pink writing, which 
will disappear when thoroughly dry, become green when 
heated, disappear when cold, and pink again when damp. 
When often or strongly heated it will at last become brown 
red. 

No. 5. Blue Ink. — Acetate of the protoxide of cobalt. 
When the solution of this salt contains nickel or iron, the 
writing made by it will become green when heated ; when 
it is pure and free of these metals it becomes blue. 

No. 6. Light Brown Ink. — Bromide of copper. Perfectly 
invisible writing, which appears very promptly by a slight 



376 Graphotype. 

heating, and disappears perfectly by cooling. To prepare 
it, take one part bromide of potassium, one part blue vitriol, 
eight parts of water. It is better also to discolour the blue 
vitriol with one part of alcohol. 

Amusmg Application. — A winter scene may be so exe- 
cuted that the green leaves of the trees and the grass on 
the foreground are painted with ink made from cobalt and 
nickel solution, No. 5 ; the red berries and flowers with 
No. I ; yellow flowers and fruits with No. 2 ; and the blue 
flowers with pure cobalt, No. 5. When such a picture is 
slowly and carefully heated, the invisible parts of the plants 
become visible, and it is as if the heat changed the winter 
into a summer scene. There are several other substances 
which may be used for invisible writing, which becomes so 
by heating — lemon and onion juice, milk, diluted sulphuric 
acid, &c., &c. 



GRAPHOTYPE. 



SOME months ago, we noticed this process for doing 
away with the labour of the engraver in our pages, 
since which time it appears to have made great strides, not 
only with publishers, in spite of the interested opposition 
it naturally meets with, but in the estimation of the public, 
who view the process as a great gain to art. 

It is now being used for preparing blocks for colour 
printing ; and H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, who visited 
the company's premises the other day, accompanied by the 
Duke of Edinburgh, Lord Newry, &c., has entrusted them 
with a valuable drawing, representing the Prince and Suite 
shooting wolves, &c., made by order of the Emperor of 
Russia, and presented to the Prince as a memento of his 
visit to that country, to be executed in fac simile by the 
process. 

The invention is also being turned to account in the 
working of patterns in inlaid metals, to which the name of 
Intagliography has been given, and very great results may 
be anticipated in that direction. In fact, the applications 
likely to be made of the art are so varied and numerous, 
that it is impossible to foresee the extent of its future ; 
but we may call the , attention of our readers to the 



Graphotype, 377 

great advantages it possesses in the illustration of scientific 
works. 

Despite the great artistic value of this process, its ex- 
treme rapidity, certainty, and economy, efforts are con- 
tinually made either to suppress or ignore it, and numerous 
objections are commonly urged against its more general 
adoption, which will neither bear thinking about, nor in any 
way seriously retard its ultimate success. Amongst these 
objections is that of its never reproducing the artist's fine 
lines. When we consider that the artist's lines could not 
by any possibility be thickened at any stage of the pro- 
cess, this objection seems a very weak one ; but when 
specimen prints are placed before us in which the very 
finest lines appear, each clearly and sharply defined, it 
fades out of sight. Strangely contradictory in this direc- 
tion is another objection not less frequently repeated — viz., 
that the lines given by the process are invariably too fine, 
or " scratchy," as such a defect is technically termed. When 
we add that the process has reproduced the bold, rich 
effects of Gustave Dore's drawings, it will be seen that this 
objection also falls to the ground. But without entering 
upon all the various statements brought forward, either in 
a spirit of partizanship, or from interested motives, we may 
simply state that we have seen — as any of our readers 
interested in the matter may also see by visiting the 
company's premises in Garrick Street, Covent Garden — 
drawings of the most varied kind and character, repro- 
duced and printed with effects conclusively demonstrative 
of the practical value and extreme usefulness of the 
process. 

That the art will be as serviceable towards cheap good 
illustration, is as evident as that cheap printing has pro- 
duced good and equally cheap literature. We are glad to 
give encouragement to so young, yet so promising, an art, 
feeling assured that as it grows in years it will increase in 
usefulness. 



378 



FRESH WATER STICKLEBACKS IN SEA- 
WATER AQUARIUM.* 

IT is perhaps undoubted that sticklebacks {G aster osteus 
aculeatus), born and bred in fresh water, are able to 
live, apparently without inconvenience, in sea water. It 
may, however, not be uninteresting to some of our readers 
to hear a short account of an endeavour to establish fresh- 
water sticklebacks in a marine aquarium. Without fish of 
some sort, an aquarium lacks one of its greatest attractions ; 
but to keep them, it needs not only a well-constituted 
balance of animal and vegetable life, but also a careful 
selection of the sorts of animals. As the aquarium of which 
the following account is written is not near the sea, diffi- 
culty is found in obtaining salt water fish ; and the innu- 
merable fresh-water sticklebacks in the mill-streams near 
Newport, suggested the plan of introducing some of them 
to the society of their foreign brethren. My aquarium has 
now been in existence for some fourteen months, and until 
the 29th September last without any change of water. In 
this respect, it has been more successful than any that I 
have previously had. I believe that very much depends 
on obtaining thoroughly pure water to begin with. 

During the last year, I have, on several occasions, placed 
fresh-water sticklebacks in the aquarium. Once I put in, I 
think, five, and the next morning only one was to be seen — 
and that one dead in the arms of an anemone. The same 
day I put in another seven, and afterwards five or six more, 
and similar numbers at other times, but always with the 
same result, — none survived the second day, and most of 
them disappeared after the first night. After the new sea- 
water had been placed in the aquarium, I obtained five 
sticklebacks of different sizes, one a tiny fish not more than 
half an inch long, and the other four varying from one inch 
to an inch and a half ; two of these I placed at once into a 
basin of sea-water, and the other three into a basin of fresh 
water, to which I gradually added sea water. As they 
seemed to be perfectly at ease in their new element, I 
transterred them on the second day to the aquarium, and I 
then sat myself down to watch, to see if I could discover 
the enemy that destroyed these brilliant little fish. 
- Within a very few minutes one of two prawns {Palcemon 

^ Science Gossip. 



Fresh Water Sticklebacks. 379 

serratiis), which were in the aquarium, came from its hiding 
place and with great eagerness began searching for the 
nev/ comers, whose advent was, I suppose, announced to it 
by a strange and dehghtfully new •' fish-hke smell" It 
soon found one of my little ones, and, seizing it by its 
nippers, was carrying it off to kill and eat, or rather, I ex- 
pect, eat and kill, when I came to the rescue of my pets 
and sent the crystal dragon jerking away. It was, however, 
of little use to stand on guard with my knitting-needle, I 
could hardly shield the whole five from harm ; and to divert 
the attention of the enemy I dropped large pieces of meat 
into its claws, and so for a time succeeded in quieting him. 
Being then called away I could only leave my pooi fish 
with too sure a dread that havoc would be made amongst 
them soon. 

Returning a few hours after, I found that one fish was 
missing, and although I could not see any remains of it 
either in the jaws of the prawn or in the aquarium, I had 
little doubt now as to the secret of the disappearance of it 
and its predecessors, and soon I had conclusive proof I 
came suddenly upon Master Prawn greedily eating another 
of the fish, quite a third of it being already nibbled up. 
Each day has seen another fish victimised, and this evening 
I could not find the last solitary survivor, and so must con- 
clude that all have vanished in the same way. I do not 
believe that a single fish of this last lot was caught by an 
anemone, although my anemones of each kind have been 
widely expanded — luxuriating in the new water. Even 
the fish whose body I found in the grasp of an anemone 
was, I think, either driven to its fate by the pursuing 
prawn, or was dropped dead into its clutches. I account 
for the more rapid destruction of my previous lots of fish, 
by the fact, that there were then nine or ten prawns in the 
aquarium. 

I have given thus full an account of my trials and failures, 
because to my mind two things are pretty well proved — 
first, that sticklebacks will live and thrive in sea water ; but 
second, that if you wish to keep them, you must either not 
have prawns with them, or else select very young prawns, 
and sticklebacks of a superior size and strength to them. 
I should be very sorry to banish prawns from my aquarium, 
as they are both handsome and useful, — handsome in their 
varied movements, and in their amber crystal bodps 
heightened with gold and brown at the joints, and exceed- 
ingly useful as scavengers. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. I I 



380 Sir Edwm Landseer s Lions. 

Before concluding, I should like to ask if any philoso- 
phical or other reason, has been found out wherefore some 
few fresh-water fish will do well in sea water, whilst the 
greater number, I believe, perish almost instantaneously. 



SIR EDWIN LANDSEER'S LIONS. 

SIR Edwin Landseer's animals, so long anticipated, so 
tediously but so unavoidably detained for years, the 
joke and jeer of every one who doubted their coming at 
all, have at last silenced jokes of the dullest, puns of the 
stalest description, and, as our Transatlantic brethren 
would say, rendered sceptical anticipation "tarnation 
small." 

Sir Edwin Landseer, like men holding that position in 
art he inevitably does, has evoked and still continues to 
call forth that criticism upon so stupendous a work from 
so skilful a master. 

England can boast more public statues than any city in 
the world ; what, however, we possess in quantity, we are 
deficient in taste. Our monumental adornments are recog- 
nizable as merely transcrips from Nature in bronze or 
marble ; and we naturally wonder where the secret of that 
beauty and grandeur which delights the educated eye of 
taste rests in the glorious triumphs in the noble imagery of 
the middle ages, in the triumphal arts to be found in the 
Parthenon, in Nineveh, and in Egypt. 

In reference, however, to the statues before us, it is im- 
possible to deny that Sir Edwin Landseer, as a painter, 
possessed a knowledge of the brute form unequalled by 
any painter, either ancient or modern. This is an unre- 
served statement, and is naturally a bold assertion. Land- 
seer has been pre-eminently successful in the subjects 
before us, and has more than satisfied the anticipations of 
the public by his truly naturalistic design. There is no 
conventionality in the beasts, but a perfect freedom from 
adaptation. Whatever of artistic beauty is to be found in 
such monumental remains as the granite lion of the time 
of King Amenophis III. in the British Museum, in the 
Rbman traditional wolf, in the magnificent animals which 
support the Siena Pulpit, or in the Florentine boar, or the 
beauty of the horses of the sun both at Naples and Turin, 



Sir Edwa7^d Landseers Lions. 381 

with each and all of which every artist is acquainted, do 
not outrival on the score of sculptural beauty, the lions of 
Trafalgar Square. Critics have spoken of them in most 
eulogistic terms, and we must follow in their train. They 
are majestic and life-like ; the strength displayed in repose 
is truly wonderful to contemplate. The eye, which to re- 
present upon a dead surface is one of the greatest trials a 
sculptor has to undertake, is by no means easy of accom- 
plishment, is, in fact, the difficulty of all others the sculptor 
has to encounter ; and most successfully has Sir Edwin 
accomplished this. 

It may be a matter of regret that painters are not always 
sculptors, and that their treatment are oftimes different, 
and the chisel and the crayon are wielded with a diffisrent 
aim. We have rare examples in Da Vinci and Michel 
Angelo who were not merely painters, but the most perfect 
and finished artists. In the lions before us we cannot help 
recognising in their strength, dignity, and grace, much that 
we are accustomed to see on Landseer's canvas. The 
mallet and the chisel are missed in the contemplation of 
the artistic beauty and life-like majesty of the animals be- 
fore us. More than sixty years have now elapsed since 
Horatio Nelson fell at the fatal Trafalgar. Every resource 
of which our national genius was capable, was ransacked to 
complete a fitting memorial of one for whom every British 
heart must beat with pride, long as the period from its 
commencement to its completion may appear ; the raid is 
well repaid by the ransack. No nobler monument, naught 
in ''^sculptured urn or animated bust" could more ade- 
quately convey through the medium of art the testimony 
of a nation's feeling to a nation's pride. It is neither in 
our province or our inclination to ventilate critical remarks 
upon a work of which we all may be proud. Many are 
the faults which some or other of our contemporaries dis- 
cover and direct public attention to, are but as specks 
which may well pass unnoticed in a work so pregnant with 
the decided triumph of art. 

Well, indeed, may the boasted crest of the Percies which 
has been so long the admiration of our country cousins on 
Northumberland house, hide his diminished head, tail, mane, 
or anything else before his august brethren's appearance. 
Well, indeed, may that most rampant specimen of bad 
taste, the sombre indistinct monument of the Iron Duke 
look, in comparison with this more sombre and more dis- 
tinct still. We cordially congratulate Sir Edwin Landseer 

I I 2 



82 Deodorizino^ India- Rubber. 



O^^ -«-^«ic/(.n/A t^/^y^^ 



on the insignant success he has achieved. We congratulate 
the British nation upon the possession of a monument in- 
comparable with none ; and we individually congratulate 
ourselves in having to share with thousands the satisfaction 
of being possessed of what our countrymen must all admire. 



DEODORIZING INDIA-RUBBER.* 

THE extremely disagreeable odour attaching to india- 
rubber manufactures, and the power possessed by 
them of imparting a nauseous taste to liquids or other sub- 
stances, has long been a difficulty in the way of its use for 
many purposes for which india-rubber is peculiarly adapted. 
To obviate this evil, many expedients have been resorted 
to, but none hitherto with perfect success, and this on 
account of the strong tendency which india-rubber has to 
acquire and retain odours. The new process, invented by 
Mr. S. Bourne, depends upon the still greater affinity pos- 
sessed by charcoal, especially animal charcoal, for all kinds 
of odours, and its great capacity for the absorption of 
gases. The practical difficulty lies in so using the charcoal 
as not to injuriously affect the articles with which it may 
be brought in contact, and this has now been overcome by 
very simple means. 

The mode of application necessarily varies, according to 
the description of articles which are thus treated. Gene- 
rally speaking, they are laid in shelves or trays in a hot 
chamber, with a thin stratum of charcoal, beneath and on 
top, and exposed to a temperature of from 120 to 180 
degrees, for from three to six hours, after which they are 
removed from the charcoal, having sustained no other 
alteration than the all-important one of being rendered 
devoid of smell, and incapable of imparting any taste to 
liquids or other substances they may touch. Under proper 
management, the most delicate textures can be thus dealt 
with without being impaired either in substance or appear- 
ance. The most convenient mode of applying heat is by 
hot water or steam surrounding the vessel or chamber in 
which they are placed. One very considerable advantage 
of this process is, that for a large number of vulcanized 

"^ Journal of the Society of Arts. 



Deodorizing India- Rubber. 383 

articles it can be carried on in co-operation with the heat- 
ing or curing by which the vulcanization is effected, and 
they leave the chamber at once free from odour. It is 
equally applicable to india-rubber in sheet, spread fabrics, 
or the garments or other articles made therefrom when 
fully made up, such as the ordinary " macintosh " clothing, 
air and water cushions, &c. The use of this process en- 
ables the inventor to produce his " flexible diaphragms " 
(which were first brought before the public at the Dublin 
Exhibition, where they obtained a prize medal) in so pure 
a state, that they may be at once used with the most deli- 
cate wines and other liquids. The diaphragm itself is a 
contrivance for the division of casks, or other vessels, into 
two separate chambers, by means of a flexible partition, 
which fits to the upper or lower part of the vessel alter- 
nately, or into any intermediate position, so that whatever 
the quantity of liquor contained within it, the air (though 
still exercising its pressure through the medium of the 
diaphragm) is separated from it by an impervious shield, 
and thus the injurious effects of exposure to atmospheric 
influence are altogether avoided, and any portion of the 
liquor may be withdrawn at pleasure, and as often as may 
be, without any admission of air to the remaining portion. 
In this way, vessels of wine and beer are stated to have 
been actually kept in constant use for six and twelve 
months without any fermentation or formation of acid 
resulting. It is equally applicable to other liquids for 
domestic use, or for medicinal or scientific purposes, the 
fluid remaining as completely secured as if the vessel were 
actually full. 

An adjunct to this invention, and which admits also of 
independent use, is in the elastic valves, in two varieties — ■ 
the one for giving vent to the products of fermentation, 
when desired — such as the carbonic acid gas generated by 
malt liquors, &c., the other for giving admission to air, so 
as to enable the liquid to flow through the tap, or other 
orifice. In the one case a circular disk of vulcanized india- 
rubber is made to cover a small opening through which 
the gas is free to escape, but meets in its passage with the 
india-rubber, which being forcibly held down round its 
edge, is at liberty to become distended, and in so distend- 
ing, opens a number of very minute holes, which have been 
previously pierced through its surface. When the pressure 
is removed, the disk again becomes flat, and its orifices 
shut. The degree of pressure to be sustained before these 



384 Cn the Commerce o/ Mexico. 

perforations open is perfectly under control, and may be 
adjusted to any requred degree. 

In the other form, a small cylinder of india-rubber, 
closed at its lower end, is drawn over a correspoiid -ng 
cylinder of wood with a hole through its centre, and then 
tightly bound at its upper edge. The india-rubber has a 
number of slits made in its substance, which (when any 
orifice through which the liquor may flow is opened) re- 
ceives the pressure of the air, and yielding to this, open, 
so as to let the air enter the vessel in exactly the same 
extent as liquor is withdrawn. When the flow of liquor is 
stopped, the edges of the slits become drawn together, so 
as to prevent any escape of liquor or gas in a wrong direc- 
tion. Should there be any pressure from within upon the 
surface of the india-rubber, this will only tend to the more 
perfect closing of the slits, and thus, while affording suffi- 
cient ingress, altogether restrain egress. 



ON THE COMMERCE OF MEXICO. 

AMIDST the vegetable productions which most ex- 
cised the attention of the Europeans who first set 
foot upon the Mexican continent was the plant Ilexandria 
Monogynia, according to Linnaeus, denominated by the 
Aztecs " Metl," and by the Spaniards " Maguey," probably 
from the latter having been the generic name amongst the 
natives of Hispaniola or Santo Domingo for the common 
aloe, which plant, although somewhat like it, is, however, 
by no means to be confounded with the maguey, which 
belongs to the family of the agave, a name derived from 
the Greek word " agavus " (ayavo^T]), admirable. 

The maguey is " the tree of wonders " (" el arbol de las 
inarabillas "), says the monk, Jose Acosta, who visited 
Mexico in the year 1586, in his "Natural History of the 
Indies," published at Madrid in 1608 ; and up to the pre- 
sent day it may be considered, in its numerous varieties, as 
one of the most important productions of the Mexican soil. 

The beverage produced from it denominated pidqtLe, to 
which I cursorily alluded in a former report, was, as it 
would appear, well known to the ancient inhabitants of the 
Mexican continent from the fabulous traditions connected 



On the Commerce of Mexico. 385 

with it, and which were collected by the missionaries who 
came to the country in the early days of the Spanish occu- 
pation ; one of these is the destruction of a race of giants 
indigenous to the valleys of Atoqac and Matlacueqe (Ilax- 
cala), and of cruel propensities, by more civilized races who 
had come to settle there; the former having fallen asleep 
from the somniferous effects of the juice of the maguey, 
whilst the discovery of the juice itself, whether under its 
ancient denomination of " metl/' " agua-miel " (honey- 
water), or pulque, was attributed by a portion of the an- 
cient inhabitants of Mexico to the god Izquitecatl, as 
would appear from various symbolical inscriptions found in 
the country. More modern tradition has fixed the epoch 
of its discovery as having been about the year 1040 to 
1050, under the reign of the eighth king of the Tal^ec tribe, 
named Tepancaltzin, at whose court a relation of his 
named Pepantzin presented himself, and informed him 
that his daughter had discovered that a sweet and aromatic 
liquid sprung forth from the nietl plants in her garden. 
The king ordered her into his presence, and she brought 
him a " tecomatl," or vase, of the liquid she had discovered, 
which he tasted, and then ordered her to bring hitn more ; 
and subsequently becoming enamoured of the maiden, 
whose beauty was great, and whose name was Xochil, or 
"flower," he married her, of which union a child was born, 
to whom was given the name of Mcconetzin, or "son of 
the metl," or maguey, in allusion to the circumsLance 
which was the origin of his parent's first interview. 

Whether the discovery of the use of the juice of the 
maguey is really to be attributed to the god Izquiticatl, 
or to the queen Xochil, there is no doubt that the divers 
properties of the plant itself were known many years before 
the discovery of Mexico by the Spaniards ; for not only is 
it mentioned as furnishing thorny scourges, as well as 
whips made of the fibres of the plant's leaves, for the mul- 
titudes who annually met to celebrate a festival in honour 
of the god Texcat lipuca in the great temple of Tenoch- 
titlau (the modern Mexico), but the use of the juice became 
so general, that many severe laws against the drunkenness 
resulting from it were issued by the ancient Mexican kings, 
mention being made of a widow who sold it promiscuously 
having been put to death by order of the King Netzahual- 
coqatl ; only women suckling infants, old people, and sol- 
diers upon the march being allowed to drink it. 

As we have before said, notwithstanding that the prim- 



386 On the Commcn^ce of Mexico. 

ary object of those Spaniards who came to Mexico in the 
earlier periods of its subjection was to search for the pre- 
cious metals, the maguey plant also occupied their atten- 
tion very considerably, especially when increased inter- 
course with the natives revealed the variety of uses to 
which the plant was put by them, and it was lengthily 
treated upon by the authors of the time, although from 
similarity of form it was not unfrequently confounded with 
the common aloe, and even sometimes considered to be a 
gigantic species of the thistle or cardon. 

The following description of the plant is taken from the 
narrative of a gentleman in the suite of Ferdinand Cortes 
(" Relacion de un Gentilhombre de la comitiva de Hernan 
Cortes "), published at Venice in 1606 : — 

'' A plant exists in this country (Mexico) which is at once a 
tree and a thistle ; the leaves are as wide as the knee, and longer 
than the arm ; a stem springs from the centre of it, which attains 
to two or three times the height of a man, and its bulk is that of 
a child six or seven years old. When it is ripe the Indians cut 
the stem at the bottom, which produces a juice which they drink 
to excess, losing their senses and falling to the ground. This 
plant is of extreme utility, for it produces wine, vinegar, honey, 
and a beverage resembling cooked grape juice (pulque under 
some of its varieties). It also serves for the manufacture of gar- 
ments for both sexes, of shoes and ropes, and is also used as 
rooffing for houses. The natives also preserve the leaves of this 
tree or thistle, which is as much esteemed by them as the vine is 
by Europeans ; from which leaves, after toasting them in ovens 
dug in the ground, and drawing out the fibres, they manufacture 
a drink (mezcal, to which allusion is made further on), with which 
they intoxicate themselves. The natives call the plant the 
maguey." 

Ferdinand Cortes says, in the second of his letters to 
the Emperor Charles V., in describing the market of 
Tenochtitlau (Mexico), " they (the natives) sell honey made 
by bees and honey made from maize stalks, which are as 
sweet as the sugar-cane, and also honey made from the 
plant, the maguey, and from this same plant they also make 
sugar and wine." 

To the various uses to which the maguey plant was 
turned by the ancient Mexicans, and which were so much 
commented upon by the writers of the period, may be 
added that of the making of paper from the skin of the 
leaves, many curious old documents still existing of that 
material, as well as the manufacture of a kind of soap from 



On the Co7nmerce of Mexico. 387 

the root. As to the extent of the lands appropriated to 
the culture of the plant, the writers in question give scanty 
information, but still sufficient to show that it was culti- 
vated on an extensive scale in the States of ToUan, of 
Texcoco, and Mexico, as well as in the independent Re- 
publics of Tlaxcala, Tluexcingo, and Cholula, and other 
districts of the Valleys of Puebla and Mexico, where the 
vassals paid a great part of their tribute-money in clothes 
and sandals made of " ixtli " or maguey fibre, and it is 
worthy of observation that the above-mentioned districts 
were the most thickly populated of the ancient Mexican 
territory, which is stated, perhaps somewhat vaguely, by 
the old Spanish writers, to have contained more than 
30,000,000 inhabitants. 

Dr. Hernandez, a botanist, who was sent to make researches 
in Mexico by Philip II. in the year 1570, makes mention 
of ten different species of the maguey plant as existing 
within the Mexican territory, assigning to each, under their 
Indian names of Metl Coztl, Mexcalmetl, Mexocatl, Ne- 
quametl, Tepemexcalli, Tlacametl, Teometl, Pati, Quet- 
zalichtle, and Kalometl, some peculiar medicinal pro- 
perties or domestic uses ; whilst ancient tradition, as well 
as the assertions of such of the rural population as are 
employed in this branch of agriculture, testifies to the 
existence of thirty different varieties of the plant in the 
chief maguey-producing district of the Plains of Apam 
(Llanos de Apam) alone, which district is situated in the 
States of Mexico, Puebla, and Tlaxcala. 

The maguey plant may be cultivated to a height of 
10,000 feet above the level of the sea, but is cultivated 
with greater success at a somewhat lower elevation, about 
9,000 feet, but ceases altogether to grow at 5,800 feet. It 
requires an average temperature of 15° (Reaumur), and 
flourishes from that to 26°, the most favourable quantity of 
humidity in the air being about 35° to 50° of De Saussure's 
hygrometer in dry weather. For the complete develop- 
ment of its flowers it requires about 62 degrees of heat 
(centigrade) as a diurnal maximum. The juice of the 
plant is the least mucilaginous in a somewhat clayey soil, 
but, if the soil be too dry, so many mucilaginous particles 
are secreted in the juice that an inferior kind of pulque, 
called " ilachique," can alone be manufactured from it. 

Whilst the maguey plant is grown in the Valley of 
Mexico itself, in that of Toluca, in that of Puebla, in that 
of Texcoco, in Pachuca, in many districts of the States of 



388 On the Commerce of Mexico. 

Oaxaca and Tehuantepec, Queretaro, Guanaxuato, and 
Michoacan, at St. Juan de los Llanos, Cuatla de Amilpas, 
Huichapan, Tulancingo, and in many other places in the 
Mexican Empire, which it would be tedious to specify, and 
also, to a more limited extent, in the States of San Luis 
and Tamaulipas, and that particular species producing 
" henequen," to which we shall presently refer, in Yucatan, 
the great maguey district is that of the plains of Apam 
(Llanos de Apam), embracing a range of territory of more 
than 600 square leagues, almost covered with the plant, 
either in its wild or cultivated state, and abounding in rich 
estates. 

This vast maguey district is now entirely destitute of 
trees, although vestiges remain of cedar forests having for- 
merly existed there, the soil being light, stony, and appa- 
rently arid in many places ; indeed, nothing can be less 
agreeable to the eye, or promising in its general aspect, 
than these, or any other maguey plantations, although so 
surprisingly productive. 

The two year old plant of the best species is commonly 
valued at about a quarter of a dollar, the four year old 
plant at 2 dollars, the eight year old plant at 4 dollars, and 
those of from twelve to fifteen years old at from 6 to 8 
dollars ; and thus there are maguey growers in the district 
in question, whose estates are not worth less than some 
millions of dollars, taking into account the amount of 
pulque produced. There are few branches of agriculture, 
indeed, so productive in any country, as is proved by the 
following calculation based upon a careful study of the 
subject, taking, as a basis, ground well adapted for the 
cultivation of the maguey, and an imaginary number of 
1,000 plants : — 

Dolls, c. 
Cost of plants, transport, transplanting, &c. ... 250 o 

Cultivation during 15 years ... ... ... 100 o 

Contributions during the same period 11 2 



Total 361 2 

At the expiration of eight, ten, twelve, fifteen, and six- 
teen years, each of these plants will have produced ; and if 
the return made by each be calculated at only 5 dollars, 
we find that a capital, which may be estimated at about 
400 dollars, will have produced (it is true after a long in- 
terval of time) the immense return of 5,000 dollars. 
(To be continued.) 



389 



UNIVERSITY REFORM. 

BY THE REV. GEORGE WALKER, M.A. 

A CANDID but rational inquiry into the progress and 
establishment of our Universities, may be con- 
sidered a theme not unworthy the pen of even the foremost 
essayists of the present day. While the open violence and 
utter ignorance of the dark ages left the great body of 
Europe languid and apathetic of vigour, a ray of intel- 
lectual light gently insinuated itself into the minds of the 
more thoughtful, gradually increased in silence, derived 
fresh strength from various regions, and finally burst forth 
into a blaze, which has dispensed life, not only to those at 
home, but to the natives of the most distant shores that 
stretch from the burning east to the distant west. But this 
inquiry, however useful and entertaining, is attended with 
so many peculiar difficulties, that for the present it will, 
perhaps, be deemed sufficient merely to give a glance at the 
position of our great Universities as they now stand, and 
endeavour hereafter to dispel any dark cloud that may 
appear to hang over them. The great law of impartiality 
obliges the imperfections to be revealed ; but it will be 
found upon close observation, that what at first sight 
appeared to cast a shade upon the splendour of the ancient 
and glorious seats of learning, will greatly disappear when 
subjected to a careful and critical analysis. This analysis, 
it is allowed, must discover the inevitable mixture of error 
and corruption ; but, on the other hand, it will disclose the 
University arrayed in remarkable and ruling purity. The 
Universities of England are peculiar in their establishments, 
in their customs and laws. They are peculiar inasmuch as 
they cannot be used as instruments to execute a part in 
the history of the country ; and yet they effectually assist 
in no small degree by sending out streams of living waters, 
which enliven, invigorate, and • improve, wheresoever the 
current may run, and it sometimes does run with the 
strength and fury of a torrent. The inflexible, increasing 
perseverance which has ever characterised those abodes of 
science and literature, and still more so the condition of 
the present age, seem to force the question of a more 
extended sphere of action upon the mind of the public, 
but more especially to arrest the attention of those whose 
high and responsible privilege it is to guard over and con- 



390 Reviews. 

duct those busy spheres of intellectual life, so that harmony 
shall be the grand resultant of social progress. 

But as theory, though constructed on principles the most 
philosophical, is often apt to lead to failure, it would be 
futile and puerile to endeavour, in so short a compass, to 
enter even into the very elements that are required to 
be the harbingers of a University Reform. It is a well 
known fact that most boys attending our public schools 
and belonging to the senior forms without additional study 
could easily obtain their B.A. degree. Latin, Greek, 
Mathematics, Philosophy, and Science, might be acquired 
in London or any of the large provincial towns, quite 
adequate for anyone possessed of common intellectual 
abilities to enable him to participate in academical honours, 
and at a far less cost than that acquired at our leading 
Universities. Why, then, should such a price be paid for 
an Oxford or Cambridge tuition } The answer is probably 
to be found in the maintenance of that system of disci- 
pline and association which stamps such a tone of everlast- 
ing inseparability between student and student that leads 
to the grand fact that the literate peasant is as good as the 
landed peer. 

(To be continued.) 



REVIEWS. 



Letters from Hell. London : Bentley. 

An ominous title, forsooth, and one which will perhaps 
militate against its appearance in the libraries of the 
fastidious. After all, what is in a name, redolent though 
the book before us is of aught but a pleasant one, we can- 
not ignore it on its name alone. The title is sensational 
enough : the matter equally so. We have carefully 
perused its contents, and all we can say is, that its Title is 
its worst feature. It may be depressing, but it is true to 
nature ; no jaundiced vision obscures its pages ; it is indis- 
putably a work which in its sphere must do good. Nothing 
immoral, little of obscurity and less of imagination are to 
be found in it. We congratulate Mr. Bentley in having 
courage to produce a work which at first sight appears too 
bad, but which, on maturer deliberation, stands in a posi- 
tion, whether religiously or morally, of much importance. 



Reviews. 39 1 

The Contemporary Review. London : Strahan. 

The February number of this serial is on our table, con- 
taining, for those who are admirers of Robert Browning, 
a second paper on his poems. Perhaps its most salient 
feature, however, is its article by the Rev. Thomas Markby 
on " Public Schools," gleaned as it is from the report of 
Her Majesty's Commissioners of 1864, and the "Public 
School Calendar" of 1866. We know what public schools 
are ; we know that there are all but double the scholars at 
Eton as there are at Westminster, and an equal number of 
the former as at Winchester ; but we are desirous of 
knowing what the ulterior results of Foundation Schools 
are with respect to future academical training. We learn 
from page 151 of this Review that " It is amusing to com- 
pare the two first-class men and one wrangler, which it 
cost Winchester ten years to produce, with fourteen first- 
class men and seven wranglers, which it cost Shrewsbury 
in the same time to furnish." We will now dive into the 
pecuniary expenses which the able writer has set before us 
of the comparative expenses of public schools — say, for the 
sons of laymen, includmg every expense, half-yearly : — 

£ s. d. 
Shrewsbury . . . . 47 18 9 
Marlboro' College (the cheapest) 43 16 6 
Rugby . . . . . 65 o o 
Winchester . . . . 56 12 10 

Of Eton, quoting from the pages before us the following 
will serve as a guide : — 

" The cost of the board and tuition of a little boy in the 
lower school is ;^ioo a year. The highest bill sent in at 
Christmas, 1861, on account of a lower schoolboy, was 
£6^ 14s. 8d. (It should be observed that at Eton the year 
is divided into three, not two, portions.) This very young 
gentleman had managed in the course of rather less than 
three months to spend nearly ;^io on his tailor, and 
;^4 6s. 6d. on hats and gloves. The lowest at the same 
time was ;^44 4s. id. In this case the tailor got but 7s. 6d., 
the hatter and glover 2s., the hair-cutter nothing at all. A 
thrifty boy that ! A boy living in the house of an upper 
school assistant-master cost his father at Easter, 1859, 
£^2 9s. 8d. This was a high bill. But this youth spent 
much less on the adornment of his body than the little 
Absalom of the lower school. An ordinary bill of the 
same date comes to ^55 19s. 7d. In the upper school. 



392 Reviews. 

board in a tutor's house costs ;^I20 a year. In a dames 
house it is about i^20 or ^^30 less. Other charges, we sup- 
pose, are much the same. But Mr. Evans, who has one of 
these houses, thinks the payment not remunerative. Cer- 
tainly it gives one a startling notion of the expensive way 
in which things are done at Eton to find that the addition 
of "evening things," that is to say, tea, sugar, bread, butter, 
and milk, in a house of thirty or forty boys cost the 
" dame " £^jo a year. However, we fancy a good many 
able schoolmasters would be very glad to change places 
with Mr. Evans." 

Press of matter prevents our going further into the merits 
of this number. We will, however, with pleasure resume 
it in our next. All we can say of the contributors of The 
Corite^nporary — ex uno disce omnes. 



The Victoria Magazine. London : Emily Faithful. 

Has in its last number more than completed its eighth 
volume, contains much and most interesting matter. We 
are no advocates for blue stockings, but we must confess 
under so safe a pilot as Miss Faithful, whose prestige in 
the literary world and whose endeavours for the good of 
her countrywomen have been most insignant, we can not 
wonder at the success of the present number. The Victoria 
is feminine in the extreme, well indeed worth reading is the 
Authorised Translation of Madame Dora D'Isbia's 
(authoress of " The Women of the East ") " Women of the 
Latin and Germanic Races." "A Lady's Ascent of the 
Dent du Midi " is a very noticeable article in the present 
number, and pourtrays to the heroes of the Alpenstock 
what a woman can do. The Victoria abounds with much 
pleasing matter, especially to our fairer readers. 

We are given to understand that an eminent art critic 
is now on its staff, and that its strictures on science and 
art will form no unimportant feature in its pages. 



The Peoples Magazine. (Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel.) 

One of those journals which are circulated to dissemi- 
nate true principles and true religious feeling amongst 
an important class of readers. It contains much very in- 



terestmg matter. 



Reviews 393 

Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects. London : Strahan, 
Ludgate hill. 

We know no book more calculated to do good in its sphere 
than this. We have heard of a charming little book called 
" Philosophy in Sport made Science in Earnest." It had 
for its aim the simplification of everything abstruse. Sir 
J. R W. Herschel has done more in the pages before us to 
simplify science, and place it within the reach of popular 
readers, and before minds who can grasp an idea if put 
before them in a plain and simple manner. We know no 
work which will make its way in the schoolroom or in pri- 
vate tuition preferable to this. 



Goethe's Minor Poems. Translated by Edward Chawner, 
late Captain 77th Regiment. London : F. Pitman, Pater- 
noster Row. 

The translator has undertaken a very arduous task, and 
although the poems of Goethe lose greatly in being clothed 
in an English dress, of the contents of the volume before 
us we can say with confidence that they are but clothed in 
an English dress, and are not, as is too often the case, in 
translations, disguised. The work is admirably got up, in 
Mr. Pitman's best style. 



The Argosy. London : Strahan. 

This gay little bark continues to ride manfully the billows 
of pubHc opinion, and is freighted with a cargo of really 
sterling matter, both grave and gay. " Larry Geoghegan, 
or a Drive with a Dublin Carman," is perhaps one of the 
raciest sketches we ever read. An Irish carman is always 
a mirth-provoking rascal, but the one in question intensely 
so. It appears he had been formerly intended for the 
priesthood, but somehow or other, as Flaccus reports of 
Cato — 

" Narratus at prisci Catonis 
Sepe mero caluisse virtus." 

which our Jehu considers admirably translated by — 

" Of Cato, the straightlaced 'tis commonly said, 
His Cinsorship rarely went sober to bed." 

The long and short of it was, that Bacchus was too 
potent a friend for Larry, and he leaves college, a spoilt 



394 Reviews. 

priest. The whole story is irresistible, from beginning to 
end. What follows may serve as an instance : — 

" All min, Larry," says he to me, " all min has their wake- 
nesses ; and by the same rule," says he, " you, Larry, and me has 
our wakenesses — and mine is cruiskeen laun. And grate, min," 
says he, *' has grate wakenesses;" so, says he, "as owr wake- 
nesses is grate^ a sharp logician would know what inference to 
draw from that primmiss about our noble selves ; but on that 
point," says he, " I'm silent, for modesty forbids me to press the 
conclusion. But now, as to loving one's wife, sure Adam loved 
Eve, ' the mother of all the living,' and there can be no harrum 
in the loving Norah. I'm for the glass," says he, " not for the 
lass. But sure that first-rate saint, St. Peter, himself, had a wife ; 
and St. Paul, may be, had one afterwards, for all I know, and 
small blame to him if he had. And the priests in the Old Testa- 
ment, from Aaron downwards, had wives ; and in the New Testa- 
ment they had wives j and I can't for the life of me see, Larry, 
why you couldn't be a very good priest, although the holy fathers 
turned you off o'-head of Norah. Sure your own father and 
mother were holy persons in wedlock, and it would be crule and 
scandalous to deny it? And why should'nt they be satisfied if 
you was as holy as thim % I say this, Larry, for your sake, my 
boy, for you see that the colleen dhasses has no shupayrior charm 
for me. Paullo majora canamus, as the divine Virgil says — tliere's 
something I vally twenty times more than that, as the cock said, 
you remimbir, when he turned up the jewel on the dunghill, 
according to ^sopus. And would you be after hearing what 
that same liking is ? 'Tis whisky, my lad o' wax — whisky, the 
dew of the mountain, the brightness of the sunbame, the water of 
life. Och, did you ivver see whisky a-makin', you jewel," says 
he, in a burst of rapture — " because, if you didn't, you never 
seen the poetry of manufacture, and the joy of the world. First, 
you see," says he, " there's the steepin' of the grain in a nice 
sweet boghole ; and thin there's the drying of it to make it into 
malt ; and thin there's the mashin' of it in hot water, a symbol of 
its futur' fate in the scramin' hot punch ; and thin there's the 
mixin' of the wort ; and thin there's the pouring the wash into 
the pot — potikin — poteen ; and thin there's the screwin' on the 
lid with the beautiful crooked neck to it, like the swans in the 
Phoenix Park, only that they're not a farthing candle to it ; and 
thin there's the worrum with ever so many miles of twists and 
turns in it, coils and raytikkle-ations and circumbendibuses, 
all cooped up in a nate tub ; and thin there's the lightin' of 
the fire under it ; I don't think Polyphaymus or Promaytheus 
ivver lit or stole a fire with half the excitement it causes. Och, 
and thin, Larry, after the poteenh<y\%, and the stame rises, to see 
it come dribblin' out, drop, drop, liquid goold, out of the dirty 



Reviews. 395 

matayrial barley, sure 'tis a transmagnlfication that bates all the 
metamurphosys of Ovid, as far as Blarney bangs Banagher. Och, 
Larry," says he — and he hugged me to his heart as he said it — 
" Och, Larry, to taste the first glass of that aqua vit(P.^ that well- 
be-named ivater of life, nayther could nor hot, but with the 
breath of the fire on it still, it's like a whiff of heaven, or a fore- 
taste of the nectar of Paradise !" 



Dr. Pick on Memory. London : Triibner and Co, 

This work which appears to have been very successful, has 
reached its fourth edition, appears dissimilar to the works 
antecedent on the subject, inasmuch as the learned author 
does not base his system on mere Mnemonical or artificial, 
but on a mental concatenation of events, an abstract, but 
coherent adaptation of things both analogous and conversely 
so, whereby the minds may be strengthened and the 
memory brought to bear upon antecedent and contempo- 
raneous events, with a fidelity hardly creditable. The 
system is applicable to the permanent retention of numbers 
concrete or otherwise, and in fact, to history, chronology, 
chemistry, and foreign languages, equally with abstract 
science — other Mnemoists have done much, but the virtue 
of Dr. Pick's system is, that he abjures all Mnemonican aid, 
and bases his system upon that due exercise of the mental 
faculties which must ever command success. 



Fure Dentistry, and What it Does for Us. By A. Eskell. 
Grosvenor street, Grosvenor square, London. John 
Clements. 

We have received the second edition of this little work, 
and must congratulate the author on the lucid, genuine, 
and coherent manner in which he treats his subject. Apart 
from the merits which this book possesses as a medical 
manual, which are indisputably great, it forms a pleasing 
and complete compendium of Pure Dental Surgery. The 
great advantage Mr. Eskell's book strikes us as possessing 
is that of total absence of medical puff. 



NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. K K 



396 
CORRESPONDENCE, 



THE PRESENT STATE OF METEOROLOGY. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — No progress whatever has been made in the most 
important department of meteorology — viz, foretelling 
weather, notwithstanding the industry displayed by meteo- 
rologists in making and recording " observations," and this 
want of progress is in consequence of, as the late Admiral 
Fitzroy said, " too little attention having been directed to 
practical resultsr 

That the state of meteorology is discreditable to 
the present age, is a fact admitted and lamented by all. 
Other sciences have made rapid and vast improvement, 
but meteorology is still in its infancy. The laws regulating 
atmospheric changes and disturbance are as far from being 
discovered as they were when the earliest observations 
were made. Why is this } I believe that it is because due 
consideration has not been given to the coincidences of atmo- 
spheric with astronomic phenomena. 

To give your readers an insight into the present state of 
meteorology, it will be necessary to quote several passages 
of the report in question. But I desire it to be understood 
that in so doing, I do not wish to detract from the just 
esteem in which the memory of the late Admiral Fitzroy 
is held. With the means at his command — which were 
very inadequate to the objects he sought to attain — the 
late Admiral did all that it was possible for a scientific man 
to do in his position, and moreover, he sacrificed his life in 
the cause he espoused. He sought no selfish ends, but 
ever the advancement of science. 

It appears from the report of the committee that in con- 
sequence of a resolution passed by the British Association 
and communicated to the Board of Trade in December, 
1859, and also of an invitation from M. Le Verrier, 
Director of the Imperial Observatory at Paris, to the 
British Government to join in his system of telegraphing 
the state of the weather daily from port to port in France, 
and from other ports of Europe, '' arrangements were made 
during the summer of i860 for the regular daily communi- 
cation by telegraph to London of the state of the weather 
at fifteen stations in the United Kingdom, for receiving 
telegrams of weather from various places in Europe through 



Correspondence. 397 

Paris ; and for the daily communication by telegram to 
Paris of the state of the weather at certain points in the 
United Kingdom. The facts thus communicated to the 
Meteorological Department were thenceforth published in 
the daily papers. 

" In August, 186I; a great extension of the weather pre- 
dictions took place, first in extending the storms signals to 
many places not previously warned — viz., to 130, as it 
would seem, instead of to 50 places as at first ; and in 
making daily forecasts of the weather in the newspapers." 

The late Admiral Fitzroy stated in his report of 1862 
that, " By continued and consecutive series of charts, several 
hundred in number, constructed on the synchronous prin- 
ciple, an insight into the laws of our atmosphere, into 
meteorological dynamics (distinct from statistical results, 
previously obtained at observatories and elsewhere), has 
been gained, which has enabled us to know what weather 
will prevail during the next two or three days, and as a 
corollary, when a storm may occur." 

The Committee, in their report, state, however, that 
" The maxims on which the Department acts in foretelling 
weather, whatever they may be, and whatever may be their 
intrinsic value, are not shown to have been obtained and 
established in the Department itself by means of accurate 
induction from observed facts. Neither is there any evi- 
dence that in framing such maxims, the various attempts 
of other meteorologists to give precision to the science 
have been utilized. . . . Nor do we find that the 
experience of the Department in issuing these predictions, 
which is now of five years' standing, has been turned to 
account in reducing the practice to a system. The fore- 
cast issued on two succeeding days for the third day differ 
from one another in every possible way." 

Again : " Under these circumstances, we cannot say that 
there is evidence that the daily forecasts have been correct 
in point of fact, or that ' we are enabled,' to use the words 
quoted above, ' to know what weather will prevail dtiri7ig 
the next two or three days^ and as a corollary, when a storm 
will occur! " 

And at page 35, the Committee say that "it seems to us 
obvious that the pra:tice of issuing storm warnings can 
neither be discontinued, nor allowed to continue in their 
present unscientific, and therefore unsatisfactory, condition. 
It can never be satisfactory till we have arrived at a more 
complete knowledge of the laws which govern the changes 

K 2 



398 Correspo7idenee, 

of weather in the British Isles than we now possess. . . . 
Considering that there is as yet no scientific basis for the 
daily forecasts, that they are not shown to be generally 
correct in point of fact, and that there is no evidence of 
their utility, we see no good reasons why a Government 
Department should continue to undertake the responsi- 
bility of issuing them. In this conclusion we believe we 
are borne out by the best practical meteorologists. M. Le 
Verrier, who for some time attempted a practice of the 
same kind, has given it up. Maury is opposed to it. M. 
Dove, of Berlin, is confining himself to a system of storm 
warnings, and appears to find some difficulty even in this. 
M. Matteucci, of Turin, was obviously in difficulty, even as 
regards the storm warnings. And we may add, that we 
can find no evidence that any competent meteorologist 
believes the science to be at present in such a state as to 
enable an observer to indicate day by day the weather to 
be experienced for the next forty-eight hours throughout 
a wide region of the earth's surface." 

The Committee have made some excellent suggestions 
as to the method of conducting and recording future 
meteorological observations ; but although they say they 
found " no evidence that the various attempts of other 
meteorologists to give precision to the science have been 
utiHzed " at the Meteorological Department, the Committee 
do not recommend any system of weather-prediction for 
investigation and trial. 

La Place, in his " Essai sur les Probabilities," says : 
"We are so far from knowing all the agents of nature, 
and their different modes of action, that it would be un- 
philosophical to deny the existence of phenomena because 
they are intxHicable in the present state of human know- 
ledge." 

T\\^ facts being established, their raison d'etre becomes 
a subordinate question. What Napoleon III. calls la 
logique des fails, is the very best logic applicable to this 
question. 

I do not yet understand the modus operandi. The late 
Admiral believed that "the Moon is a great disturber by 
gravitation ; while the Sun is so chiefly by heat." I believe 
that the apparent influence of the planets on the atmo- 
sphere arises from the light reflected by them into the 
atmosphere, which light acts chemically or electrically 
according to its nature. The statement that, out of an 
equal quantity of light incident upon the two bodies, 



Correspondence, 399 

Jupiter* reflects fourteen times more of the chemical rays 
than the Moon does " (Astronomical Society, May loth, 
1 861), strengthens me in this belief 

Unfortunately, misrepresentation too often takes the 
place of fair criticism of Astro-Meteorology. A writer in 
the Atkeitceiim,m reviewing the " Weather Guide Book" 
said, " this Is a book on weather-astrology." This state- 
ment is very unjust, and calculated to prejudice the minds 
of the readers of the Athenceiun against the system. It 
cannot be too often repeated, that Astronomic-Meteorology 
is altogether distinct from Astrology. The leading principle 
of the former science Is that the planets Influence the 
atmosphere at certain periods ; while the leading principle 
of astrology is that the planets Influence men and women 
individually. To a certain extent the planets influence 
the public health, indirectly at least, through the changes 
they produce In the stmosphere. A belief In this is very 
difl'erent and totally distinct from a belief that the confi- 
guration of the heavens at the moment of birth of a child 
influences him or her for good or for evil, according to the 
nature of the horoscope, all through his or her life In this 
world. 

Astronomy was formerly connected with astrology, 
but astronomy is not neglected and called astrology on 
that account. In like manner was chemistry formerly 
associated with alchemy, but chemistry Is not neglected 
and misrepresented on that account. There exists an 
indisposition on the part of the gentlemen of the press — 
with a few honourable exceptions — to ventilate Astro- 
Meteorology. I know full well how frequently a great 
pressure on the space of a daily journal prevents the 
editor from inserting communications he would otherwise 
publish. But this Is not the case with a magazine. In 
the Cornhill Magazine (March, 1865), the following para- 
graph appeared In an article on " The Winds " — " Until 
the ' astro-meteorologists ' tell us the principles on which 
their calculations are based, we nmst decline to receive; 
their predictions as worthy of any credence whatever." I 
accordingly wrote to the editor of the Cornhill Magazine^ 
oflering to contribute, free of expense, a paper on Astro- 

* Jupiter was on the Southern tropic (?'. e., at extreme S. decli- 
nation) on November 20th, 1865. On that day th-Q ih.Qrmon\&teY% 
at Adelaide Observatory (Australia) marked ii3°'5 in the shade, 
and 155^-5 in the sun's rays ! 



400 Correspo7idence, 

nomic-Meteorology, but the editor, in reply, " begged to 
decline " my " obliging offer." 

I have shown how the Government system of foretelling 
weather has failed, and also how Astronomic-Meteorology 
is neglected. I appeal to your readers to exert their 
influence — and much may be done by individual exertion 
— to use their utmost endeavours to obtain for Astro- 
Meteorology a fair and speedy trial. 

I shall be glad to receive, through your columns, any 
" observations " with which your readers may favour me. 

Apologising for having so far trespassed on your valuable 
space, 

I remain, Sir, yours faithfully, 

Alfred J. Pearce. 

12 Gloucester Street, Belgravia. 



REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF yETHER. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — I beg leave to forward to you for insertion in your 
valuable Journal a few paragraphs on the physical pro- 
perties of aether, about to be inserted in the beginning of 
my first chapter on Light, thinking they may Interest many 
of your readers, who would never dream of dipping into 
the pages of a professedly elementary work, for the remote 
chance of finding some idea with which they were not 
already familiar ; and I do so the more willingly because 
I desire to court investigation of an important point in 
physics from those who are more competent than most of 
my ordinary readers to entertain the question at issue. 

That some material medium pervades infinite space, as 
the means of transmission of the light- and heat-waves (as 
the case may be) of the heavenly bodies, is indispensable 
to the dynamical theory ; but is it equally, or indeed at all, 
necessary to imagine that the portion of space within the 
confines of air atmosphere, which is occupied by ordinary 
matter, amenable to our senses, as well as to the universal 
law of gravitation, must be occupied by a strange and 
anomalous form of matter amenable to neither } Proba- 
bilities appear to negative this question. But it will be 
immediately asked, how can aether be imagined to avoid 
pervading our atmosphere and all other kinds and forms 
of matter 1 Simply by ascribing it to a property of non- 



Correspoudence. 401 

miscibility with our atmosphere, like oil with water — a 
quality not entirely adverse to experience nor repugnant 
to reason. The question, then, naturally arises, what be- 
comes of the waves of heat and light when they reach our 
atmosphere ? — and is ordinary matter sufficient and effectual 
for this transmission ? This question can be answered only 
by analogy, which appears to infer an affirmative. 

That sound waves are transmitted by air, and not by 
interstitial aether, is unquestionable ; and if air be capable 
of transmitting 25,000 vibrations in one second, it would 
probably be difficult to assign any valid reason why the 
same medium is incapable of transmitting the far more 
rapid waves of heat and light ; and if incapable, then 
where lies the necessity for assuming the presence of 
another medium ? 

Again, the refraction of sound, as demonstrated by the 
experiments of Hajech and Sondhans (565, 564), is in 
exact accordance with the laws hitherto assigned to the 
refraction of light and heat. But the phenomena of the 
refraction of light require a very forced addendum to the 
interstitial-aether-hypothesis — namely, that the elasticity of 
the aether is dependent upon that of the medinm which it 
pervades — an unprecedented influence of one kind of matter 
on other merely contiguous matter. And it appears that 
the velocity of sound in solid and liquid is much greater 
than in air (545) ; in water it is nearly 5,000 feet, and in 
iron nearly 17,000 feet in one second: is there, then, any 
known fact whatever that tends to assign a limit to the 
possible velocity of transmission of wave-motion through 
those and other material media } If not, then the presence 
of aether, as generally assumed, cannot be deemed 
essential to the transmission of light ; and if not essential, 
why should the old hypothesis be entertained 1 

" Nee Deris intersit nisi digures vindrie nodus 
Incident" 

Moreover, Professor Tyndall, to whom the progress of 
dynamical physics is indebted for many laborious and im- 
portant researches, has observed that in various kinds of 
wood there is a remarkable harmony between their re- 
spective conductivities for sound and heat in three mutually 
perpendicular directions — namely, longitudinal, transverse- 
radial, and transverse-tangential (546). Now, although 
there is certainly no direct analogy between the conduction 
of heat and the radiation of light, beyond that of their 



402 Corresponde7ice. 

common dynamical origin, a much closer analogy may 
nevertheless be traced through the phenomena of phospho- 
rescence, fluorescence, and calorescence. Is it, in fact, 
generally believed that the transmission of heat-motion is 
effected by interstitial aether, and not by the molecules of 
the medium itself? If not, why should a hypothetical 
medium be assumed for light motion which is not required 
for that of heat, since the rapidity of the undulations and 
their velocity of transmission is so much the same in both ? 
While at the same time the converse permeabilities to light 
and heat of crystals of alum, and those of dark, smoky 
quartz, present striking examples of the existing, yet un- 
known, differences of physical constitution which are met 
with in the various kinds of matter. 

It may further be remarked that the dynamical theory 
of electricity, if tenable, presents additional reasons for 
denying the necessity of the presence of aether in ordinary 
matter. For if the molecules of a rod of copper can 
transmit an electric wave at the rate of at least 250,000 
miles in a second, why cannot those of a rod of glass 
transmit a course of light at about three-fourths of that 
velocity ? 

If, then, these premises be established, it must be granted 
that the presence of aether is not essential to the trans- 
mission of any known kind of wave-motion ; and if so, is 
it not more in accordance with the true spirit of philosophy, 
in default of positive knowledge, to abandon unhesitatingly 
the more violent hypothesis, and to adopt provisionally 
the more reasonable one above suggested ? 

The phenomena of phosphorescence present further 
evidence of the intimate relations existing between elec- 
tricity, heat, and light. It has been observed that fluor- 
spar may be rendered phosphorescent by a very moderate 
application of heat, but that it will not again phosphoresce 
under similar circumstances until an electric spark has been 
repeatedly passed over its surface. Is it not probable that 
the phosphorescence by heat of the minerals fluor and 
apatite and ordinary incandescence are similar phenomena, 
differing only in the temperature iamotmt of vis viva) at 
which heat-motion impressed on the molecules of different 
bodies is imparted as light-motion to the surrounding 
medium. 

Our ideas of vis viva ^nd. \\.s relation to "accumulated 
work " are inseparably associated with that of gravitation ; 
is it not, therefore, something like a contradiction in terms 



Correspondence, 403 

to speak of the vis viva of an imponderable body ? But if 
sether be not supposed to be intermingled with palpable 
matter, then there is no object in attributing to it an ex- 
emption from the otherwise universal law of gravitation ; 
and it will then be imperceptible only because it exists 
beyond our reach. Moreover, as there are no means of 
limiting the possible amount of molecular displacement in 
a medium so attenuated, an amount of vis viva is con- 
ceivable sufficient to impart effective motion to indefinitely 
denser matter ; and thus this denizen of infinity may be 
assumed capable of executing its divine mission of impart- 
ing to material worlds those essentials to corporeal exist- 
ence, the very main-springs of organic life — light and 
heat. 

If these things are so, then (in American common par- 
lance) " the bottom falls out " of an experiment lately 
shown at the Royal Institution to demonstrate the pre- 
sence of aether by the heat developed in a metallic disk 
rotating in the exhausted receiver of an air-pump.^ That 
the periodic retardation of Encke's comet is due to the re- 
sistance of the universal medium is highly probable ; but 
this experiment, if it proves anything in the same dirc^ction, 
proves a great deal too much ; for if such be the viscisity 
of the medium hypothetically present in the receiver, that 
the addition of a notable quantity of air (5 or 10 per cent, 
as was stated), makes no sensible difference in the heat 
generated by friction, it is difficult to conceive how any of 
us have hitherto escaped resolution into our gaseous ele- 
ments. On the contrary, when our earth and its envelope 
enters a probable atmosphere of orbitating fragments (of 
which we have recently had such a magnificint experience), 
some of these crumbs of the universe which have for an 
indefinite period harmlessly traversed the sethereal medium 
of infinite space, at the enormous velocity of perhaps 30 
or 40 miles in a second, become immediately ignited, 
and probably consumed by friction in the confines of our 
atmosphere, which must there be attenuated to a degree 
never yet attained, except, perhaps, in the vacuum-tubes 
of Mr. Gassiot. 

Permit me, in conclusion, to repudiate (needlessly 
perhaps) any claim to originality in the general idea that 

* Proceedings of the Royal Institution, vol. iv., p. 563. The 
writer has since learnt that the aether-friction theory has been 
judiciously withdrawn by its author for further consideration. 



404 Correspofidence. 

the molecules of palpable matter are permeable to the 
undulations of light, which has long since been ably advo- 
cated by Euler and by Mr. Grove.f 

I remain, yours faithfully, 

Charles Brooke. 



ON THE WEARING OF PHYLACTERIES. 

TO THE EDITOR OE THE TECHNOLOGIST. 

Sir, — I trust that you will grant me a little space in 
your valuable periodical for one or two remarks in refer- 
ence to your observations on the wearing of phylacteries, 
as contained in the TECHNOLOGIST of this month. 

You observe — "The phylacteries worn by the Jews can- 
not possibly be traced to any Biblical authority. That 
they were used by the Pharisees in the time of Christ is an 
admitted fact ; but many other ritual observances were also 
at that time in vogue, although they had no solid basis in 
primitive Judaism." Permit me to call your attention to 
the following passage in Josephus's " Antiquities of the 
Jews," Book iv., chap, viii., section 13 : — " They (the Israel- 
ites) are also to inscribe the principal blessings they have 
received from God upon their doors, and show the same 
remembrance of them upon their arms ; as also they are to 
bear on their forehead and their arm those wonders which 
declare the power of God and his good will towards them, 
that God's readiness to bless them may appear everywhere 
conspicuous about them." Thus far Josephus, the Jewish 
historian, who must have known something of the " ritual 
observances " enjoined on the Jews by their Divine Legis- 
lator. 

You, Mr. Editor, continue, " all commentators, as well as 
rational Jews, of every age ( "}) have regarded the passage 
' And thou shalt bind them for sins upon they hands, and 
they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes,' " as figurative, 
standing precisely on a level with the meaning of the 6th 
verse. " A nd these words I command thee, this day shall be 
on thy hearty And, again, Deut., xi., 18. " And you shall 
lay up, these, my words upon your heart and upon your souls, 
and bind them for a sign upon your hands" &c. The editor 
of the Jewish Chronicle, in a notice of the TECHNOLOGIST, 
makes here the following remark — "Without wishing to 

t Correlation of Physical Forces, p. 163, &c. 



Corresponde7ice. 405 

controvert this statement, we wish simply to remark that 
this is the Caraitic view of the passage commented upon by 
the review. The general view, however, not unsupported 
by historical evidence, favours the rabbinical strictly literal 
interpretation of the Scriptural passage." — Jewish Chro- 
nicle, February 8th. 

Let us see what Maimonides, the mouth-piece of the 
Rabbles, says on the subject of Phylacteries. In his pre- 
face to the Thalmudic treatise Zeraim 'o'ViT, he observes : 
*' The ^ (shin) of the Phylacteries, their knot, black leather 
tongues, traverse and square receptacles, are halachah of 
Moses from Sinai >:djo rw(^ naSn a decision of Moses from 
Sinai. 

Some persons will demur to this statement, because 
Maimonides was a Rabbinical Jew ! Is the author of the 
" Morch Rebuchin," and the " Yad Hachazacah," entitled 
to be classed among " rational Jews V The late Rev. Dr. 
Alexander McCaul, Professor of Hebrew at King's College 
(who, as is well known, bore no great love to the Jewish 
Rabbles), speaking of Maimonides in his " Old Paths," 
considers him as " one of the mightiest intellects that ever 
inhabited a tenement of clay." The learned Dr. Milman, 
Dean of St. Paul's, in his " History of the Jews," calls him 
*' the wise Maimonides ;" and lastly, though not least, 
Julius Scaliger gives this testimony of Maimonides (which, 
because it is not flattering to the Jews in general, becomes 
in consequence more striking), " Primus inter Hebraeus 
nugari desivit." 

By giving insertion to these remarks in your next im- 
pression, you will oblige 

Yours respectfully, J. Str ANDERS. 

February 12th, 5627. 

[We cheerfully open our columns to the above letter, 
and we take leave to express our willingness to admit all 
communications couched in the temperate spirit that dis- 
tinguishes the criticisms of Mr. Stranders. At the same 
time our amiable correspondent must bear with us when 
we venture to state that he has advanced nothing which 
should induce us to change the opinions which he challenges. 
Josephus is too late a writer to be quoted as an authority 
in the practices of primitive Judaism. He was himself a 
Pharisee, and a zealous advocate of the Rabbinical system 
of interpretation. Touching Maimonides, no eulogy which 
is pronounced on him can exceed the measure of his 



40^ Learned Societies, 

deserts ; but he also was a Rabbinist. We stand upon the 
plain and unvarnished sense of the letter of Scripture, and 
we see no reason why the latter part of the passage, " and 
ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hands, &c.," should 
be construed literally, whilst the former part of the same 
passage "and you shall lay up these my words in your 
hearts and in your souls " must, of necessity, have a figu- 
rative meaning.] — Ed. Tech. 



LEARNED SOCIETIES. 



Royal United Service Institution. — Several of 
the forthcoming evening meetings at the Royal United 
Service Institution, Whitehall, will be of particular interest 
in relation to naval affairs. On Monday evening last, Cap- 
tain R. A. E. Scott, R.N., read a paper on " The Roll- 
ing of Iron Ships in a Seaway, and its Effects on Naval 
Gunnery ;" on March i8th. Major W. Palliser lectures on 
*' The Conversion and Rifling of Cast Iron Ordnance ;" 
and on April 15th, Captain Cowper R. Coles will discourse 
on " The Turret versus the Broadside System." 

Royal Institution. — On the 14th ult., in the course 
of a lecture upon sound, at the Royal Institution, Professor 
Tyndall exhibited for the first time a clever experiment 
devised by Biot, the French philosopher. By means of a 
polariscope made of rhombs of Iceland spar, placed in 
front of the electric lamp, the light was so polarised that 
none of it fell upon the screen. He then fixed a strip of 
thick plate-glass, about three inches wide and six feet long, 
in a vice, and by rubbing it with a wet cloth made it give 
off a musical sound, because of the longitudinal vibrations 
set up. The vice bit the strip exactly in the centre, and 
there the strain and pressure of the musical vibrations were 
consequently greatest. But glass under strain or pressure, 
when introduced into the polarised ray, will let light pass 
through the polariscope. Consequently, when the ray was 
allowed to traverse this sHp of glass near its centre, a broad 
disc of light appeared on the screen every time the glass 
set up a musical sound ; but when the strip was at rest the 
calcareous crystals would allow no light to pass. 



Learned Societies, 407 

Royal Society. — The papers read on the 14th ult. 
were, " On the Relation of Insolation to Atmospheric 
Humidity," by J. Park Harrison, M.A., communicated by 
the President ; " On the Conversion of Dynamical into 
Electrical Force without the aid of Permanent Magnetism," 
by C. W. Siemens. Mr. Siemens' apparatus was exhi- 
bited. A paper on the sarhe subject by Professor Wheat- 
stone was read to the society, and an apparatus exhibited. 
Next week the paper will be by Dr. J. J. Bigsby, "A brief 
Account of the Thesaurus Siluricus, with a few Facts and 
Inferences." 

Royal Geographical Society. — At the meeting of 
this Society on the i ith ult. Sir R. I. Murchison, President, 
in the chair, a letter was read, supposed to be the last 
written by M. Jules Gerard, the lion killer and African 
traveller, who met his death while on his way from West 
Africa to Algiers, via Timbuctoo. The letter was dated 
Mano, lat. 8 deg. 10 sec. N., in the interior from Sherbro, 
on the west coast, south of Sierra Leone. It was addressed 
to a French trader at Sherbro, by whom it was given to 
Lieutenant Alwin S. Bell, who had now communicated it 
to the Society. Gerard had met with the usual difficulties 
in passing the territories of the chiefs near the coast, and 
was, at the time of writing, staying with Bagon, King of 
the Kasso tribe. The letter gave some interesting details 
concerning the rivers in the Kasso country, and described 
ivory and cotton as very abundant and low in price, the 
country never having been visited by traders. The death 
of the traveller occurred, according to Lieutenant Bell, 
within a month of the date of the letter, by the upsetting 
of a canoe in crossing the Jong river; but whether by acci- 
dent or the design of the natives was not known with cer- 
tainty at Sherbro. The papers of the evening were, " An 
Ascent of Mount Hood, in Oregon," by the Rev. H. K. 
Hines, and "A Journey of Exploration in Eastern Oregon 
and Idaho," by Colonel C. S. Drew, U.S.A., and Mr. 
Robert Brown, F.R.G.S. Mount Hood was described as 
an active volcano, and the ascent picturesquely described 
by the author, the altitude being given as 1 7,640 ft., thus 
proving it to be the highest mountain in North America. 
The accuracy of this observation of the altitude was, how- 
ever, disputed by Admiral Sir Edward Belcher in the dis- 
cussion which followed. Mr. R. Brown, Mr. Casella, Mr. 
A. G. Dallas, (late Governor of Prince Rupert's Land), and 
Mr. W. Lane Booker (Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at 



4o8 Learned Societies. 

San Francisco), also addressed the meeting. The follow- 
ing gentlemen were elected Fellows of the Society : — 
Colonel Shafto Adair, Mr. G. H. Wilson Brown, Mr. E. 
Butler, Rev. P. Butler, Dr. S. Crane, Mr. C. J. Eley, Mr. J. 
Langlands, and Don E. G. de Marthin. Monsignor Fran- 
cesco Nardi, of Rome, was elected honorary corresponding 
member. 

Society of Arts. — On the 6th ultimo, a meeting con- 
vened by the Council of the Society of Arts was held for 
the purpose of discussing London cabs and cab fares. Mr. 
Cole said that our London cabs were the meanest vehicles 
of the kind in the world. He did not concur in the opinion 
expressed by Sir Richard Mayne in one of his reports, that 
there should be no 6d. fare and that the lowest charge 
should be a shilling, his view being that the fare ought to 
be fixed by the mutual consent of the cab proprietor and 
the public ; in fact, there should be free trade amongst 
cabs ; and as a remedy for the prevention of extortion he 
considered that check-tables, v/hich would indicate the 
distance travelled, and which were successfully adopted at 
Sheffield, might be brought into requisition. The reason 
why open vehicles for the use of ladies were not provided 
in London was, that the Government stepped in and arbi- 
trarily imposed a charge which prevented capitalists from 
supplying that kind of carriage, which they would do if 
there were no restriction. In conclusion, he considered the 
best way to deal with the subject was to move for a select 
parliamentary committee of inquiry. Mr. Alderman Law- 
rence, M.P., said the remedy for the inconvenience and 
dissatisfaction which existed in reference to the cabs and 
hackney carriages of the metropolis could be effected by 
the Government removing the existing oppressive taxation 
imposed upon cabs. He believed the fares charged at 
present were somewhat low, but if the tax were removed 
we could have a cab at 6d., and a better one at is. Sir 
Richard Mayne was sure that the bill which would be in- 
troduced in Parliament respecting the regulation of traffic 
would deal with cabs. 

The No Name Literary Club. — During the past 
month this club has held its usual weekly meetings, when 
the following Original Papers and Readings were given : — 
Original Papers — " On the English Language. Part H. 
Mr. C. Worte. — "On Boys." Mr. J. Mapple. — Readings'. 
"The Reve; his Tayle" (Chaucer), Mr. A. R. Smith.— 
" Edinburgh after Flodden " (Aytoun), Mr. Charles Percy. 



Miscellaneous. 409 

—"Childhood" (H. Kirke White), Mr. W. H. Smith.— 
"An Ode to Winter ', (Campbell), Mr. J. B. Rossiter. — 
"The Hon. Mr. Sucklethumbkin's Story " (Ingoldsby), Mr. 
Charles Rollason. — This day (March i) a paper on the 
" Negro " will be read by Mr. F. J. Banks. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Preservation of Fossils. — Owing to the loose mineral 
character of the Tertiary deposits, in which most of the 
Mammalian and other vertebrate remains are found, con- 
sisting as these deposits do of sands, gravels, clay, or peat, 
their fossils are necessarily in a more or less friable condi- 
tion, difficult to preserve entire, or to handle for scientific 
examination with safety. The substances generally used 
are glue or gelatine. For the bones of the larger Mam- 
maha there is nothing better than the best glue ; whilst for 
the more delicate bones of the smaller Mammals, Birds and 
Fishes, gelatine is the best, being purer, dissolving more 
easily, and imparting but little, if any, colour to the fossil. 
The consistency of these substances when used will have 
to be varied according to the structure of the bone ; and as 
they also differ greatly in quality, it is impossible to lay 
down any definite rule as to the exact proportions to be 
used with a given quantity of water ; this must be left to 
the judgment of the operator. As a general rule, however, 
all bones which have a coarse cellular structure, as the ends 
of large limb-bones, deer-antlers, &c., and also specimens 
from some deposits — for example, the peat-bed near Col- 
chester, the fossils from which have their internal cellular 
structure either totally or partially destroyed — require the 
glue-solution to be of a consistency which will form a stiff 
jelly when cold; whilst for bones of a compact structurj^ a 
much thinner solution, about the consistency of ordinary 
size, will suffice ; if the solution is too thick, it clogs the ab- 
sorbing power at the surface, and prevents its penetrating 
to all parts of the bone. The fossils should be thoroughly 
dried and cleaned from as much of the matrix as can be 
removed with safety ; and if it can be managed, ivarmed 
before being placed in the solution. When the glue is all 



4IO Miscellaneous 

dissolved, and the liquid nearly at boiling heat (ebullition 
should be avoided, if possible), it is ready for the immer- 
sion of the fossils, and they should remain in it as long as 
air-bubbles rise to the surface ; when these cease they will 
be sufficiently soaked. When taken out, they should not be 
drained, but laid in a position to retain as much as possible 
of the imbibed solution, until they are cold, when the glue 
will have set. Their position must then be shifted, to pre- 
vent their adhering to the board on which they may be 
laid. Any glue that may have drained from them may be 
then removed with a wet sponge. The vessels required are 
of the simplest kind. The common domestic utensils will 
answer for most purposes. The ordinary house copper, 
sancepan, or, better still, a large sized fish-kettle with its 
strainer. But whatever the vessel used, a strainer of some 
kind, on which to place the bones for immersion and with- 
drawal is indispensable ; for the copper nothing is better than 
a wire-sieve. For bones too large for the vessel used, the 
treatment will have to be varied. For long limb-bones, 
strong enough to bear their own weight when saturated, it 
is only necessary to place one end in the vessel, and ladle 
the solution over the other end for a short time, and then 
reverse their position. But for bones which will not bear 
such treatment, the only plan is to securely fix them to a 
board, and place them in a slanting position in the solution, 
and well saturate them with it by ladling. For these, and 
for long portions of tusks of the Mammoth, and horn-cores 
of the large species of Bos, a special vessel, about three feet 
long, one foot wide at the top, nine or ten inches wide at 
the bottom, and nine inches deep, made of stout tin or gal- 
vanized iron, with a handle at each end, will be found most 
useful. Occasionally fossils are found which are either too 
large or too friable (as skulls and tusks from their natural 
construction frequently are) to be placed in the solution ; 
for these a different method must be adopted to preserve 
them entire. Cover the fossil with thin paper, over which — 
on the sides and underneath if possible — put a coating of 
plasterof Paris, just thick and strong enough to keep together; 
when firmly set, gently pour the solution boiling-hot over 
the fossil as long as it continues to absorb, to assist which 
it may be necessary to remove in a few places some of the 
surface-bone, which can be carefully replaced ; in two or 
three days the plaster may be partly removed by sawing, 
and in small pieces, taking care not to injure the fossil by 
jarring it ; the paper will prevent the plaster adhering to it. 



Miscellajzeous. 4 1 1 

But this process is never so effective as submersion in the 
solution, and may require to be repeated. Some bones are 
better for being dipped a second time, but not allowed to 
remain long enough in the solution to melt the glue they 
had previously imbibed. Delicate shells from the same 
kind of deposits may be treated, with care, in a similar 
manner with advantage. — Geological Magazine, 

Progress of Journalism. — We are accustomed, as 
each revolving year rolls on, to turn our speculum from the 
outside world to ourselves, and trace upwards the progress 
we are making, and point out the extension of newspaper 
reading in every part of the empire. We are enabled to do 
this through the medium of the yearly statistics presented to 
each House of Parliament, and from the various charts and 
directories of newspapers which are annually published. 
Perhaps we shall in future be able to do this at more fre- 
quent intervals, if we feel so disposed, as newspapers have 
now a collective organ of their own, under the guidance of 
their only living historian, Mr. Alexander Andrews, who 
will make the Newspaper Press interesting and useful to 
his confreres. On the other hand, " Mitchell's Directory," 
and the immense chart published by Vickers and Harring- 
ton, give us the titles, dates, politics, and other particulars, 
of all the papers at a glance, and a very formidable list it 
is. We see by this list that the Caledonian Mercury claims 
to be the oldest Scotch paper still existing, being published 
first in 1660. In England, after the London Gazette, which 
dates its birth from 1665, comes the Leicester, Rutland, and 
Stamford Mercury, which has gone on uninterruptedly and 
flourishingly since 1695. Of the metropolitan press, the 
oldest daily is the Public Ledger, of 1759, which is still in 
existence, though but seldom heard of outside of com- 
mercial circles. The year 1781 saw the birth of the Morn- 
ing Post and Morning Herald — the Times not coming into 
existence until several years afterwards. Opinions and 
tastes have changed since the days in which we find the 
Examiner born, in 1808, for we know that Leigh Hunt suf- 
fered imprisonment for a very mild libel which appeared in 
its columns shortly afterwards, yet it is now the oldest re- 
presentative of the London Weekly Press. Strange to say, 
BelVs Life, of sporting celebrity, comes next, with Theo- 
dore Hook's John Bull, in 1820. The Sunday Times ioVio^MS, 
in 1822, and six years afterwards the Leamington Spa 
Courier started into existence. Punch and the Illustrated 
News are dated from 1841 only. There are now published, 

NEW SERIES.— VOL. I. L L 



4 1 2 Miscellaneous. 

90 daily newspapers, as follows: — In London, 25; pro- 
^/inces, 36; Wales, i ; Scotland, 12; Ireland, 15 ; Channel 
Islands, i ; — total, 90. Fifteen years ago there were not 
15, and not one in the English provinces. The gross list 
of registered newspapers, which, however, includes some 
not now published, and omits others which have neglected 
registration, shows that there are 1,732 registered news- 
papers in the United Kingdom. Of these England has 
1,372, Wales 55, Scotland 144, and Ireland 161. — Royal 
Leamington Spa Courier. 

Relations at Sea. — A very interesting paper was re- 
cently read by Dr. Gunther, at the Zoological Society, on 
the fishes of Central America, in which he brought zoolo- 
gical research to bear upon the history of earth-changes. 
It had been supposed that the existing fauna of the 
Atlantic was quite distinct from that of the Pacific ; but Dr. 
Gunther finds (Vn a collection recently made by Mr. Salvin), 
of the total number of species taken on both sides of the 
Isthmus of Panama, 30 per cent, to be specifically identical. 
Nay, they do not even appear to vary enough for Dr 
Gunther to be able to tell whether any given individual 
came from the Atlantic or Pacific side. There was, there- 
fore, no doubt, a communication between the two oceans, 
since the existing species of fish came into being ; and the 
land across the isthmus near Panama is nowhere more than 
400 feet high ; while to the north, through Lake Nicaragua, 
there is another tract, nowhere more than 150 feet above 
the sea-level. That these low tracts of land mark the site 
of former sea-channels, is rendered still more probable from 
the fact, that in the Lake of Nicaragua a sea fish still exists, 
the ancestors of which were probably imprisoned by the 
land's upheaval. Dr. Gunther believes that there has been 
no such interoceanic communication since the latter part of 
the Pliocene period ; in which case, the persistence of these 
piscine specific forms would be very remarkable. It is well- 
known that, in ancient Miocene times, one fauna extended 
on both sides of what is now the separating land ; but the 
specific identity of so many existing forms is quite a new 
fact. — British Medical Journal 



The Government botanist. Dr. Mueller, has placed in 
the Australian Intercolonial Exhibition several specimens, 
in frames, of paper made from the fibre of the bark and 
foliage of trees common to these colonies. The specimens 
were prepared at his laboratory, from material selected by. 



Miscellaneous, 4 1 3 

himself, which he conceived, after examination, likely to 
be of utility. He exhibits rough-made paper from green 
scum or water weeds, obtained in the St. Kilda swamp. 
The specimen exhibited has not undergone bleaching, 
nor has any preparation been applied to this or any speci- 
men made to give it strength or glossiness ; but in the 
hands of the paper manufacturer it could be converted into 
an excellent printing paper. The use of many Australian ■ 
common grasses, of the New Zealand flax, and of the stringy 
bark trees which grow in such enormous quantities through- 
out the continent are shown in rough specimens of their, 
fibres made into paper. The Eucalyptus Obliquo, the 
most common of all trees in Victoria, South Australia, 
Tasmania, and part of New South Wales, will also yield a 
rough description of material that may be made serviceable. 
The tea-tree, which fills all the swamps, makes an excel- 
lent blotting and filtering paper. There is an abundance 
of this species ; indeed, the supply may be considered 
almost inexhaustible. The bloodwood, woollybut, blue- 
gum, white gum, messmate gumtree, and several kinds of 
Eucalypti^ yield some variety or other of paper. 



M. Guizot has just finished the concluding pages of the 
eighth and last volume of his memoirs, which terminate 
with the recital of the three days of the July revolution. 
This volume will be published in April. M. Saint Marc 
Girardin has received a magnificent album from the Greek 
population of Trieste, offered to him in testimony of their 
gratitude for his exertions in the Hellenic cause. 



A vessel from Siam, containing 100 packages of objects 
for the Paris Exhibition, had taken the Suez Canal route 
to the Mediterranean. 



We cull the following from the Exammer : — 
Leeches. — The collection and export of leeches from 
Victoria has now become an extensive branch of trade. 
The business is principally carried on in connection with 
the operations of the Murray River Fishing Company. At 
seasons unfavourable to fishery, the men employed by the 
company turn their attention to the collection of leeches. 
At such times, the steamer of the company takes a trip 
down the Murray, and the leeches are then gathered from 
the swamps, lagoons, overflows, and shallow creeks of the 
river. From 150,000 to 250,000 leeches are sometimes 



4 1 4 Miscellaneous. 

collected in one of these trips. Large numbers of them 
are sent to London and Paris, where it is said they are 
preferred to leeches brought from any other place. The 
greater proportion, however, are forwarded to America, 
where the demand is always great. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

T. B. — Cyamelide, the hydrate of cyanuric acid, when kept for some 
time, becomes hard and white, hke porcelain ; insoluble in water, 
alcohol and dilute acids subjected to heat, it forms hydrated cyanic 
acid. 

Zeta, Cambridge. — The linen called China-grass-cloth is fabricated 
of the fleshy part of the leaf of the aloe, which abundantly grows 
wild in China. The flax, which constitutes the fishing-lines known 
under the name of Indian twist, is also manufactured from aloe 
fibre. 

Philosopher. — In the imperfect cubes of boracise, it is conjectured 
that the molecular particles are not in the form of cubes but tetrae- 
hedons, and that very possibly one of these tetraehedons, by pre- 
senting its base at the angle of the general cube of the crystal, 
makes that angle imperfect, while another tetraehedon may at 
another angle present one of its vertices. Similar reasoning is ap- 
applied to the crystals of beryl, quartz, and tourmaline. 

C. H. J., Edmhurgh. — It has been calculated that, supposing each 
man were to consume a kilogramme of oxygen per day, and that 
the oxygen disengaged by plants did no more than compensate for 
the other causes of its absorption, the whole human race, and three 
times their number, would not consume in a century the eight 
thousandth part of the oxygen which Nature has placed in the 
respirable air. 

K. A. — The information you require concerning " ^rolites," will be 
found in the number of the TECHNOLOGIST for December, 1866. 

H. Sherwood. — Too late for insertion in present number. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 
Letters from Hell. Bentley. 

Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects, by Sir J. Herschel. Strahan. 
Contemporary Review. Strahan. 
The Argosy. Strahan. 
The People's Magazine. 
Annuaire Philosophique. 
The Artizan. 

Hardwicke's Science Gossip. 
Victoria Magazine. 

Goethe's Minor Poems. By E. Chawner. London : Pitman. 
Systematic Memory. Second Edition. By T. Maclaren. London : 

pitman. 
Pearce's Weather Almanac, 1865. Simpkins, 
Pearce's Weather Guide. Simpkins. 

Pure Dentistry, and What it Does for Us, by A. Eskell. Clements. 
Pharmaceutical Journal. 
Science Gossip. 



THE 

TEOHNOLOaiST. 

April, 1867. 

THE SAMARITANS AND THE SAMARITAN 
PENTATEUCH. 

BY D. W. M. 
(Concluded from page 369.) 

OF the Samaritan Pentateuch, of which we are now 
about to speak, it would be presumptuous to fix with 
any show of authority the date of its authorship. Critics 
who have accomplished so much within the province of 
Biblical literature during the last three quarters of a cen- 
tury, have taken little pains to reconcile the divergent opi- 
nions respecting the age of the Samaritan Pentateuch. 
Nablous is said to possess a scroll, still used in public wor- 
ship, and bearing an inscription to the effect that it was 
written in honour of Aaron the High Priest by his great 
grandson Abisha, in the thirteenth year of the settlement 
of the Israelites in Canaan. This statement may be very 
summarily dismissed, whilst a protest may be entered 
against evidens;e being received from a source where such 
a fiction passes for fact. Kennicott, Eichhorn, Michaelis, 
and other distinguished scholars, regard the Samaritan 
Pentateuch as an inheritance from the ten tribes. « The two 
principal grounds on which this theory is based are — first, 
that the Samaritan canon, which does not contain the 
prophets nor the Hagiographa, must have been formed 
before the last-mentioned books were written ; secondly, 
that the Samaritan Pentateuch is written in the ancient 
Ibri letter, and not in the comparatively modern square 
character which is not older than the age of Ezra. 

More acute critics, however, contend that the absence of 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. I. M M 



41 6 The Samaritans and the 

these books from the Samaritan canon in no way proves 
that they were not in existence when that correction was 
made. What it does prove is that there must have been 
some especial object for excluding them, and this object is 
plainly revealed through the fact that the excluded books 
abound in references to Jerusalem as the seat of the 
national temple, whilst the chief aim of the Samaritans was 
to make it appear that the appointed favoured spot had 
been the Mount Gerizim. As far as the assertion goes 
that the Ibri, or Samaritan Hebrew character is older than 
the nniii>K or square Hebrew letter in which the Bibles of 
later times have been written, there is no denying the fact. 
But it is an error to suppose that the Ibri or Samaritan 
character ceased to be employed after the Babylonian cap- 
tivity. Even Luzzatto, whose theory is that the Jewish 
people saw fit to change the alphabet when the Samaritans 
set up a rival temple in Gerizim, is obliged to admit that 
for a considerable time after Ezra and Nehemiah, and even 
down to a late period of the Maccabees, the Samaritan 
character was in use. All the coins that have come down 
to us from the Maccabean era bear testimony to this fact. 

Prideaux, De Wette, Gesenius, Hengstenburg, and others 
attribute the composition of the work to the schismatic 
Manasseh, which would give it a date about 407 B.C. ; 
whilst Frankel, a very high authority, who holds the work 
to be made up out of the Masoretic text and the glosses of 
the Septuagint, would assign to it an age as recent as the 
fifth or sixth century of the present era. Amidst such 
widely opposite opinions every conclusion must be simply 
conjectural. Yet, as the oldest Samaritan manuscript of 
which there is any trustworthy mention does not ascend 
any higher than 4000 A.M., we do not think it unsafe to 
assume that the date of the Samaritan Pentateuch ranges 
between 96 B.C. and 240 A.C. 

It would be superfluous to mention all the changes and 
additions found in the Samaritan Pentateuch. Its writer, 
or more probably its writers, have designedly falsified the 
original text to make it square with the preconceived notion 
that Gerizim is exalted above Moriah, and the Temple of 
Manasseh above that of Jerusalem, To effect this object 
it was needful to find in the Mosaic Pentateuch some espe- 
cial mention of Gerizim as the site of the national temple. 
This has been done, like the Romish tampering with 
Josephus, in a very clumsy manner. Still the forgeries are 
remarkably few. The principal changes are intended — 



Samaritan Pentateuch. 417 

first, to supply seeming deficiencies where the original is 
concise ; second, to interpret obscurities with respect to the 
meaning of which the Samaritan and the Seventy mostly 
agree ; third, to remove grammatical irregularities ; and, 
fourth, to alter the chronology of events about the time of 
the deluge. In the last respect the Septuagint differs like- 
wise from the Hebrew, whilst the want of agreement be- 
tween the Samaritan and the Septuagint is no less mani- 
fest. Amongst the readings in the Samaritan which differ 
from the original Hebrew text, there is one that seems to 
us amply justified. We refer to Gen. ii. v. 2. We read in 
the original : " God completed the work of creation on the 
seventh day. and rested on the seventh day." But the 
Samaritan has it : " God completed the work of creation 
on the sixth day and rested on the seventh day." 

At the time when Luther made his famous German trans- 
lation of the Bible, and even when the authorized English 
version was executed, nothing was known in Europe of the 
existence of a Samaritan Pentateuch, differing in various 
respects from the volume received by the Jews, and, 
through them, by the Christian world. References had 
been made to it in the early ages, by the writers of the 
Talmud and by the Fathers of the Christian church, and 
both the Synagogue and the church pronounced it — what 
later mature criticism has proved it to be — a forgery. It 
was first brought to Europe by Harlaeus Sancius, and it 
was printed by Morinus in Paris in the year 163 1. An 
English clergyman named Huntingdon, obtained another 
copy from Nablous in 1670. Several others followed, and 
the last which has made its appearance here, is a splendid 
copy with Targum in parallel columns. Mr, Grove brought 
it from the east for the Count of Paris, in whose possession 
it remains. 

As every thing that is new creates an excitement and 
becomes the fashion for a time, the introduction of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch into Europe in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, turned the heads of many, and, for a 
while, some fair scholars, more sanguine than critical con- 
vinced that they were now in the possession of the genuine 
work of Moses, preached it up as infinitely superior in 
literal correctness to the Masoretic text. At this time, a 
fierce and bitter strife was raging